Commercial Biological Control and Integrated Pest Management Norm
Commercial Biological Control and Integrated Pest Management Norm Leppla UF, IFAS, IPM Florida Major Commercial Natural Enemies Major Commercial Natural Enemies Milestones in Commercialization of Biological Control 1895- Farming Trichogramma proposed 1926- Fillmore, mass prod. NE citrus pests
1929- Trichogramma on factitious host 1949- Chrysoperla colonization 1956- Predaceous mites, mites on strawberry 1968- Koppert established 1975- Trichogramma, European corn borer 1981- IOBC WGQC (AMRQC) 1988- Whitefly parasites, Europe glasshouses 1990- ANBP established in California 1995- Commercial artificial diet for predators 1995- IBMA established in France Biological Control Organizations with Commercial Affiliations IOBC
ANBP's Objectives Members of ANBP are expected to adhere to a code of ethics which encourages the highest standards in the production and marketing of natural enemies. Strengthen the commercial natural enemy industry. Promote research and education on the
use of natural enemies. Develop quality certification programs for natural enemies. Guidelines for Purchasing and Using Commercial Natural Enemies and Biopesticides in Florida and Other States N. C. Leppla and K. L. Johnson More than 47 biological control companies provide nematodes, mites, insects, and bioinsecticides for pest management in Florida and the Southeast. Nematodes are sold by 28 companies (5 species). Predators are sold by 26 companies, 10 supply mites
(10 species) and 16 supply insects (15 species). Parasitic wasps are sold by 32 companies (23 spp.) Table 1. Habitats, pests, natural enemies and reference number Tables 2-7. Natural enemies and number of sources Table 2- Nematodes (8) Table 3- Predatory mites (10) Table 4- Predatory insects (16) Table 5- Parasitic wasps (23) Table 6- Biopesticides (21) Table 7- Companies and websites (47)
Predators! Number, Size, Revenue and Species of North American Companies Number = 49 producers and suppliers Size = 10 employees average
Revenue = $20-25 million, 3 > $1.5 million Species = 57 (+ 21 microbials) 5/20 producers >3 species 50% produce one species Few new species Cumulative Number of Species New Product Development 35 30 25 20 15
10 5 0 Year Amblyseius swirskii MiteTreatm Species ent A. limonicus T. swirskii
A. ovalis E. scutalis A. degenerans A. cucumeris A. barkeri E. finlandicus 1200 A. cucumeris DPV
T. pyri Perdentage compared to A. cucumeris Western Flower Thrips Control in Cucumbers 1500 Predatory mites F. occidentalis larvae 900 600
300 0 Bemesia tabaci Control on Hibiscus 1 2 3 15
35 30 10 25 20 15 5 10 5 0 0
13 14 15 A. swirskii perofplant Mean number A. swirskii/plant B. swirskii tabaci with A. swirskii A. B. tabaci
without swirskii Control without A. A. swirskii 16 17 18 week 19
20 21 22 mean number of A. swirskii /plant mean number of alive pupae of Bemisia tabaci/plant 40 Release dates
Amblyseius swirskii Effectiveness Very high numerical response to availability of food Highly efficacious against western flower thrips, greenhouse whiteflies and tobacco whiteflies
In combination with: Orius spp. against western flower thrips Whitefly parasites against whiteflies P. persimilis or A. californicus against two-spotted spider mites Good establishment on pollen Whiteflies can substitute for pollen in peppers Good results in North and South Europe May replace A. cucumeris, depending on release permits Chemical Pesticides Versus Biological Control: Investment and Return Investment
3 30 Billion Sales 600 Million Biological Control Chemical Pesticides Natural Enemy Sales Increases
Pesticide resistance Transgenic crops Loss of pesticides (regulatory) New more selective pesticides Cost of pesticides (registration) Alien invasive species Cropping systems (pollinators, organic) Commercial Biological Control Needs Expertise
New Markets & Products Science and Technology Improved rearing and release methods Field tests to determine efficacy Compatibility with pesticides Taxonomic support Quality control and customer service Regulations
IPM Transition Invasive Pest Resistant Crop Competitors Natural enemies Vulnerable Crop Pesticide program: New insecticides New formulations New Application methods
Resistance management Resistant varieties Integrated pest management program: Cultural practices Scouting, ID of pests & NEs Conservation of NEs Augmentation of NEs Reduced-risk insecticides Resistance management What is IPM?
IPM is the coordinated use of pest and environmental information and available pest control methods to prevent unacceptable levels of pest damage by the most economical means with the least possible hazard to people, property and the environment. IPM System REDUCE RISK INCREASE
Reliability Pest outbreaks & disease epidemics Environmental contamination Human health hazards Pest mgmt. costs Sustainability Chem Biological Control
Cultural Methods IPM Actions Scouting Diagnosis Thresholds Managemen t Evaluating IPM Practices Eco-labels
Eco-labeling Components Certification Standards Eco-Label Education & Outreach 3rd Party Auditor Chain of Custody
Marketing Sustainability of Agriculture Economic profitability Environmental health Social and economic well-being Information on Commercial Biological Control http://ipm.ifas.ufl.edu
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