Teaching Self-Determination Skills to Students With Disabilities 3
Teaching Self-Determination Skills to Students With Disabilities 3 Hour Presentation Guide Agenda Self-Determination (SD) defined Components of SD Ways to assess SD Approaches to promoting SD Research-based SD curricula Evidence-based practices in SD Additional Resources 2
Pretest! 3 The Birthday Party From Jamie L van Dycke, James E. Martin, David L. Lovett, Teaching Exceptional Children. Reston Jan/Feb 2006 Vol. 38, Iss.3 Pg. 42, 6pgs Self-Determination Constructs 4 Self-Determination Defined A combination of skills, knowledge, and beliefs that enable a person to engage in goal-directed, self-regulated, autonomous behavior. An understanding of ones strengths and limitations together with a belief in oneself as capable and effective are essential to
self-determination. When acting on the basis of these skills and attitudes, individuals have greater ability to take control of their lives and assume the role of successful adults in our society. (Field, Martin, Miller, Ward, & Wehmeyer, 1998) 5 Self-Determination Definition Evolved A dispositional characteristic manifested as acting as the causal agent in ones life. Self-determined people (causal agents) act in service to freely chosen goals. Self-determined actions function to enable a person to be the causal agent in his or her life. (Shogren, Wehmeyer, Palmer, Rifenbark, & Little, 2015, p.252)
6 Components of Self-Determination Choice-making: appropriately choosing between a finite number of choices Decision-making: involves choosing between unlimited options Goal-setting and attainment: ability to set appropriate goals for self and achieve the goals with actions
Problem-solving: weigh pros & cons of potential actions, identify barriers to success (Algozzine, Browder, Karvonen, Test, & Wood, 2001) 7 Components of Self-Determination Self-awareness: awareness of own individuality, strengths, and areas for improvement Self-efficacy: understanding that own actions have an impact you are a causal agency in your life Self-advocacy: have knowledge of self, knowledge of
rights, communication skills, and leadership ability. Self-regulation: self-monitoring, self-evaluation, selfinstruction, self-management (controlling own behavior by being aware of ones actions and providing feedback) (Algozzine, Browder, Karvonen, Test, & Wood, 2001) 8 S E L F
Sample sub-components include Strengths Preferences Goals Dreams Interests Learning style Support needs Accommodation needs
Characteristics of ones disability Responsibilities (Test, Fowler, Wood, Brewer, Eddy, 2005) Knowledge of Rights
Self-awareness Sample sub-components include Personal rights Community rights Human service rights Consumer rights Educational rights Steps to redress violations Steps to advocate for change Knowledge of resources Communication A D
V O C A C Y Assertiveness Negotiation Articulation Body Language Sample sub-components include Use of assistive technology Listening Persuasion
Compromise Leadership Sample sub-components include Knowledge of groups rights Knowledge of resources Advocating for others or for causes Organizational participation Political action Team dynamics and roles 9 Why the emphasis on SD?
Individuals who score higher on measures of SD have more positive adult outcomes (e.g., better employment, better living situations) Research is emerging regarding the relationship between SD and positive school experiences (e.g., higher grades, attendance, fewer behavior problems). (Mazzotti et al., 2016; Test et al., 2009; Wehmeyer & Schwartz, 1997) 10 Why the emphasis on SD? Students with higher levels of self-determination achieve better post school outcomes in the areas of education and employment (Halpern et al., 1995; Wehmeyer & Schwartz, 1997) Research suggests a need for more interventions in educating
students with disabilities about the IEP process and their participation in these meetings (Martin et al., 2006; Kelley, Bartholomew, & Test, 2011) Self-determined students are more likely to actively participate in the teaching process and make the job of teaching more enjoyable and meaningful for teachers (Kohn, 1993) 11 You have the WHYS and the WHATS so, now the question is HOW??? 12 Is SD Reflected In Your School or Districts Program?
Using the predictors of post-school success to assess the quality of your work to promote self-determination 13 Transition Services & Predictors Self-Determination/Self-Advocacy Operational Definition: ability to make choices, solve problems, set goals, evaluate options, take initiative to reach ones goals, and accept consequences of one's actions. Rowe, D. A., Alverson, C. Y., Unruh, D., Fowler, C., Kellems, R., & Test, D. W. (in press). A Delphi study to operationalize evidence-based predictors in secondary transition. Career Development and Transition for Exceptional Individuals. Transition Services & Predictors:
Self-Determination/Self-Advocacy Predictor Program Characteristics Utilize a student driven IEP process to allow students to demonstrate self-awareness, goal setting, problem solving, and self-advocacy Collaborate with general education teachers to embed choices into the general curriculum and daily lessons and provide opportunities for students to practice self-determination skills Ensure all students, including those with significant disabilities, have a functional communication system to engage in choice making, problem-solving, goal setting, taking initiative to reach goals, and accepting consequences for ones actions What about SD at the classroom and student level? 16
Assessing Self-Determination Purpose: to provide information about readiness to make decisions related to future ambitions and help students identify relative strengths and limitations related to selfdetermination Examples: 1. The Arcs Self-Determination Scale 2. Self-Determination Assessment Battery 3. Choice Maker Self-Determination Assessment 4. AIR Self-Determination Scale 5. Self-Determination Inventory
17 The Arc Self-Determination Scale Developed by: Wehmeyer & Kelchner, 1995 Target population: middle and secondary students with Behavioral/Emotional Disorders, Mild ID, LD, Speech/Language Impairments, Developmental Disabilities,
Developed by: Hoffman, Field, & Sawilowsky, 1996 Target population: Secondary students with mild to moderate disabilities Measures: decision-making, problem-solving, selfawareness, self-advocacy, goal setting & planning, learning from mistakes, risk taking Data collection options: Student, parent, teacher interviews, student self-report, and behavioral observation Price: free Link: Field Hoffman Self-Determination Assessment Battery 19 ChoiceMaker Self-Determination Assessment
Developed by: Martin & Marshall, 1996 Target population: middle and secondary students with Learning Disabilities and Emotional/Behavioral Disorders Measures: choice-making, decision-making, problemsolving, self-awareness, self-advocacy, goal setting & planning Data collection options: student skills rated on opportunities observed at school Price: free Link: ChoiceMaker 20
AIR Self-Determination Scale Developed by: (Wolman, Campeau, DuBois, Mithaug, & Stolarski, 1994) Target population: all school-age students with and without disabilities Measures: choice-making, self-regulation, selfawareness, self-advocacy, goal setting & planning Data collection options: rating scales for teacher, parent, and student Price: free
Link: AIR Self-Determination 21 Self-Determination Inventory Developed by: Shogren, Wehmeyer, Little, Forber-Pratt, Palmer, & Seo (2017) Target population: all school-age students with and without disabilities
Measures: volition action (i.e., autonomy, self-initiation), agentic action (i.e., self-direction, pathways thinking, selfregulation), and action-control beliefs (i.e., psychological empowerment, self-realization, control expectancy) Data collection options: rating scales for teacher, parent, and student Price: free Link: Self-Determination Inventory 22
SD skills to assess Disability awareness Knowledge of rights Ability and opportunity to make choices Weigh options and make decisions Identify steps toward a goal Identify solutions/steps to overcome barriers, negotiate problems Manage timelines, monitor own behavior Transition Assessment: the ongoing process of collecting data on the individuals needs, preferences, and interests as they relate to the demands of current and future working, educational, living, and personal and social environments. Sitlington, Neubert, & Leconte, 1997/DCDT Definition
23 Approaches for Promoting SD Directly teaching skills or enhancing knowledge Embedding instruction into the general curriculum Using student-driven IEP and transition planning Using person-centered planning
Explicit Embedded Process 24 Directly Teaching Skills Choice-making Problem-solving Self-awareness
Self-management (self-monitoring, selfrecording, self-graphing) Discuss with an elbow partner: How do you teach these component skills explicitly? 25 Directly Teaching Skills ChoiceMaker Curriculum Package Self-Determined Learning Model of Instruction 26 ChoiceMaker Population:
Students with mild to moderate disabilities Grades six through adult Purpose: Designed to teach students self-determination skills to be successful in adult life Cost: Free from the Zarrow Center Link: Choice Maker Curriculum 27 ChoiceMaker continued Content:
Includes 3 Strands: Choosing Goals Expressing Goals Taking Action Addresses 4 transition areas: Education/training Employment Independent Living Recreation and Leisure 28 ChoiceMaker Curriculum & Lessons Strands Goals
Modules Choosing Goals a. Student interests b. Student skills and limits c. Student goals Choosing education goals Choosing employment goals Choosing personal goals Choosing daily living, housing, and community goals Expressing Goals
a. Student leading meeting b. Student reporting a. Student plan b. Student action c. Student evaluation d. Student adjustment Self-Directed IEP Taking Action Take Action 29
Self-Determined Learning Model of Instruction (SDLMI) Mazzotti et al., (2012, 2013) Wehmeyer, Shogren, Palmer, Williams-Diehm, Little, & Boulton, (2013) Three phases: Phase 1: Set a Goal Phase 2: Take Action Phase 3: Adjust Goal or Plan
Used for setting academic, transition, and behavior goals 30 Self-Determined Learning Model of Instruction (SDLMI) All levels of disability Free and adaptable Ages K-12 Link: SDLMI from KU Typically taught using teacher-directed instruction Provides teachers with a research-based method for teaching goalsetting skills to students Used to teach students with a range of disabilities across all grade levels (Agran, Blanchard, & Wehmeyer, 2000) 31
Self-Determined Learning Model of Instruction (SDLMI) Self-determination skills taught: Goal-setting Problem-solving Decision-making Self-regulation/self-management SDLMI includes three instructional phases: setting a goal (phase 1) making a plan to address the goal (phase 2) evaluating changes to successfully meet the goal (phase 3) 32
Adapted Adapted Embedding SD Instruction In the General Curriculum Examples: Go 4 ItNow! Self Regulated Strategy Development Self-Determined Learning Model of Instruction (SDLMI) 35
GO 4 ITNOW Research-based approach: Konrad et al. (2006); Konrad & Test (2007); Konrad et al. (2017); McConnell et al. (2015) High-school students with learning disabilities, emotional and behavioral disabilities, and OHI showed improvement in their abilities write IEP goal paragraphs and other types of expository paragraphs
Self-determination components addressed: goal-setting, self-awareness, and self-regulation ELA skills addressed: writing for a variety of purposes, paragraph writing 36 Embedding SD in Instruction GO 4 ITNOW! Uses a mnemonic device to help students write 6-sentence goal paragraphs Can be applied to other types of paragraph writing Goals Objectives 4 (4 objectives)
Identify Timeline Name your topic Order your steps Wrap it up and restate topic 37 SRSD to Teach Writing Six stages of SRSD: 1. Develop background knowledge 2. Discussing the strategy 3. Model the strategy 4. Memorize
5. Collaborative support 6. Independent practice Mnemonics with SRSD: Pick idea Organize notes Write and say more ___________________ Topic Sentence Reasons Explanations Ending 38 Additional Examples of Embedding SD
in Instruction Extended Standard: Reading: Key Ideas and Details Describe the feelings of characters in a story; sequence events. (similar to Grades, 3, 5, and 6 [with more detail]) Academic Context: To Kill a Mockingbird Real life Skill: Self-Determination (selfawareness)
Instruction: Identify 4 main characters and match them to sequenced events. Match the events to the characters feelings. Have students match events in their life to their feelings. More Examples Standard: Speaking & Listening Grade 9 - 10: Present information, findings, and supporting evidence clearly, concisely, and logically such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning and the organization, development, substance, and style are appropriate to purpose, audience, and task.
Academic Context: Identity project Graduation project Graduation plan development Research project Instruction: Student prepares to present at his/ her IEP meeting. Real life Skill: Self-Determination Communication
and More Standard: Writing, Grade 11 12: Introduce precise, knowledgeable claim(s), establish the significance of the claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that logically sequences claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence. (bolded text = Grade 6) Academic Context: Identity project
Graduation project Graduation plan development Research presentation/ paper Instruction: Student prepares to present at his/ her IEP meeting. Real life Skill: Self-Determination Communication Career Awareness
Share How You Might Develop a Lesson to Do Any of the Following Describing ones interests, strengths, needs, present level of performance (reading informational texts, speaking & listening, writing) Providing input on school & post-school plans needs (reading informational texts, S&L, writing) Accepting responsibility for where improvement is needed (across academic standards) Engaging in goal setting and goal attainment activities (across academic standards) Evaluating ones progress (across academic standards) Student Driven IEP and Transition Planning
Making sure the student attends and is PREPARED for participating in their IEP meetings Important step in transferring decision-making power to students Teaching students about the IEP and its use in guiding their future Remember that ALL students are capable of participating 43
Published Curricula to Teach Student Involvement Me! Self-Directed IEP Self-Advocacy Strategy Take Charge Whose Future Is It Anyway? 44 Me! Teaching Self-Awareness & Self-Advocacy
Students with mild to moderate disabilities Ages 14-21 Free Link: Zarrow Center from University of OK Purpose: To teach students to understand their disability and abilities, rights and responsibilities, and self-advocacy skills Students develop a portfolio to help them transition from high school to postsecondary settings 45 Me! Units
Unit 1: Getting Started: Self-awareness & Self-advocacy Unit 2: Learning About Special Education Unit 3: Understanding My Disability Unit 4: Understanding My Individualized Education Program Unit 5: Understanding My Rights & Responsibilities 46 Me! Unit 1: Getting Started Unit Purpose: To familiarize students with the concepts of self-awareness and self
advocacy Provide students opportunities to identify and discuss their strengths and needs Help students identify questions they have regarding self-awareness and self-advocacy Includes 2 Lessons: Lesson 1: Understanding Self-Awareness & Self-Advocacy Lesson 2: Understanding What Its all About 47 Me! Lesson 1: Understanding SelfAwareness & Self-Advocacy Objectives: Define self-awareness and self-advocacy Identify examples of self-awareness and self-advocacy Identify personal strengths, weaknesses, likes, and dislikes
Use retelling skills to participate in oral presentation (Extension Activity) Complete the ME! Scale Materials: Understanding Self-Awareness and Self-Advocacy worksheet Student ME! Scale Parent/guardian YOU! Scale 48 Me! Lesson 1: Understanding SelfAwareness & Self-Advocacy ME! Scale Pre-test
49 You! Lesson 1: Understanding SelfAwareness & Self-Advocacy YOU! Scale Pre-test 50 Me! Unit 1: Knowledge Quiz 51 11 Steps to the Self-Directed IEP
Consists of 11 sequential lessons: 1. Begin Meeting by Stating the Purpose 2. Introduce Everyone 3. Review Past Goals and Performance 4. Ask for Others Feedback 5. State your School and Transition Goals 6. Ask Questions if You Dont Understand 7. Deal with Differences in Opinion 8. State the Support Youll Need 9. Summarize Your Goals 10. Close Meeting by Thanking Everyone 11. Work on IEP Goals All Year Zarrow Center Link: Self-Directed IEP Self-Directed IEP Description (pdf
) Self-Directed IEP Teacher Manual (pdf) Self-Directed IEP Student Workb ook (pdf) Educator or Student-Directed IEP presentation (ppt) 52 The Self-Advocacy Strategy: I-PLAN I - Inventory completed by students listing their strengths, weaknesses, learning needs, goals, and choices. P - Provide your inventory involves identifying appropriate time for individual to share information during the conference, speaking clearly and completely.
L - Listen & Respond addresses being an active listener and responding to statements made by others in a positive manner. A - Ask questions focuses on asking appropriate questions to gather needed information. N - Name your goals to communicate goals and ideas on actions to be taken. 53 Whose Future Is It Anyway? Content: Section 1: Getting to know you Section 2: Making Decisions Section 3: How to Get What You Need Section 4: Goals, Objectives and the Future Section 5: Communicating
Section 6: Thank You, Honorable Chairperson 54 Whose Future Is It Anyway? Chapters: Planning Meeting; Choosing People to Attend; Preferences & Interests; Disabilities; Unique Learning Needs; Supports Introduction to DO IT!; Steps 1 & 2; Steps 3 & 4; Using DO IT!; Real Life Stories; Informed Consent Community Resources in your plan; for work; for more school; for living; for fun; you want Identifying goals in your plan; for work; for more school; for living; for fun; Keeping track of your goals Communicating in small groups; Body language & assertiveness; Advocating & appealing; Timing & persuasion; Keeping your ideas out
there; Listening and the team Different kinds of meetings; Step to a planning meeting; Good team member; Managing the meeting; Reviewing all the steps 55 Person-Centered Planning A facilitated process designed to plan and develop supports to meet the specific desires of the focal person 1. 2. A group (or circle) of individuals is identified by the student and family who have an interest in funding or providing supports for the student. The group meets at a place convenient for all
members (often a home or restaurant) to develop a plan 56 Person Centered Planning McGill Action Planning System (MAPS) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
What is the individuals history? What is your dream for the future? What is your nightmare? Who is the individual? What are the individuals strengths, gifts, and abilities? What are the individuals needs? What does the individuals ideal day at school look like? What must be done to make it happen? *video 57 Person Centered Planning Planning Alternative Tomorrows with Hope (PATHS) 1. 2. 3.
4. 5. 6. Create a clear picture or vision of where you want to be Identify your goalsfocus for the next year Ground yourself in the now Identify people to enroll on the journey Recognize ways to build strength Chart Action Steps needed to achieve your goal 58 Person Centered Planning Personal Futures Planning 1.
2. 3. 4. What are this individual's preferences and strengths? What does the individual want? What choices does he or she make? What things do we know work well from that person's perspective? 5. What obstacles stand in the way of reaching an ideal outcome? 6. What solutions are there for overcoming obstacles? 59 Person Centered Planning Whole-Life Planning
1. Organizing the planning process, which planning, when and where it will take place, and the role of the facilitator 2. Developing a personal profile, including the places, people, and activities in a person's life 3. Building a vision, which involves highlighting major, recurring themes from the personal profile that point the way to a desirable future for the individual and developing vision statements 4. Developing action plans, which involve specific and immediate actions to implement goals 5. Supporting networks and plans, which include involves deciding who will participate in the follow-up meetings to evaluate progress. 60 More Ideas to Incorporate SD Have students set daily goals in the classroom
that tie to learning objectives Allow them the monitor their own behavior Wait for/teach them to ask for help Offer opportunities throughout the day for students to make choices 61 Creative Ways to Be Involved In or Lead Meetings Creating invitations Present work samples/pictures/drawings/collages/portfolios/ videos Introductions Developing/facilitating the agenda
Asking prepared questions Scripting parts (e.g., PINS) Presenting via PowerPoint or E-tools 62 Student Skills Learned through IEP Development/ Student Participation Strategies Participating in & contributing to transition planning transition assessment goal setting
Participating in & Leading IEP meetings disability awareness knowledge of IEP components self-advocacy 63 Why is Teaching Self-Determination Skills Worth the Effort? 64 Posttest 65 Find us on:
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