Semantic Technologies at FAO International Society for Semantic Technologies at FAO International Society for Semantic Technologies at FAO International Society for Knowledge Organization (ISKO) 3 Aprile 2009, Torino Margherita Sini FAO 1/70 Few words about myself FAO

2/70 Just a very rapid introduction What? semantic, semantic web, semantic technologies ontologies, Knowledge Organization Systems, metadata Why? interoperability, exchange, share user orientation, precision and recall multilinguality, cultural views, context Who? everybody, all domains, all countries, all .org

Which instruments? experts, NLP, methodologies and techniques FAO 3/70 Outline Semantic projects involving FAO AOS IPFSAPH, FNA, CWR, Fisheries, Food & nutrition, Geopolitical ontology, AGROVOC Concept Server Thai Rice Onto, Agropedia Indica Conclusions ontology-based applications

Collaborations Take home messages FAO 4/70 Semantic projects involving FAO FAO 5/70 Why AOS

Semantic navigation, Clustering, Ranking, ... Interoperability Terminology brokering ship or container Intelligent query expansion Inferencing Reasoning Machine learning

vessel? craft? boat? bateaux? barco? FAO 6/70 Agricultural Ontology Service An FAO initiative for more coherence in Agricultural Information Systems Need of a semantic approach AOS elements:

FAO 7/70 AGROVOC Concept Server KOS registry Mapping registries Metadata standards Tools Publications (guidelines, ...) AGROVOC Concept Server

Built from AGROVOC Domain concepts Categories Ontology registry Sub-domain ontologies Metadata ontologies IPFSAPH FAO 8/70

IPFSAPH FAO 9/70 The Ontology FAO 10/70 Creation of the core ontology

Agrovoc Information Resources Brainstorming Codex Alimentarius SPS Agreement Food Safety Documents Generic Documents FAO 11/70 Ontology 1600 concepts

subject specialists Ontology Editor (OI-Modeler) Concept Search The same records will be retrieved regardless of the specific synonyms or singular/plural forms that the user uses to refer to a concept. Related concepts FAO 12/70 Multilinguality The system is also able to understand a concept even when different languages are used. FAO 13/70 Check spelling Spelling errors are corrected: e.g. desease into disease

FAO 14/70 Paraphrasing mad cow disease symptoms or clinical signs of bovine spongiform encephalopathy FAO 15/70

give the same results, which are ranked. FAO 16/70 Semantic navigation of the bibliographical metadata (1) FAO 17/70

Semantic navigation of the bibliographical metadata (2) FAO 18/70 Semantic Navigation of Knowledge parent concept(s) children concept(s) FAO 19/70 FNA FAO 20/70 FAO 21/70 Creation of the core ontology BIBLIOGRAPHIC


22/70 maintain Ontology Relationships FAO 23/70 The ontology concepts Publication Issue Work

Article Subject Term Category Author Region Language Year FAO 24/70 The ontology instances FAO

25/70 Features Multilingual concept resolution Get suggestions for the navigation (e.g. synonyms) Guided query formulation Easy navigation of the objects by following the semantic links FAO 26/70

RDFa FAO 27/70 CWR FAO 28/70 Hierarchy

FAO 29/70 The project Undertaken by FAO with partners Developed in harmony with CWR descriptor list First version (English only) available by December 2006 About 800 core terms + acronyms + spelling variants; Clearly definition of concepts (AGROVOC + other sources); and Relationships: hierarchical + causative FAO

30/70 More semantics Term: wild plants subclass of plants superclass of crop wild relatives adapted by domestication benefits from resource conservation FAO 31/70 Properties (1/2)

FAO 32/70 Properties (2/2) FAO 33/70 Overall Solution (1/2) Aggregated Database

View Subject specific Portals News feed service Informa tion System (n) Common exchange layer (Vocabularies,Ontologies,

RDF/XML) dataset 1 FAO 34/70 dataset 2 dataset n Value-added

information services Shared layer of interoperability Distributed Datasets Overall Solution (2/2) Data FAO

35/70 Fisheries FAO 36/70 Fisheries Ontologies The initial goal Making information interchangeable between ASFA, FIGIS, OneFish and AGROVOC The approach

Creating an ontology, integrating or mapping the 3 different systems + AGROVOC Linking of the Ontology through wrappers to the different Information Systems Evolution: NeOn FAO 37/70 Fisheries Ontologies (2/2) strains Species life cycle

diseases OneFish FIGIS Hatchery technique Spawning Farmin technique g techniq Ex Health monitoring Breeding pl. ue

for technique technique m Environment Aquaculture Resource Farming system Production center Water Regulation suppliers

land management system Institution Area AGROVOC ASFA Aquaculture Development RELATED TERM BROADER TERM FAO 39/70

Aquaculture Engineering Aquaculture Economics Brackishwater Aquaculture RELATED TERM RELATED TERM Aquaculture

BROADER TERM Marine Aquaculture Aquaculture Facilities RELATED TERM BROADER TERM Freshwater Aquaculture

Features 1. Form versus meaning: a) Traditional Search b) Concept Search 2. Implemented functionalities: a) synonym search b) multilingual capability c) terminology brokering d) disambiguation e) related concepts f) query expansion FAO 40/70 3. Basic natural language queries

4. Semantic navigation of bibliographical metadata 5. Semantic Navigation of Knowledge a) Alphabetic list ... b) Core Fishery Concepts ... Ontology properties |Fishing [email protected]| |[email protected]| |[email protected]| |[email protected]| |[email protected]|

|Small [email protected]| |Dairy [email protected]| |Fish [email protected]| |Fish [email protected]| |Fish [email protected]| |Natural [email protected]| FAO 41/70 PARTICIPANT-IN PARTICIPANT-IN PARTICIPANT-IN PARTICIPANT-IN PARTICIPANT-IN PARTICIPANT-IN PARTICIPANT-IN

PARTICIPANT-IN PARTICIPANT-IN PARTICIPANT-IN PARTICIPANT-IN |Fishing [email protected]| |Sponge [email protected]| |Pearl [email protected]| |Pearl [email protected]| |[email protected]| |Artisanal [email protected]| |Milk [email protected]| |[email protected]| |Fish [email protected]| |[email protected]| |Resource [email protected]|

Example "tell me what vessels from a nearby country are currently in the marine area 50N060W within Atlantic Ocean, provided that also some Thunnus alalunga stock can be fished by those vessels, through allowed techniques" FAO 42/70 Using multilingual lexicalizations ENGLISH SPANISH

FRENCH FAO 43/70 Using hierarchically related concepts Polyvalent Trawlers hierarchically related concept FAO

44/70 Using non-hierarchically related concepts gears non-hierarchically related concept FAO 45/70 Help the user formulate queries

Original query: bateau de pche To refine your query, click on the concepts you are interested in. They will appear to the left. FAO 46/70 Search: Reconcile different vocabularies AGROVOC or ASFA or other i ng

h fishing vessels, s f i : fishing boat, SFA sels A ves FAO 47/70 navire de pche, fishing vessel, AGRO embarcaciones fishin VOC:

g vess els, de pesca barco , etc.. . Semantic Navigation of Knowledge: Thesaurus based Highlighting the originator thesaurus. User can select a specific thesaurus to look for. FAO

48/70 Geopolitical ontology FAO 49/70 Geopolitical ontology Incorporate geopolitical data Will serve as a bridge to allow communication between the various systems.

FAO 50/70 Properties isValidFrom hasOfficialName hasCode isSuccessorOf hasBorderWith dependsOn FAO 51/70 Nutrition Ontology FAO 52/70 FAO 53/70 Procedure

Revision 4.0 en International Network of Food Data Systems (INFOODS) was established in 1984 on the basis of the

recommendations of an international group convened under the auspices of the United Nations University (UNU). Its goal was to ..... =CONCATENATE(" rdf:ID=""c_",B2,"""/> [CDATA[",D2,"]]>",S2, T2,"") >0413 54/70 FAO

AGROVOC FAO 55/70 AOS Core: the Concept Server Other thesauri and terminologies ABACA NT1 Food NT2 Apple ANIMAL BT Organ

NT .... integration Other thesauri & terminologies ABACA NT1 Food NT2 Apple ANIMAL BT Organ NT .... AGROVOC OWL mapping Export

Terminology Workbench FAO 56/70 AGROVOC RDFS formats (e.g. SKOS) and TagText ISO2709 Concept Server project Refine semantics and enrich data pool and

lexicon Develop a workbench for terminology and ontology development and maintenance. Support information management specialists in the development, maintenance, and quality assurance of the AOS/CS Global knowledge vs local knowledge FAO 57/70 AGROVOC Concept Server AGROVOC cleaning and refinement Current AGROVOC

MySQL Revision and Refinement FAO 58/70 AGROVOC OWL Improved AGROVOC MySQL Modelling

FAO Conversion to UTF-8 Migration to MySQL (from SQL server) Migration to PostgreSQL (from MySQL) Incorporated AGRIS/CARIS classification scheme (multilingual) and the mapping with AGROVOC keywords Modified structure to store multiple classification schemes Revised RDBMS scheme for ontology representation

Designed OWL models Export to OWL format (v0.8a) Export to SKOS format (v0.8a) 59/70 Methods Concepts from descriptors Synonym Acronyms ABA ABA ABA [8565] Abscisic acid FAO 60/70 SKOS SKOS export from AGROVOC Concept Server Workbench (WB) SKOS web services SKOS-services for DSpace plug-in SKOS for mapping projects FAO 61/70 AGROVOC CS maintain Workbench

export triple store SKOS access FAO 62/70 access Web Services response Ontology models (AGROVOC Concept Server, LIR, ...) concept level Relationships between Relationships Relationships between concepts Concept designated by Relationships

between terms Lexicalization/ term level Term Relationship annotation relationship string level All terms are created as instances of the class o_terms. All at Other information: Note the same level. Only

manifested oneaslanguage per term. language/culture Relationships between strings String FAO 63/70 subvocabulary/scope audience type, etc. Agropedia Indica FAO 64/70 References ar ar-w-guidelines ar-w-exercices

FAO 65/70 Conclusions FAO 66/70 Ontology-based applications Better exploitation of the potentiality at the application level: powerful IR

No more words but URIs in IS Networked Ontologies Ontology Web services (OWS) FAO 67/70 Collaborations With AOS partners Within EU Projects NeOn SEMIC.EU With other initiatives GFIS

Ecoterm Mapping projects GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility secretariat JRC + BGS + Biblioteca Nazionale di Firenze FAO 68/70 Take-home message There are many uses for terminology & ontology systems in food and agriculture, both for information access and information processing FAO has several projects using such systems FAO is deploying the

Agricultural Ontology Server (AOS) as a global resource SKOS and other knowledge representation standards play a key role FAO 69/70 Questions? Thanks Margherita Sini: [email protected] Johannes Keizer: [email protected] Dagobert Soergel: [email protected] Asanee Kawtrakul: [email protected] But Also: Gudrun Johannsen, Boris Lauser, Claudio Baldassarre, Gauri Salokhe, Marta Iglesias, Caterina Caracciolo, Sachit

Rajbhandari, Jeetendra Singh, Mary Redahan, Shrestha, Prashanta, Ton, Imm, Thanapth, Trakul, and many others... FAO 70/70

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