NOPT Conference 7.7.16 'The relationship's the thing! Enhancing
NOPT Conference 7.7.16 'The relationship's the thing! Enhancing practice learning and assessment through the practice educator/student relationship Dr Michelle Lefevre University of Sussex [email protected] @MichelleLefevr1 The focus of this presentation Contexts and
relationships The role of relationship What PEs need to be attuned to 2 What can go well/go wrong PEs giving & receiving support
Tutor/University Projections Attachment patterns Ghosts in the nursery 3 Complex networks of supervisory relationships (2) Who has power, status and influence? Tutor Whose voice counts?
PE Is there valuing and respect? Fear or trust? Who aligns with whom? Cracks to insert a lever? 4 WBS Student Complex networks of supervisory relationships (3)
Team What is enacted between the supervisor/student is influenced & reflected by others around them (Mattinson, 1975). 5 Supervisor Uni Student Peers
What place and influence do the family have? Nests: containment or impingement? National policy & practice context University Agency PE/WBS Student Service user 6 So, what is the importance of the supervisory relationship in these networks?
Technical considerations are important (induction, guidance, teaching, providing feedback, fair evaluation) But good PE also associated with emotional and processoriented factors (Doel et al, 2004) PE can be the reflective container for students responses to: - complex, challenging, distressing client situations (Ferguson, 2011; Munro, 2011) 7 - anxiety and drop in confidence from being a learner and being assessed (Salzberger-Wittenberg et al., 1983) Earlier models of supervision in PE Early quasi-therapeutic models
8 Changes in 1970s/80s - Focused on internal world (e.g. Taft, 1950; Hamilton, 1954). - Role systems (Wijnberg & Schwarz,1977) more egalitarian and collaborative; - Students concerned about boundaries and intrusion (Kadushin, 1974) - Growth in understandings of
power and anti-oppressive practice Result: PEs became wary of affective, process-oriented and interpersonal (Bogo, 1993) What have students said about the importance of the relationship? (Lefevre, 2004) Methodology: 2004 written survey, qualitative & quantitative data Sample: 72 students on MSW or DipSW, England. 2 weeks after final report 44 completed the survey (61% of sample frame) 17 were in first placement, 27 final placement Limitations: No demographic data, one university and influence of feelings about recent PE assessment
9 78 Positive words and phrases used by students to describe rel. with PE 10 47 more negative words and phrases 11 Did the relationship have an impact on your learning and development? 90% yes: a lot or a bit The theme of supportiveness dominated (31 statements) - A lack of support experienced in the relationship
negatively affected respondents development - Worries that over-supportiveness was also unhelpful Where PEs lacked competence, this caused the student to feel negatively about the relationship 12 How the relationship may affect the assessment 3/4 thought the relationship impacted the effectiveness and accuracy of the assessment: Correspondence between feeling positive about the relationship and believing assessment effective and accurate - Might a positive relationship be less fair because of PE bias or reluctance to challenge? - Might a negative relationship mean a harsher assessment? A collaborative and trusting relationship can enable a fuller picture of
competence to emerge, resulting in a fairer assessment 13 What influenced the development of the students relationship with their PE? 14 How much student felt listened to/heard by the PE 83.1% How much student felt respected and valued by the PE 80.3% Trust/safety (or lack of)
The way in which critical feedback was given The practice teachers capacity to provide emotional support How much student felt the PE showed them warmth 74.6% 66.2% 66.2% Issues in the power relationship The PEs availability due to agency pressures 50.7% 43.7% Personal stress on the part of the PE Personal stress on the part of the student
Transference/counter-transference Issues of race/gender/age/class/disability/sexuality 38% 36.6% 31% 23.9% 63.4% So what can we take from this? 15 Unhelpful if it all goes one way Student
PE Learner Teacher Recipient of Assessor assessment 16 Cared for
Carer Child Parent Powerless Expert This model implies a striving for reciprocity STUDENT 17
MUTUAL Practice Teacher Mutuality improves both learning and assessment Supportive experiences are also significant to perceptions of the accuracy and fairness of the PE assessment More trust means students more willing to expose fallibility and be open to critical feedback So assessment based on the fullest of information An ongoing constructive looping process between formative and summative assessment, maximizing learning opportunities. The reverse was caused by expectations clash, uncollaborative, non-transparent approach to assessment 18
Crucial to consider developmental stages and needs of each Student Some vulnerable/anxious and more dependent at the beginning What stage is PE at in supervisory career? Psychodynamic model allows for stage of nurturing (horticultural) What might stop them supporting? So student has time to grow up
What is the nature of their own practice context? But not to full independence but aiming for Fairbairns mutual dependence & resilience (ongoing needs for learning & support) 19 Practice Educator How much learning/ nurturing are they receiving? How resilient? So what are the implications for Practice Educators?
The need for the agency to contain the PE, who contains the student, who contains the service user The student learns how to do this experientially for their own practice modelling But PEs need workplace environment that supports them PE cant be supportive in an unsupportive environment To be able to practise well,
social workers have to be employed in an organisation that supports them and their professional development 21 Emotional responsiveness and capacity are not merely a product of individuals, but are powerfully
influenced by collective and contextual processes, including (Munro, 2011, p. 105) workplace, professional and socio-cultural self-awareness, rigorous self-reflection factors Enhanced (Morrison, 2007, p. 253) and a context for practice which facilitates this are required The role of the organisation and
PE in developing the student Containment and attuned response renders student feelings (particularly anxiety and distress) understandable, nameable, bearable and manageable Models containment and student internalises it Student can then hold the client and think about their world Reflective and emotionally intelligent practice (Ruch, 2011) When the supervisor does not act as a container The emotions dont go away; The student is left with unbearable anxiety Thoughts and feelings remain unprocessed and
fragmented The student does not learn how to reflect effectively on or in action (Schon, 1983). Supervision is then neither a support nor transformatory Unhelpful defence mechanisms develop, Process reflection (1) Psychodynamic theories 24 Process reflection (2) Transactional analysis Games People Play (Berne, 1964) - ego states Parent critical/nurturing critical/nurturing
Process reflection (3) Drama Triangle (Karpman): 26 Enabling the student to develop Develop student self-awareness Promote student resilience (see Beddoe et al, 2011; Grant & Kinman, 2011) Promote development of students clear professional identity Model as well as teach professional ethics, qualities personal and professional boundaries Support students developing coping strategies and maintaining appropriate worklife balance Recognise personal journeys and motivations and the need to process
these (e.g. rescuer, need to be liked). 27 Possible techniques Mindfulness and other awareness enhancing techniques (e.g. yoga) Using CBT techniques to help students manage guilt, worry, blame (Grant & Kinman, 2011) Action planning - Primary appraisal, Secondary appraisal, Develop realistic goals Peer coaching among PEs (Grant & Kinman, 2011) Some questions to ponder
How well do you feel you are able to offer this kind of containment and promotion of reflective, resilient practice through your supervisory style? - appraise current capabilities What might get in the way of you doing this better? - looking for blocks or skill gaps What strategies could you develop to improve your own practice? - and that of your organisation, too, if possible? References Beddoe, L., Davys, A. & Adamson, C. (2011): Educating Resilient Practitioners, Social Work Education: The International Journal, Advance Access DOI:10.1080/02615479.2011.644532 Bion, W. (1962) Learning from Experience. London: Heinemann. Bogo, M. (1993) The student/field instructor relationship: the critical
factor in field education, The Clinical Supervisor, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 23 36. Doel, M., Deacon, L. & Sawdon, C. (2004) An Audit of Models of Practice Learning in the New Social Work Award, http:// www.practicelearning.org.uk/ Ferguson, H. (2011) Child Protection Practice. Palgrave Macmillan 30 References Grant, L. & Kinman, G. (2011): Enhancing Wellbeing in Social Work Students: Building Resilience in the Next Generation, Social Work Education: The International Journal, Advance Access: DOI:10.1080/02615479.2011.590931 Hamilton, G. (1954) Self-awareness in professional education, Social Casework, vol. 35,pp. 374377. Lefevre, M. (2005) 'Facilitating Practice Learning and Assessment: The
Influence of Relationship', Social Work Education, 24:5,565 583 Mattinson, J. (1975) The Reflection Process in Casework Supervision. London: Tavistock Institute. Menzies-Lyth, I. (1988) Containing Anxiety in Institutions: Selected Essays, Volume 1. London: Free Association Books. 31 Morrison, T. (2007) Emotional Intelligence, Emotion and Social Work: Context, Characteristics, Complications and Contribution, British Journal of Social Work ,37, 245263 Munro, E. (2011) The Munro Review of Child Protection:Final Report. http://www.education.gov.uk/childrenandyoungpeople/safeguardingchild ren/protection/b00219296/munro Ruch, G. (2007) Reflective Practice in Contemporary Child-care Social Work: The Role of Containment, British Journal of Social Work (2007) 37, 659680 Ruch, G.(2011) Where have all the feelings gone? developing reflective
and relationship-based management in child-care social work, British 32 Journal of Social Work,Advance Access doi:10.1093/bjsw/bcr134. Salzberger-Wittenberg, I., Henry, G. & Osborne, E. (1983) The Emotional Experience of Learning and Teaching, Routledge and Kegan Paul, London. Taft, J. (1950) A conception of the growth process underlying social casework practice, Social Casework, vol. 31, pp. 311318. Wijnberg, M. H. & Schwartz, M. C. (1977) Models of student supervision: the apprentice, growth and role systems models, Journal of Education for Social Work, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 107113 33
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