y r o m Me Information Processing Model:

y r o m Me Information Processing Model:

y r o m Me Information Processing Model: The Brain works like a computer. Encodes Packages info Stores Safely keeps info for later use

Retrieves Brings info back into the conscious mind Do you think that the brain works like a computer? Three Types of Memory In humans, information processing occurs in three systems: sensory memory, short-term memory, Long term memory. Stage Model of Memory Includes 3 Types of Memory Sensory Memory Short-Term Memory

Long-Term Memory Sensory Memory Lasts only 1-2 seconds Usually in the form of an icon or an echo Allows us a very short period of time to review the overwhelming amount of sensory information. Most information is discarded, but some is selected for more extensive rehearsal. Lets Examine our own thought process Get out a blank piece of paper and write down all responses that come to mind in the order

that they occur Your Task: Name the seven dwarfs from Snow White How difficult was this task? Was it Easy or Hard Memory is the persistence of learning over time What are some factors that made it easy or hard? To name the 7 dwarfs we must Get the info into our brain (encoding) Retain it over time (storage) Get it back out (retrieval)

Bashful, Doc, Dopey, Grumpy, Happy, Sleep Sneezy Short-Term Memory Temporary storehouse for small bits of info 7 2 = The Magic Number Often stored by sound rather than images Sensitive to interference working memory the duration of short-term memory is limited to about 18 seconds unless the subject rehearsed the information, in which case it is maintained in short-term memory indefinitely.

I will read a list of ten words. See how many you can remember through simply repeating them to yourself. Meaning But, if you were a bowler, and on one night you had bowled three games if 171, 202, and 156, then the meaning of those number groupings would allow you to think of the same numbers, in the same order, as three meaningful units or chunks. What number have meaning for you that you remember?

Activity Devise a task to asses the duration and capacity of short-term memory. See if you can utilize strategies like chunking to increase your short term memory. Long-Term Memory Relatively permanent (not absolutely)

Capacity is limitless Mistakes in LTM will be similar in meaning Often revised/updated constructive processing TRUE or FALSE: Being confident about a memory indicates its accuracy. FALSE Types of Long-Term Memory EXPLICIT or DECLARATIVE MEMORY episodic information

Memory of an event or episode birthday party your sisters wedding the day you won first place. . . semantic information Vocabulary words General knowledge/facts Types of Long-Term Memory IMPLICIT or NON-DECLARATIVE MEMORY Outside of awareness Hard to put into words

Procedural information how to. . . Motor skills Actions How can we get information into LTM? Rehearsal Maintenance (repetition) Elaborative making connections with other things we already hold in memory Chunking Grouping into categories

Mnemonic devices Catchwords, jingles, acronyms, wild stories Good for memorizing, not so good for understanding What Acronyms do you know for memorization? Create a story using the 11 words in order in the list below. Palace Officer Mule Wheat

Market Table Student Juggler Insect Flag Tree Elephant Doctor Fireplace Clothing Whiskey Church

Clock Corpse Icebox Hotel Moon V X B C




How can we measure memory? Recall Must retrieve info with few clues Example: Essay Fill-in-the-Blank (with no word bank) Recognition Must identify correct answer from info provided Example: multiple choice test Relearning savings score Problems with Long-Term

Memory Interference = One memory competing with replacing another RETROACTIVE OLD NEW New memory interferes with the old PROACTIVE OLD NEW Old memory interferes with the new and Amnesia Memory loss

RETROGRADE Cant retrieve memories from the past (especially the recent past) ANTERIOGRADE Cant form new memories Reasons for Forgetting Encoding failure Not storing information in the first place Decay Fading of memory traces in neurons Especially a problem with sensory memories and STM

Cue-dependent tip of the tongue Forgetting may be a result from retrieval failure rather than encoding or storage If you have the right trigger, you will remember Reasons for Forgetting State-dependent or Mood-dependent Bodily or emotional state that exists during encoding can be a trigger for later memory retrieval Disuse common sense explanation that is probably NOT

accurate Does not adequately explain LTM Stage 1 Stage 3 Stage 2 Rehearsal Buffer Forgotten Selective Attention

STM Not encoded Sensory Memory Not attended to Incoming Info Forgotten Coded for

Storage Long-Term Memory Consolidation Levels of processing Shallow processing or maintenance rehearsal Involves simple repetition of the presented material. This is not an effective way to encode material. Example: Most people do not have accurate memories of the organization of numbers, letters, and symbols on a

push-button telephone, despite having seen and used them many, many times. Serial position effects Our memory for a list of items tends to be better for items at the beginning or the end of the list and worse for items in the middle of the list. The primacy effect is the enhanced ability to recall items from the beginning of the list. The recency effect is the enhanced ability to recall items from the end of the list. Why do we remember the first and last entries on a list?

Levels of processing Deep processing or elaborative rehearsal Coding by forming associations between new information and information already stored. Makes information more meaningful. Example: If a student attempts to relate information presented in class to his or her own life, it will be easier to remember in the future. Reconstructive memory The process of piecing together memories by fitting them to a meaningful plan or organization.

Accounts for much of the inaccuracy of our recollections. We fill in gaps with assumptions because we are uncomfortable with the gaps. Once we've done this, distinguishing what actually happened from what we filled in is almost impossible. A TWA Boeing 747 had just taken off from Miami International Airport for Los Angeles when a passenger near the rear of the aircraft announced that the plane was being taken over by the People's Revolutionary Army for the liberation of the oppressed. The hijacker then held a 357 magnum to the head of Jack Swanson, a flight attendant, and forced him to open the cockpit door. There, the hijacker confronted the pilot, Jane Randall, and ordered her to change

the course for Cuba. The pilot radioed the Miami Air Traffic Control Center to report the situation but then suddenly hurled the microphone at the hijacker, who fell backward through the open cockpit door and onto the floor, where angry passengers took over from there. The plane landed in Miami a few minutes later and the hijacker was arrested. The errors made in each successive telling of the story are usually quite predictable and follow some basic principles of constructive memory . describe how the story changed with the retelling First, the story will get progressively shorter as some non-distinctive details -- the type of airplane, the name of the revolutionary group, and sometimes,

the flight's origin and destination -- are left out. This is sometimes referred to as "leveling." (Particularly distinctive details, such as the calibre of the gun, and, especially for female students, the gender of the pilot, are often retained; this is sometimes referred to as "sharpening.")

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