Toulmin.pptx See also: http://eduventure.ca/CalvinPerspective.jpg Introduction Why study this?
Toulmin.pptx See also: http://eduventure.ca/CalvinPerspective.jpg
Introduction Why study this? 1. Observe how others argue effectively or ineffectively.
2. The Toulmin method, based on the work of philosopher Stephen Toulmin, is one way of analyzing a text that we read. 3. Respond to that particular argument (as in a
writing assignment that asks us to respond). 4. Analyze and improve the arguments we ourselves make.
Terms to Know Knowledge Claim - Something known through observation or inference Syllogism - A formula of logic consisting of
two propositions, called premises, and a conclusion logically drawn from them (Deductive reasoning) Tautology - Unnecessary repetition of the
same idea with different words More Terms to Know Epistemology - The branch of philosophy that investigates the nature, limits, criteria, or validity
of knowledge Metaphysics - the principles of reality transcending those of any particular science, traditionally including cosmology (1) and ontology
(2) Ethics - The study and philosophy of human conduct, with emphasis on the determination of right and wrong
Still More Terms to Know Logic - Deals with the principles of valid inference and other related topics, traditionally
divided into deductive and inductive logic Deduction - Reasoning from the general to the specific; also, reasoning from the stated premises to logical conclusions, as a syllogism
Induction - The bringing forward of separate facts as evidence in order to prove general statements
Stephen Toulmin The Toulmin Model The Toulmin model asserts that most arguments consist of the following 6 parts: Claim: the position or claim being argued for; the conclusion of the argument.
Grounds: reasons or supporting evidence that bolster the claim. Warrant: the principle, provision or chain of reasoning that connects the grounds/reason to the claim. Backing: support, justification, reasons to back up the warrant.
Rebuttal/Reservation: exceptions to the claim; description and rebuttal of counter-examples and counter-arguments. Qualification: specification of limits to claim, warrant and backing. The degree of conditionality asserted.
) Toulmins Layout of Argumentation
Data The evidence, observations The Claim
(therefore, so, then ) The opinion which results from the data, or evidence.
Our understanding of the meaning of the data. Qualifier (On the whole, usually, most of the time)
Indicates or signals that the claim is not absolute Restriction
(except when) Indicates conditions which would make the claim totally invalid
Warrant (since, because)
The reason(s) why our conclusion is valid. Definitions, experience, similarities to other systems, argument patterns.
Warrants/General Strategies of Argument Chains of reasoning that connect the claim and evidence/reason. The principle, provision or chain of reasoning that connects the grounds/reason to the claim. Warrants operate at a higher level of
generality than a claim or reason, and they are not normally explicit. Example: Needle exchange programs should be abolished [claim] because they only cause more people to use drugs. [reason] The unstated warrant is: When you make risky behavior safer you
encourage more people to engage in it. Backing (on account of)
General understandings, theories, laws, which authorize the warrant at the outset. Basic understandings of larger principles.
as the Buddha said in the Dhammapasa, With our mind we create the world itself. (Dalai Lama, Tutu, D., Abrams, D. The Book of Joy: Lasting happiness in a changing world. New York: Avery, 2016. 194).
Truth is relative. If truth is the daughter of time, Then it is relative to time,
And changes as time changes. Therefore truth is impermanent, Or knowledge is impermanent. Corollary - There is no ultimate truth
Examples of Claims, Warrants, and Reasons. Reasons: Smoking causes serious diseases in smokers, and endangers non-smokers as well. Claim: So, the federal government should ban smoking.
Warrant: Since the Constitution was established to promote the general welfare, and citizens are thus entitled to protection from harmful actions of others.
See handout: Outline of a Toulmin Argument. Using Toulmins Framework: 1.
2. 3. 4. 5.
State the claim; State the data; State the warrant;
State the backing; State the qualifier. Medieval Skeleton Pulled from the Thames
Read and analyse Resources Lunsford, Andrea A., John J. Ruszkiewicz and Keith Walters. Everythings an Argument. 5th ed.
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