Media Timeline: Key Events Cindy Royal, Ph.D Associate
Media Timeline: Key Events Cindy Royal, Ph.D Associate Professor Texas State University School of Journalism and Mass Communication [email protected] www.cindyroyal.com www.onthatnote.com cindytech.wordpress.com twitter.com/cindyroyal facebook.com/cindyroyal Media Timeline Media and tech tightly tied to trade (china - silk production), production, math, calendars, astronomy, science, art, law; highly influenced by economic, political and social events International influences - Asia, Europe New technology has often reflected/disrupted shifts in power over time - from the few to the many 1600-1900 1605: First regularly published weekly newspaper appears in Antwerp. 1650: Leipzig publishes the first daily newspaper. 1690: After one issue Publick Occurrences, first colonial newspaper, is suppressed. 1702: The first daily newspaper in the English language, the Daily Courant. 1783: Pennsylvania Evening Post, the first daily newspaper in America.
1794: Nearly flat rate U.S. postal law mails most newspapers for a penny stamp. 1797: In England, a heavy tax is levied on newspapers to limit the radical press. 1801: Joseph-Marie Jacquard loom uses punch cards, anticipates computers. 1827: First African-American newspaper, Freedoms Journal. 1828: First Native American newspaper, Cherokee Phoenix. 1833: A penny buys a newspaper, the New York Sun, opening a mass market. 1834: Babbage conceives the analytical engine, forerunner of the computer. 1870: More than 5,000 newspapers are published in the U.S. 1843: Byrons daughter, Ada Lovelace, explains concept of computer programming. 1898: Newspapers, led by Hearst and Pulitzer, help push U.S. into war with Spain. 1900-1950 1900: U.S. has 2,150 daily newspapers, 478 tri- or semi-weeklies, 14,717 weeklies. 1900: Total newspaper circulation in U.S. passes 15 million daily.
1900: 562 cities in U.S. have more than one daily newspaper; New York City has 29. 1914: 1,300 journals, 140 daily newspapers in U.S. targeted to ethnic populations. 1930: Lowell Thomas begins first regular U.S. network newscast. 1930: BBC transmits a play by television, 240 lines/sec of resolution. 1930: Vannevar Bushs partly electronic computer can solve differential equations. 1933: U.S. newspapers pressure AP to cut service to radio, start Press-Radio War. 1933: FDR begins radio Fireside Chats, bypasses hostile newspapers. 1936: BBC starts worlds first regular television service, three hours a day. 1938: CBS World News Roundup ushers in modern newscasting. 1941: Radio networks on 24/7; heavy on news. 1942: Atanasoff and Berry in Iowa build the first electronic digital computer. 1944: NBC presents first U.S. televised network newscast, a curiosity.
1944: Harvards Mark I, first digital computer to be put in service. 1946: University of Pennsylvanias ENIAC heralds the modern electronic computer. 1948: CBS and NBC begin nightly 15-minute television newscasts. 1948: WFIL-FM, owned by Philadelphia newspaper, transmits fax editions twice a day. 1949: Hollywood studios begin to produce television programs. 1949: The United States has 98 television stations. 1950-1970 1950: Nielsens Audimeter tracks television audiences. 1951: Color television sets go on sale. 1951: Univac I is the first mass-produced computer. 1952: Television sets in about 19 million U.S. homes. 1954: 54% of American homes have television sets.
1957: Many television programs switch to color. 1958: The microchip; it will enable the computer revolution. 1959: Television sets in more than 46 million U.S. homes. 1960: 90% of American homes have television sets. 1961: The time-sharing computer is developed. 1961: FCC Chairman Newton Minow calls television a vast wasteland.. 1963: TV is now principal source of news in U.S., according to Roper Poll. 1963: Douglas Engelbart gets a patent for the computer mouse. 1963: TV news comes of age in reporting JFK assassination. 1963: Julia Child cooks on television as The French Chef. 1967: Newspapers, magazines start to digitize production/computers in operation 1968: 60 Minutes starts ticking, proves than news on TV can be profitable.
1965: FCC rules bring structure to cable television. 1969: UCLA computer sends data to Stanford computer, foreshadowing Internet. 1970-1990 1972: Philadelphia Inquirer builds a computer database for a news story. 1972: The Xerox Alto, first computer with mouse and graphical interface. 1974: U.S. newspapers start to replace reporters typewriters with terminals. 1975: On television, Saturday Night Live. 1975: In Los Angeles, the first computer store; it sells assembled computers. 1975: Microsoft founded 1976: Apple Computer founded 1976: Barbara Walters becomes first woman to anchor a U.S. TV nightly network newscast. 1979: News groups arrive on the Internet. 1980: A 25 lb. portable computer is favorite of reporters who send news from field. RS TRS- 80
1980: CNN, 24-hour news channel, begins reports. 1981: The laptop computer is introduced by Tandy. 1982: USA Today is a newspaper influenced by television news style. 1983: Time names the computer as "Man" of the Year for 1982. 1983: Apple's Lisa, the first microcomputer with a graphical user interface. 1984: Apple Macintosh and IBM PC AT are introduced. 1983: Computer chip holds 288,000 bits of memory. 1983: TCP/IP becomes standard for Internet communication between computers. 1983: Internet domains get names instead of hard-to-remember numbers. 1985: America Online founded as Quantum Computer Services. The '90s 1991: Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) written; helps create the World Wide Web. 1992: Number of newspapers offering online news rises to 150.
1993: Graphical user interface, Mosaic, is developed for the World Wide Web. 1994: Two million computers connected to the Internet. 1994: Almost 1/3 of all American homes have a computer. 1994: Radio HK, a 24-hour Internet-only radio station. 1995: U.S. population continues to increase, but newspaper readership declines. 1995: 30 million Internet users worldwide. 1995: Amazon.com starts selling books online, will become Webs hottest retailer. 1996: From Microsoft: Hotmail.com, a Web-based email site. 1996: 45 million Internet users, including 30 million in U.S. 1996: More than 100,000 Web sites, and growing fast. 1996: Computer makers sell flat-panel displays. 1996: A pocket telephone/computer comes on the market.
1996: Several large newspapers offer Web access to archives. 1997: Streaming audio and video are available on the Web. The '90s, continued 1993: Wired Magazine launches 1994: NY Times on AOL 1995: Craigslist, Houston Chron online 1997: 2,600 U.S. newspapers have Internet sites or dial-up connections. 1997: 43% of U.S. homes have computers 1997: Blackhawk Down on Philadelphia Inquirer 1998: Drudge Report, an online website, breaks news of Clinton-Lewinsky affair. 1998: 3,250 newspapers, 1,280 TV stations now have online websites. 1998: Google
1998: 150 million Internet users estimated at years end, half in the U.S. 1998: Estimated number of World Wide Web pages: 300 million. 1998: Estimated number of Web pages added each day: 1.5 million. 1998: Apple unveils the colorful iMac computer. 1999: Number of U.S. daily newspapers drops to 1,483; total 56 million circulation. 1999: Nielsen, Arbitron start World Wide Web rating service. 1999: 150 million Internet users can access more than 800 million web pages. 1999: Blogger starts 2000s 2000: Seventy million computers connected to the Internet. 2001: Dotcom bust, 9/11 tributes, Wikipedia launches 2002: Google News, an automated service without human editors. 2002: Friendster sets up Internet social contact network. 2002: On the Web, creators of online journals, or "web logs," now "blog on." 2003: 239 million computer games are sold. 2003: From Apple Computer: the browser Safari. 2003: Cell phones add computer and Internet capabilities. 2003: Google buys Blogger; MySpace launched 2004: Facebook 2005: YouTube launches; News Corp buys MySpace 2000s, continued
2006: TV networks place their most popular programs on the Web. 2006: Battle in Congress over "net neutrality" regarding website access. 2006: YouTube Invention of the Year; You Person of the Year; Google Buys YouTube 2009: Major U.S. newspapers face bankruptcy as readers, income erode. 2007: iPhone surfs Web, emails, plays videos, iTunes, makes phone calls, takes pictures; Invention of the Year. 2007: Twitter 2008: Candidates embrace social media 2009: Hudson plane crash photo on Twitter 2010: iPad brings multi-touch email, books, movies, maps, apps. 2010: Foursquare and Gowalla 2010: iPad released 2010: Mark Zuckerberg Person of the Year; The Social Network
2011: Steve Jobs dies 2011: Egyptian protests 2011: Coupon sites, like Groupon, launch 2012 Gowalla RIP Founder Jerry Yang leaves Yahoo SOPA protests work Marissa Mayer of Google becomes Yahoo CEO Facebook buys Instagram Facebook becomes a public company 2013 Tumblr purchased by Yahoo Facebook rolls out graph search Google Glass released to developers Vine and Instagram videos become popular From Pencils to Pixels Humanists not considered in tech loop Stages of Literacy Technology Restricted communication function; small number of initiates
Adapted to familiar functions associated with an older technology Decreased costs improves spread of new technology; better able to mimic ordinary forms of communication New literacy; technology creates original forms of communication Ultimately effects older technologies Pencil originally used for marking measurements Earliest forms of writing were to record business transactions, not transcribe speech Writing was considered cumbersome, expensive Written documents not considered interactive Validity questioned From Pencils to Pixels Do you agree with the authors contention that the computer is simply the latest step in a long line of writing technologies? Milestones in New Media Pre-1995 Wired Magazine - 1993 NY Times on AOL - 1994 Nando -1994
2001 DotCom Bust 9/11 Tributes Wikipedia launched 2007VA Tech Shooting Twitter tips at SXSW Invention of the Year - iPhone CNN/ YouTube Debates 2002 2008 1995 Google News CBS acquires CNET Craigslist launched Candidates embrace social media Slate, Salon, USA Today, Houston 2003 EveryBlock.com Chronicle, Philadelphia Inquirer RSS 1996 2009 Google Buys Blogger Washington Post Hudson Plane Crash photo MySpace launched Wall Street Journal Iran elections Chicago Tribune Politifact wins Pulitzer 2004 LA Times MSNBC purchases Everyblock Jon Stewart on Crossfire MSNBC Foursquare & Gowalla Rathergate Press Credentials to Bloggers 1997 2010 WikiNews, Facebook, Digg Blackhawk Down iPad released 1998 Wikileaks 2005
Drudge Report Facebook -500M Users; YouTube Google Zuckerberg Person of the News Corporation buys Year; The Social Network MySpace 1999 2011 Blogger 2006 Egyptian Protests IndyMedia Macaca Coupon sites Invention of the Year -YouTube 2000 AOL/HuffPo merger Person of the Year You AOL/Time Warner merger MySpace sold to Specifi Google Buys YouTube $1.65B Media Death of Steve Jobs
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