TOPIC 1:TECTONIC PROCESSES AND HAZARDS (Lesson 10 b) ENQUIRY QUESTIONS: 1. Why are some locations more at risk from tectonic hazards? 2. Why do some tectonic hazards develop into disasters? Previous lesson Objectives To describe and explain the global distribution of tsunamis

To understand the causes of tsunamis by submarine earthquakes at subduction zones as a result of sea bed and water column displacement To be able to analyse a tsunami time travel map to aid prediction To have knowledge of strategies to modify future tsunami events: including tsunami warning systems Ref: Hodder p11-12 Oxford p 20-23

Todays lesson objectives To understand the social economic and environmental impacts of a tsunami Case study examples Indian Ocean 2004 and Tohoku, Japan 2011 Recap: What is a tsunami? (Japanese: tsu harbour; nami wave) Definition

A series of waves caused by the sudden displacement of a large volume of water in an ocean or large lake, as a result of: earthquakes (most common; shallow focus <30km) undersea volcanoes undersea landslides landslides or glaciers breaking off into lakes As they approach shallower water they slow down but the height of tsunami

waves increase- shoaling effect.. Are tsunamis rare? It depends on the scale of event (ocean-wide or local) and whether we are talking about time or space Ocean-wide, 2004 NOAA

Ocean-wide, 2011 Source: NOAA Do tsunamis have to be devastating? The highest tsunami wave ever recorded was in Lituya Bay, Alaska, in 1958. Caused by a rock fall (30 million m3) from a height of 1000m. It created a tsunami wave 520m high. Impact? 5 deaths, 1 million trees lost Do tsunamis have to be devastating?

Indian Ocean Banda Aceh 2004 low-lying 31,000 deaths Simeulue - island folklore recounted an earthquake and tsunami in 1907, and islanders fled to inland hills before the tsunami struck. 7 deaths (from a population of

78,000) Do tsunamis have to be devastating? Since the start of the international warning system for the Pacific in 1965, situated in Hawaii, less than 1% of tsunami deaths

have occurred at distances greater than 3+ hrs tsunami travelling time, compared to ~17% of tsunami deaths prior to 1965. NOAA Take home message warnings save lives!

In 2004, there was no equivalent organisation in place for the Indian Ocean. The Sumatra earthquake and its tsunami risk were detected by NOAA and others, but there was not a proper communications network with countries at risk. The Physical and Human factors which affect the IMPACT of a tsunami A tsunami hazard is a flood hazard hazard

Garry Welch. U.S. Marine Corps Sunichi Koshimura WHITEBOARD-PAIRED TASK What physical factors do you think could influence the degree of devastation by a tsunami? Physical factors that can influence the degree of devastation Wave energy

Shoaling Depth of water Shape of seabed Interference waves ACT News Shape of coastline Topography( shape) of the land

Lack of natural defences coral, mangroves Physical factors that can influence the degree of devastation Waikato Regional Council Wave energy The rate at which a wave loses its energy is inversely related to its

wavelength. Tsunamis can have very large wavelengths, up to 100km and therefore large volumes of water. In very deep water, a tsunami will travel at high speeds with little loss of energy. Can travel across the Pacific Ocean in less than one day. Physical factors that can influence the degree of devastation Waikato Regional Council

Shoaling Shoaling is the major destructive process. As water becomes more shallow, the water is pushed upwards. Even when tsunamis have shoaled, they still have a relatively long wavelength, which is why they seem to keep flowing inland over many minutes. The first wave is not always the worst. Underwater ridges are shallower areas and can intensify a tsunami. Physical factors that can influence the degree of devastation Constructive interference patterns When two waves travelling in different directions meet, they combine their energies and form interference patterns, which can increase the amplitude of the waves. Physical factors that cause an increase in devastation Nature of the coastline

Wave heights increase in bays that narrow from the entrance to the head, funnelling energy on to the coastline. Loss of coral reefs and mangroves means that coastlines are no longer protected. Low-lying coasts are vulnerable.

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