Chapter 4 Informal Assessment: Informing Instruction Introduction Observation

Chapter 4 Informal Assessment: Informing Instruction Introduction  Observation

Chapter 4 Informal Assessment: Informing Instruction Introduction

Observation and Interview Strategies Teacher-Made and Teacher-Selected Curriculum-Based Assessment Specific Skills Assessments Error Analysis Informal Reading Inventories Running Records Curriculum-Based Assessment Portfolio Assessment Readability Leveled Texts Special Considerations in the Informal Assessment of Young Children

Special Considerations in the Informal Assessment of Adults Special Considerations in the Informal Assessment of English Language Learners Observation and Interview Strategies Kidwatching (Goodman, 1985) Teachers engage in observation-based assessment every day Note bits of behavior and make inferences about the behavior Anecdotal information is available to teachers for analyses of specific errors or error patterns

Observation and Interview Concepts About Print: Emergent Literacy (Clay, Klesius & Searls) Figure 4.1, Text Box 4.1 Oral reading Letter identification Word naming Writing Dictation Teacher-Made and Teacher-Selected Curriculum-Based Assessment Basal Series Assessments Figures 4.2 and 4.3

Word Study (e.g., High Frequency Words and Phonics) Comprehension Writing Summative Assessment of Skills Specific Skills Assessments Definition: Designed to give information about specific skills (e.g., for young readers, aspects of phonological awareness, phonics, or concepts of print). May be used prior to instruction and throughout school year. Specific Skills Assessment Examples San Diego Quick Assessment (McKenna & Stahl, 2009) Consortium on Reading Excellences Assessing Reading: Multiple

Measures for Kindergarten through Twelfth Grade, 2nd edition (Diamond & Thorsnes, 2008) The Reading Teachers Survival Kit (Miller, 2001) Alternative Assessment Techniques for Reading and Writing (Miller, 1995) Three-minute reading assessments (Rasinski and Padak, 2005a; 2005b) provide user-friendly, teacher-based evaluation of word recognition, fluency, and comprehension. Yopp-Singer Test of Phoneme Segmentation Figure 4.4 Student segments words presented orally by the examiner dog /d/ /o/ /g/

wave /w/ /a/ /v/ that /th/ /a/ /t/ Error Analysis A technique all teachers use, whether they know the terminology or not A technique for determining patterns or reasons for student errors or difficulties E.g., Ms. Crockett listens to Misha read connected text and notices she does not attend to punctuation (pause her reading at period noting end of sentence).

Error Analysis Relies on Task Analysis To effectively perform error analysis, teachers must also be proficient at task analysis. Task analysis involves breaking down a task into the smallest steps necessary to complete the task (Overton, 2012, p. 186). In other words, teachers must have working knowledge of various reading processes and the tasks and subtasks that are necessary for effective reading. Informal Reading Inventories Individually administered assessments Three Main Components Graded word lists Reading passages Comprehension questions

Explicit Implicit IRIs provide teachers with Reading level Independent, Instructional, Frustration Reading rate Instructional Information Types of reading errors made Types of comprehension errors made And more Betts Criteria For Determining Reading Level Level

Word Recognition Comprehension Independent 99% 1/100 90% Instructional 95% 5/100 75%

Frustration 90% 10/100 50% IRI- Informal Reading Inventories Examples: Analytical Reading Inventory, 7th Ed. Basic Reading Inventory: Pre-Primer Through Grade Twelve And Early Literacy Assessments, 9th Ed. Burns/Roe Informal Reading Inventory: Preprimer to Twelfth Grade, 6th Ed. Classroom Reading Inventory, 10th Ed.

Developmental Reading Assessment K3/48 Ekwall/Shanker Reading Inventory, 4th Ed. Reading & Reader Passages & Reading & Language Inventory Pkg., 5th Ed. Reading Inventory for the Classroom & Tutorial Audiotape Package, 5th Ed. Stieglitz Reading Inventory, 3rd Ed. Example: Qualitative Reading Inventory, 5th ed. (QRI-5) Individually administered assessment for pre-primerhigh school Reading Level Progress Monitoring Planning Instruction/Intervention

Several Assessment Options Word Lists Passages Measures of Comprehension QRI-5 QRI-5 Area of Assessment Reading Sight-Word Word Lists Recognition Fluency

Oral Reading Passages Comprehension Retell Questions QRI-5: Jesse, a 1st grader Figures 4.5 through 4.10 Number of words (correct) WCPM = __________________ X 60= _________

Number of seconds read Formula 4.1 Determining Words Read Correctly Per Minute (WCPM) QRI-5 at-a-Glance Publisher: Leslie & Caldwell, 2011 Ages/Grades: Pre-primer High School Administration Time: Varies

Administration Format: Individual Reliability: Alt. Forms - .80 and up Inter-rater- .98 and up

Diagnostic- .87 Validity: Not reported How to Do an IRI Figure 4.11 Select six to eight passages from a reader or other target material Develop six to eight comprehension questions per passage (include factual, interpretive, etc.) Mark the number of words per passage As child reads, note miscues, observe interest level Administer until comprehension drops to 75% or 15 miscues per 100 words Miscue Analysis (Goodman) Definition

A systematic system of analyzing student reading errors to determine skill strengths and weaknesses A miscue is a readers variation from print Based on two important concepts: Everyone miscues Miscues do not equal errors Overview of Miscue Analysis Two ways to count miscues: Total Accuracy count all miscues Total Acceptability count only miscues that change or distort passage meaning

Define miscues according to the directions found in the assessment instrument being used if possible (McKenna & Stahl, 2003) If no directions are given, or the analysis comes from informal assessment taken from the curriculum, score the six following miscues: (a) omissions, (b) insertions, (c) substitutions, (d) reversals, (e) helper supplied words, and (f) repetitions. Mark all miscues, even if they are not being scored. Types of Miscues and How to Code Them Type of Miscue Omission

Description Reader skips one or more words Scored yes Coding over the hill over hill Insertion Reader adds one or more yes

big words over the hill over the big hill Substitution Reader replaces a word yes a (or phrase) with another over the hill word (or phrase) over a hill Reversal Reader switches order of yes

~ words over the hill over hill the Helper-supplied Reader does not attempt yes H word the word; teacher gives over the hill help over the _____ Repetition Reader repeats one word

yes R or consecutive words over the hill over the the hill Self-correction Reader re-reads within a no there SC few seconds to correct an over the hill error over there the hill Hesitation Reader pauses but reads

no P the word correctly over the hill over the (pause) hill Lack of prosody Reader ignores no punctuation . . . over the hill. He ran over the hill he ran. Note. Text is printed in nonitalics. What student reads is printed in italics. Coding is printed in bold.

Table 4.3 Total words in passagemiscues %age WC = Total words in passage = ____ Formula 4.2 Determining Percentage of Words Correct in Passage Comprehension Percent Correct =

Total number of questionserrors Total number of questions = ____% Formula 4.3 Determining Percentage of Comprehension Correct Frequency of Different Miscues McKenna and Stahl (2003) About half of 1st graders miscues are omissions Insertions only account for about 10% of all miscues Substitutions become more common, while omissions become less common as students mature In 1st grade, letter reversals (no/on) are common, but these typically end by 2nd grade

Running Records Administering and Scoring Running Records Figure 4.12 Scoring the Running Record Figure 4.13 Quantifying the Running Record Figure 4.14 Worksheet for Summarizing the Running Record Running Records and Curriculum-Generated CBM Figure 4.15 Use passages from curriculum Student reads orally Both can generate oral fluency score (wcpm)

Contrasting Running Records and Curriculum-Generated CBM: Figure 4.15 CBM Focuses on accuracy and speed Types of errors not emphasized Typically used to monitor progress toward end-of-year goals Running Records Types of errors are noted Can denote progress in instructional materials

Inflection and comprehension can be addressed Curriculum Based Assessment Examples: Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM) of Oral Reading Fluency (Deno & Fuchs) Portfolio Assessment Running Records (Marie Clay) Miscue Analysis (Goodman) Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM) of Oral Reading Fluency (Deno & Fuchs) May be derived from content and materials actually used in the

classroom Yields measures of reading rate (speed), accuracy, or both Can be used to show progress over time Allows direct assessment of progress in the curriculum NRP areas addressed are fluency and comprehension CBM for Assessing and Scoring Oral Reading Words correct per minute: Formula 4.1 Number of words correct/Number of seconds read X 60 = WCPM Directions for Teacher-Constructed CBM Figure 4.16 Examiner times and records errors For a reliable measure, use three passages and take median score

Average Reading Fluency Rates Table 4.7 Typical 1st grader at mid year 47 wpm Typical 5th grader at mid year 139 wpm Adults: 250 wpm? Silent versus oral Type of reading material, purpose of reading Portfolio Assessment Can contain samples of various informal assessments

A students work is collected over time and evaluated according to prescribed criteria Is considered authentic, ongoing, multidimensional, and collaborative (between student and teacher) What to include should be based on curricular and instructional priorities and related to school and system goals, but also tied to specific student needs Portfolio Assessment

Pros Can track progress over time Realistic examples of everyday products Collaborative evaluation Personal significance Involve parents Cons Difficult to score reliably

May take up considerable space in the classroom May be time-consuming and expensive May not convey well the typical work of the student Readability and Leveled Texts Readability Formulas Fry Readability: Figure 4.19 Leveled Texts Fountas & Pinnell Guided Reading Levels http://www.fountasandpinnellleveledbooks.com/ Reading A-Z Website

http://www.readinga-z.com/ Special Considerations in the Informal Assessment of Young Children Consider background knowledge and experiences with letter-sound associations Phonological awareness Print concepts Phoneme segmentation/representation Word reading & writing Text reading & writing McGill-Franzen, 2006 Schedule for Assessment Figure 4.20 Student Profile Sheet Figure 4.21

Special Considerations in the Informal Assessment of Adults Text Box 4.2 Identify individual strengths & weaknesses Progress monitor Troubleshoot Assess learning over time

Use authentic materials Build on oral vocabulary Special Considerations in the Informal Assessment of English Language Learners Text Box 4.3 Demonstrate, use samples Use authentic materials

Link assessment to instruction Assess progress over time Assessment at a Glance: Informal (Classroom) Assessment Table 4.9 Measures of Informal Assessment that Inform Instruction Summary

Observation and Interview Teacher-Made and Teacher-Selected Curriculum-Based Assessment Specific Skills Assessments Error Analysis Informal Reading Inventories Running Records Curriculum-Based Assessment

Portfolio Assessment Readability Leveled Texts Special Considerations in the Informal Assessment of Young Children Special Considerations in the Informal Assessment of Adults Special Considerations in the Informal Assessment of English Language Learners

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