External Anatomy of the Eye Lacrimal Apparatus of

External Anatomy of the Eye Lacrimal Apparatus of

External Anatomy of the Eye Lacrimal Apparatus of the Eye Anatomy of the Eyeball Divided into three sections Fibrous Tunic: (tough coat) Cornea

Sclera Vascular Tunic Choroid coat Ciliary Body (Ciliary muscle, Ciliary process) Iris

Nervous Tunic Retina Accessory structures of the Eye from a sagittal view Internal Anatomy of the Eye

Detail view of the anterior anatomy of the eye Production of Aqueous Humor and Intraocular pressure 1. Ciliary Process:

Produces Aqueous Humor 2. Posterior Chamber: Aqueous Humor flows from this chamber through the pupil in Anterior Chamber 3. Canal of Schlemm Reabsorbs Aqueous Humor

Glaucoma: Increase in intraocular pressure due to build up of Aqueous Humor Opthalmoscopic view of the retina showing the location of the Macula to the Optic Disc

Histology of the retina of the eye Photomicroscopic view of the Histology of the Eye S = Sclera C = Choroid coat PE = Pigmented

epithelium P = Outer segments of rods and cones O = Nuclei of rods and cones OPL = Outer synaptic layer I = Nuclei of bipolar

neurons PL = Inner synaptic layer G = Ganglion cell layer Photomicroscopic view of the Histology of the Eye showing the location of the central fovea

Intrinsic Eye Muscles and their response to light The Visual Pathway Light Refractory Pathway: 1. Bulbar Conjunctiva

2. Cornea 3. Aqueous Humor 4. Lens 5. Vitreous Humor 6. Ganglion Cell Layer 7. Inner Synaptic Layer 8. Bipolar Layer

9. Outer Synaptic Layer 10. Photoreceptor Layer Abnormalities of The Eye: 1. Myopic nearsighted

2. Hypermetropic Farsighted 3. Presbyopia age-related failure of lens to accommodate 4. Astigmatism Distorted vision due to irregular-shaped lens or cornea 5. Color Blindness genetic defect that

causes dysfunction of cones Accommodation of the Lens for near vision Ciliary muscles contract Ciliary body pulls forward and inward

Tension on suspensory ligaments of lens is decreased Lens becomes thicker (rounder) due to its elasticity Pupils constricts Accommodation of the Lens

for far vision Ciliary muscles relaxes Ciliary body returns to its resting state, backward and outward Tension on suspensory ligaments of lens is increased Lens becomes thinner (flatter) due to its

elasticity Pupils dilate Anatomy of Rods and Cones Physiology of Rods and Photopigments

Visual Pathway Be Able to Trace and Describe this 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

6. 7. 8. Cones Bipolar neurons Ganglion cells axon forms the optic nerve Optic nerve to the Optic Chiasm

Optic tract Lateral geniculate nuclei of the thalamus Optic Radiations Primary visual areas of the occipital lobes

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