Automation Topics: 1. Elements of an Automated System
Automation Topics: 1. Elements of an Automated System 2. Advanced Automation Functions 3. Levels of Automation S.Balasubramani Department of Mechanical Engineering Sri Eshwar College of Engineering,Coimbatore Automation and Control Technologies in the
Production System Automation Automation is the technology by which a process or procedure is accomplished without human assistance. Basic elements of an automated system: 1. Power - to accomplish the process and operate the automated system 2. Program of instructions to direct the process 3. Control system to actuate the instructions
Elements of an Automated System Electricity The Principal Power Source Widely available at moderate cost Can be readily converted to alternative forms, e.g., mechanical, thermal, light, etc. Low level power can be used for signal transmission, data processing, and communication Can
be stored in long-life batteries Power to Accomplish the Automated Process Power for the process To drive the process itself To load and unload the work unit
Transport between operations Power for automation Controller unit Power to actuate the control signals Data acquisition and information processing Program of Instructions Set of commands that specify the sequence of steps in the work cycle and the details of each step
Example: CNC part program During each step, there are one or more activities involving changes in one or more process parameters Examples: Temperature Axis setting of a furnace position in a positioning system Motor on or off
Decision-Making in a Programmed Work Cycle The following are examples of automated work cycles in which decision making is required: Operator interaction Different part or product styles processed by the system Automated teller machine Robot welding cycle for two-door vs. four door car models
Variations in the starting work units Additional machining pass for oversized sand casting Features of a Work Cycle Program Number of steps in the work cycle Manual participation in the work cycle (e.g., loading and unloading workparts) Process parameters - how many must be controlled?
Operator interaction - does the operator enter processing data? Variations in part or product styles Variations in starting work units - some adjustments in process parameters may be required to compensate for differences in starting units Control System Two Types 1. Closed-loop (feedback) control system a system in which the output variable is compared with an input parameter, and any difference between the two is used to drive the output
into agreement with the input 2. Open-loop control system operates without the feedback loop Simpler and less expensive Risk that the actuator will not have the intended effect (a) Feedback Control System and (b) Open-Loop Control System (a) (b)
Positioning System Using Feedback Control A one-axis position control system consisting of a leadscrew driven by a dc servomotor and using an optical encoder as the feedback sensor When to Use an Open-Loop Control System Actions performed by the control system are simple Actuating function is very reliable Any reaction forces opposing the actuation are small enough as to have no
effect on the actuation If these conditions do not apply, then a closed-loop control system should be used Advanced Automation Functions 1. Safety monitoring 2. Maintenance and repair diagnostics 3. Error detection and recovery
Safety Monitoring Use of sensors to track the system's operation and identify conditions that are unsafe or potentially unsafe Reasons for safety monitoring To protect workers and equipment Possible responses to hazards: Complete stoppage of the system
Sounding an alarm Reducing operating speed of process Taking corrective action to recover from the safety violation Maintenance and Repair Diagnostics Status monitoring
Monitors and records status of key sensors and parameters during system operation Failure diagnostics Invoked when a malfunction occurs Purpose: analyze recorded values so the cause of the malfunction can be identified Recommendation of repair procedure Provides recommended procedure for the repair crew to effect repairs Error Detection and Recovery 1.
2. Error detection functions: Use the systems available sensors to determine when a deviation or malfunction has occurred Correctly interpret the sensor signal Classify the error Error recovery possible strategies:
Make adjustments at end of work cycle Make adjustments during current work cycle Stop the process to invoke corrective action Stop the process and call for help Levels of Automation 1. Device level actuators, sensors, and other hardware components to form individual control loops for the next level
2. Machine level CNC machine tools and similar production equipment, industrial robots, material handling equipment 3. Cell or system level manufacturing cell or system 4. Plant level factory or production systems level 5. Enterprise level corporate information system LEVELS OF AUTOMATION ENTREPRISE LEVEL
Corporate or Information system. (marketing and sales, accounting, design, research, aggregate planning, and master production scheduling. ) PLANT LEVEL Production systems. (order processing, process planning, inventory control, purchasing, material requirements planning, shop floor control, and quality control.) CELL/SYSTEM LEVEL MACHINE LEVEL DEVICE LEVEL Manufacturing Systems / Group of Machines
(A manufacturing cell or system is a group of machines or workstations connected and supported by a material handling system, computer. and other equipments) Individual Machines (industrial robots, powered conveyors, and automated guided vehicles. ) Sensors, Actuators and other Hardware elements (actuators, sensors, and other hardware components that comprise the machine level) Benefits of automation To increase labour productivity To reduce labour cost
To mitigate the effects of labour shortages To reduce or eliminate routine and clerical tasks To improve worker safety. THANK YOU
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