18.1 Studying Viruses and Prokaryotes KEY CONCEPT Infections

18.1 Studying Viruses and Prokaryotes KEY CONCEPT Infections

18.1 Studying Viruses and Prokaryotes KEY CONCEPT Infections can be caused in several ways. Figure: This bacteria lives in the lining of an esophagus, the tube that leads from the mouth to the stomach. At one time, it was thought that nothing could survive in an esophagus, but the entire

digestive tract is home for many types of bacteria. 18.1 Studying Viruses and Prokaryotes Viruses, bacteria, viroids, and prions can all cause infection. Any disease-causing agent is called a pathogen. Synthesize: Why are viruses, viroids and prions not included in the Linnaean system of biological classification? 1 nanometer (nm) = one billionth of a meter 100 nm eukaryotics cells 10,000-100,000 nm

viruses 50-200 nm prokaryotics cells 200-10,000 nm viroids 5-150 nm prion 2-10 nm Figure: Although eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells can be microscopic, they are large in comparison to viruses, viroids, and prions. 18.1 Studying Viruses and Prokaryotes

A virus is made of DNA or RNA and a protein coat. non-living pathogen can infect many organisms A viroid is made only of single-stranded RNA. causes disease in plants passed through seeds or pollen Figure: Polyhedral viruses are manysided, like the one shown here that causes foot-and-mouth disease in animals. (computer illustration) 18.1 Studying Viruses and Prokaryotes

Viruses differ in shape and in ways of entering host cells. Viruses have a simple structure. genetic material capsid, a protein shell maybe a lipid envelope, a protective outer coat enveloped (influenza) capsid nucleic acid lipid envelope helical

(rabies) Surface proteins capsid nucleic acid surface proteins lipid envelope polyhedral (foot-and-mouth disease) surface proteins

capsid nucleic acid 18.1 Studying Viruses and Prokaryotes Bacteriophages are viruses that infect bacteria. capsid DNA tail sheath tail fiber Root words: -phage means

to eat So literally bacteriophage means bacteria eater. 18.1 Studying Viruses and Prokaryotes Viruses cause many infectious diseases There are many examples of viral infections. common cold influenza 18.1 Studying Viruses and Prokaryotes Viruses cause many infectious diseases There are many examples of viral infections. common cold

influenza SARS 18.1 Studying Viruses and Prokaryotes Viruses cause many infectious diseases There are many examples of viral infections. HIV The body has natural defenses against viruses. HIV-infected white blood cell

18.1 Studying Viruses and Prokaryotes Vaccines are made from weakened pathogens. A vaccine stimulates the bodys own immune response. Vaccines prepare the immune system for a future attack. Vaccines are the only way to control the spread of viral disease. 18.1 Studying Viruses and Prokaryotes A prion is made only of proteins. causes misfolding of other proteins results in diseases of the brain

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