CABI TOURISM TEXTS 2nd Edition Tourism Information Technology

CABI TOURISM TEXTS 2nd Edition Tourism Information Technology

CABI TOURISM TEXTS 2nd Edition Tourism Information Technology PIERRE J. BENCKENDORFF PAULINE J. SHELDON DANIEL R. FESENMAIER COMPLIMENTARY TEACHING MATERIALS CABI TOURISM TEXTS Chapter 4 The Internet and the Tourist CABI TOURISM TEXTS Chapter 4 Learning Objectives After studying this chapter you should be able to: 1. understand the historical evolution and key terms related to the Internet; 2. explain how the Internet can be used by travelers and travel organizations and categorize different types of travel sites found on the Internet;

3. explain the online information search process and analyze the factors that influence search rankings and online search behavior; and 4. apply an understanding of communications, marketing and user experience design to the development of successful tourism websites. CABI TOURISM TEXTS Key Concepts Internet Service Provider (ISP) Servers and firewalls Intranet, extranet, Internet World Wide Web (WWW) Web 2.0 Domains, protocols, languages, formats eCommerce Search engine reply page (SERP) Search engine optimization (SEO) and metatags Intelligent agents and recommender systems 4 CABI TOURISM TEXTS Evolution of the Internet Six Degrees (SNS), Google Search

Ethernet ARPANet SITA 1969 Email Domain name 1980 Internet World Wide Web Web crawlers YouTube LinkedIn 1990 First ISP Pinterest 2000 Mosaic browser

Paypal Hotmail, Broadband 2010 Twitter Facebook, Skype Google+ CABI TOURISM TEXTS 80% 70% 60% Developed Countries Developing Countries 50% 40% 30% 20%

10% 0% 19971998199920002001200220032004200520062007200820092010201120122013 FIGURE 4.1 Percentages of internet users in the world. Source: International Telecommunication Union (2013) 6 CABI TOURISM TEXTS EXTRANET Public Suppliers Partners VPN/ firewall Remote users (VPN client) INTERNET VPN/

firewall INTRANET Databases Wireless devices Server Printer | fax scanner Workstations FIGURE 4.2 Internet, intranet and extranet configuration. 7 CABI TOURISM TEXTS Top Level Domain Names Domain Description .edu

Educational institutions .com Commercial institutions .org Organizations .net Networked organizations .gov Governmental organizations .mil Military organizations .travel Travel organizations .au

Country domains, in this case Australia 8 CABI TOURISM TEXTS Protocols Protocol Description TCP/IP Transmission control protocol/Internet protocol SMTP Simple mail transfer protocol EDI Electronic data interchange FTP File transfer protocol HTTP

Hypertext transfer protocol HTTPS Hypertext transfer protocol secure 9 CABI TOURISM TEXTS Common Languages and Formats Format Description HTML XML SMIL Hypertext Markup Language Extensible Markup Language Java Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language Environment for running online applications MP3 Music and audio format

Flash Interactive media format developed by Adobe 10 CABI TOURISM TEXTS Functionality of Travel Websites Global information dissemination Integration Mass customization Interactive communication Transactional support Disintermediation 11 CABI TOURISM TEXTS

Types of E-Commerce in Tourism Term Description B2C Example G2C A traveler purchases a flight on Lufthansas website Business to business A tour operator purchases a block of rooms from a hotel using the Internet Consumer to business A tourist offers their services as an attorney to a hotel where they are staying Consumer to consumer A tourist sells souvenirs to another tourist on eBay Government to consumer A tourist applies for a passport online G2B Government to business G2G

Government to government B2B C2B C2C Business to consumer A museum applies for a building permit to a government agency online Two governments negotiate a bilateral air service agreement using the Internet 12 CABI TOURISM TEXTS A Typology of Travel Websites Category Examples Travel intermediaries Travel suppliers Social media Online travel portals

Online travel guides Trip planning Destinations expedia.com, kayak.com ihg.com, singaporeair.com tripadvisor.com, travelpod.com, wikitravel.org virtualtourist.com lonelyplanet.com, frommers.com uptrip.com, mygola.com australia.com, tourism.australia.com, visit-queensland.com, visitbrisbane.com.au Government tourism.gov.in, smartraveller.gov.au, usa.embassy.gov.au 13 CABI TOURISM TEXTS PAID LISTING KNOWLEDGE GRAPH ORGANIC LISTING

FIGURE 4.3 Google SERP for New York. 14 CABI TOURISM TEXTS Determinants of SERP Rankings 1. Whether or not the keywords are in the URL of that page. 2. The frequency and size of the keywords on a webpage. 3. The keywords in the link anchor text (those pieces of text which contain a link). 4. Alternative text for images. 5. Metatags, keywords in titles and descriptions embedded on a webpage. 15 CABI TOURISM TEXTS PAID LISTINGS GOOGLE MAPS HOTELFINDER GOOGLE MAPS

PAID LISTINGS ORGANIC LISTINGS FIGURE 4.4 Google SERP for New York Hotels. 16 CABI TOURISM TEXTS Pre-search conditions Search process Information Information search search activities activities Usefulness Usefulness of of Internet tools

Internet tools Use Use of of search search engine engine for for travel travel planning planning First First planning planning task task Task Task specificity specificity Search Search queries queries SERPs

SERPs evaluation evaluation Overall evaluation Overall Overall satisfaction satisfaction Ease Ease of of use use Plan Plan quality quality Trust Trust FIGURE 4.5 A general framework of search engine use for travel planning. Source: Fesenmaier, Xiang, Pan, and Law (2011). 17 CABI TOURISM TEXTS C C

O Content Medium C C C FIGURE 4.6 Traditional one-to-many marketing communications model. Adapted from Hoffman and Novak (1996) 18 CABI TOURISM TEXTS O Conten t C

Mediu m Conten Conten tt O Conten Conten tt O O Conten t C C C FIGURE 4.7 Marketing communications in computer-mediated environments. Adapted from Hoffman and Novak (1996)

19 CABI TOURISM TEXTS Elements of Successful Tourism Websites Planning Strategies and goals Integrated marketing communications Evaluation Design Usability Utility Navigation & interaction Aesthetics & functionality Cross-platform compatibility Management Delivery Maintenance Resourcing

Generate traffic & repeat visitors Readability, credibility, accuracy Personalization Marketing mix 20 CABI TOURISM TEXTS Marketing Mix and Travel Websites Product Partnerships Packaging Price Website Elements Programing Promotion Point-of-sale People

21 CABI TOURISM TEXTS Discussion Questions 1. Identify a travel enterprise that uses an Intranet. What features does it provide? Can you suggest other ways that the enterprise could use the Intranet? 2. Find one specific example each of a G2G, G2B and G2C networks in the tourism industry. Explain in detail. 3. In this chapter we present a typology of travel websites. Conduct a search to find your own examples of sites for each category. Were there any sites that do not fit into this typology? 4. Identify two search engines (e.g. Bing and Google) and compare and contrast how they deal with travel requests. Do this by choosing a specific trip you would like to go on. 5. We have presented a number of elements that make tourism websites successful. Visit the travel website for your local region and conduct your own assessment of the quality of this website based on the elements we have presented. Prepare a set of recommendations to improve this website. 22 CABI TOURISM TEXTS Useful Websites The Search Engine List

www.thesearchenginelist.com The Internet Society www.internetsociety.org Search Engine Land http://searchengineland.com ICANN www.icann.org E-Tourism Frontiers www.e-tourismfrontiers.com WWW Consortium (W3C) www.w3.org Nielsen Norman Group www.nngroup.com/articles Google www.google.com 23 CABI TOURISM TEXTS

Case Study AirBnB Launched 2007. Consumer-to-consumer (C2C) travel website. People can list, discover and book unique accommodations around the world - typically entire homes or apartments or spaces in residents homes. Over 500,000 options listed in 192 countries (2014). Trust and Security: Hosts & guests can connect on social media Reviews and profiles of hosts Minimum hospitality standards for hosts Private feedback mechanisms 24

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