Supraorbital Foramen [EBND 7.420] Anne Guappone1; Jennie Crate2;

Supraorbital Foramen [EBND 7.420] Anne Guappone1; Jennie Crate2;

Supraorbital Foramen
[EBND 7.420]

Anne Guappone1; Jennie Crate2; Jaime Ullinger, MA3; Dennis Van Gerven, Ph.D.4; Susan Guise Sheridan, Ph.D.1
1

Dept. of Anthropology, Univ. of Notre Dame;

2

Dept. of Biology, Randolph Macon Womans College;

3

Supraorbital
Notch

Dept. of Anthropology, The Ohio State University; 4Dept. of Anthropology, Univ. of Colorado

[EBND 7.420]

This research sought to determine whether the St. Stephens community was composed of pilgrims who migrated to
Jerusalem from various geographic regions, as indicated by the Byzantine literature. The collection was analyzed for the
frequencies of cranial and vertebral non-metric traits. These intrinsically innocuous minor skeletal variants have no impact on
the adaptability of an individual and therefore provide evidence for establishing biological relatedness (Hauser et al. 1989).
The use of non-metric data did not enter mainstream anthropological discourse until the definitive work of Berry and Berry in
the late 1960s. Over the years, more than two hundred variants have been identified on the cranium and mandible alone.
Intrapopulation studies have been conducted at cemeteries to trace familial lineages and this research as lent validity to the
use of non-metrics as a genetic marker (Brasili et al. 1999). Furthermore, mean measure of divergence analysis has been
utilized to study biodistance (Birkby 1982).

Cranial Non-Metric Analysis -- The study sample was composed of a few partially articulated crania with a majority of individual
frontals, temporals, and mandibles from the St. Stephens collection. Only adult remains were used, as development can alter the
expression of non-metric traits in sub-adults. Nine cranial non-metric traits were selected based on descriptions given in Buikstra
(1994):
Tympanic Dehiscence (also called Foramen of Huschke): incomplete formation of the tympanic plate. To be included,
temporal bone portions had to possess the external auditory meatus as the tympanic plate forms the outer base of this
canal.
Mastoid Suture: runs longitudinally from the squamosal suture through the mastoid process. The scoring parameter was
an intact mastoid process.

There are many confounding variables that make the analysis of non-metric traits more complex than basic
Mendelian genetics. Complications can arise in the expression of epigenetic traits due to the age, sex, and
environment of an individual. Subadults pose a problem because many traits, like excess sutures and incomplete
bone formation, occur more frequently but may resolve later in development. Certain developmental pressures
may affect the expression of non-metric traits, including environment (Saunders 1989). In the case of the
auditory torus, an excess growth in the external auditory meatus, it has been suggested that prolonged
exposure to cold water produces a mechanical irritation leading to trait development (Hutchinson et al.
1997). On the other hand, opposing studies claim that hereditary factors are most probably
involved in these exostoses (Campillo 1989). Sjovolds (1977) vertebral non-metric study
concluded that variations in traits seem largely independent of the environment and each other
implying that genetics plays the dominant role in expression and that the presence of one
trait is unrelated to other variable traits.

Auditory Torus (auditory exostosis): a bony spicule or excess growth on the margin of the external auditory meatus.
Again, the scoring parameter for the auditory torus was the presence of a complete external auditory meatus.
Mastoid Foramen: located dorsal to the mastoid suture and can be embedded in the suture or located on the temporal
bone. If the sample possessed a significant portion of temporal bone behind the mastoid process, the bone was scored.
Accessory Mental Foramen: found adjacent to the standard single mental foramen, usually in the vicinity of the canine.
Mandibles were scored for accessory foramina if they presented a significant portion from the mental eminence to the
molars.
Metopic Suture: an extension of the sagittal suture, which runs past the bregma along the medial frontal bone. The
scoring parameter for this trait was the existence of a significant portion of the medial frontal bone.
Mylohyoid Bridging: this appears as one or multiple portions of bone cover the mylohyoid groove. The scoring parameter
for this trait was the presence of the ascending ramus.

Additionally, there is much debate as to the scoring of unilateral expression of a
bilateral trait. Some researchers question whether a bilateral trait should be
scored as present if only one side possesses the trait. Finally, non-metrics
analysis has been criticized because it is prone to inter-observer error.

Tympanic Dehiscence
[EBND 7.420]

Mastoid Suture
[EBND 2.43]

Auditory Torus
[EBND 1.223]

Most researchers agree that when coupled with several other
skeletal variants the non-metric data gain significance (Kaul et al.
1984). This assertion is supported by the fact that many
populations are subjected to similar environments. In addition
to the general critiques of non-metrics, the St. Stephens
collection had the added obstacle of being commingled.
Since the majority of skeletal remains are catalogued
by bone type and side, it is impossible to distinguish
individuals. Despite these potentially limiting
factors, cranial non-metrics, in conjunction with
dental metric (Williams et al 2006) and
strontium isotope analysis (Cooper et al
2006) plus dental non-metrics
(Ullinger 2002), is a valuable tool for
reconstructing a biocultural model
of migration to St. Stephens.
Furthermore, analysis of the
cervical vertebra helped
strengthen the overall
non-metric results.

Supraorbital Notch & Foramen: occur on the medial side of the superior orbit. In order to be scored, a sample had to
possess a large portion of the superior orbit and brow ridge.
A preliminary run was conducted to establish a consistent methodology for scoring the traits. Based on the literature,
particularly Berry and Berrys initial work (1967) it was decided that the majority of traits would be scored for presence or absence
only. However, many of Berrys comparative studies, including his 1974 and 1967 work, created a distinction for the mastoid
suture as present, absent or exsutural, which was adopted for this study as well. Kaul and Pathaks (1984) analysis of the
mylohyoid bridge made a distinction between individuals with a single or partial bridging versus those with multiple bridging
segments. We adopted their classification by distinguishing absent (0) from one bridge (1) and two bridges (2). In Hauser
(1987), pictorial scales are provided for tympanic dehiscence and mastoid suture. These scales were converted into the numeric
systems seen in Table 1.
Cervical Vertetbral Non-Metric Analysis -- The
vertebral data were collected from 198
commingled adult cervical vertebra in the St.
Stephens collection. These samples included
complete vertebral specimens (both transverse
processes attached to the neural arch) as well as
broken or damaged portions with either a right or
left transverse process. Four traits were scored
for complete and partial presence and absence
on the left and/or right sides. The following
scoring criteria were used for each trait:

Table 1. Scoring system for tympanic dehiscence & mastoid suture

Tympanic Dehiscence

0 = absent

2 = medium hole in tympanic plate

2 = partial but significant suture

Posterior atlas bridging: scored as: a) complete if there was a bony process connecting the superior articular facet and the
neural arch; b) partial if there was evidence of an osseous protrusion or spiny growth extending from the superior articular
facet, arching towards the neural arch; and, c) absent if no osseous protrusion was visible and there was no curvature of
the articular facet. Following the scoring protocol of Case (2003), the curvature of the osseous extension was critical.
Lateral atlas bridging: used the same criteria as the posterior bridging, except the osseous extension extends from the
superior articular facet towards the transverse process.

Accessory Mental
Foramen

Atlas double facet form: present on the superior articular facet. A complete double facet is characterized by Yamaguchi
(1981) as having a complete osseous division that divides the facet into anterior and posterior facets. A partial facet has no
osseous ridge, but has begun to pinch inward at the middle from both sides. An absent facet has no osseous ridge
and no pinching from both sides.
Transverse foramen bipartite: a bony bridge extending completely across the transverse foramen,
dividing the foramen into two sections. A partial bipartite has osseous extensions from the medial
and/or lateral side of the foramen, extending into the foramen, but not actually meeting the
extension from the other side. An absent bipartite has no bony protrusions and the foramen
is clear. For the bipartite, a minimum of three-quarters of the foramen was required to be
present and undamaged in order to be scored.

[EBND 2.111]

Statistical Analysis -- Inter-observer concordance tests were conducted to assure
accuracy. Concordance was over 95%. Chi Square tests were run for the right and left
side frequencies; the left side frequencies were chosen because there were generally
a greater number of samples.

Mylohyoid
Bridge
[EBND 7.385]

Metopic Suture
[EBND 3.101]

DATE

Non Nak Ta (Thailand)
Nebira (Papau New Guinea)
India (Punjab)
Mongolian
Japanese
Thai
India
Japanese

The St. Stephens frequencies were compared with the data from
several other studies compiled from the literature. For each trait, a 2 x 2
Chi Square test with one degree of freedom was run for every comparison.
The Yates correction for continuity was employed in order to show a more
appropriate significance for expected frequencies under 5. The smaller
the p value, the more significant difference between a given
collection and St. Stephens, and the less likely that the monks
were related to the comparative group.

Laboratory for Biocultural Studies
University of Notre Dame
Department of Anthropology

Notch
Bridge
Suture
Foramen
Foramen
Foramen
Tympanic
Mylohyoid
Dehiscence
Ex. Mastoid
Acc. Foramen
Mental
Ab. Mastoid
Supraorbital
Supraorbital
Auditory Torus
Metopic Suture
Squamomastoid

4000 BCE- present
11th-17th c. CE
modern
modern
modern
modern
modern
modern

Teotihuacan (Mexico)
America (NW Coast)
Allegheny (Pennsylvania)

100 CE
6th - 8th c. CE
9th c. CE
11th-16th c. CE
11th-16th c. CE
modern
modern
modern
modern

Wadi Halfa (Nubia/Egypt)
Abydos (Upper Egypt)
Badari (Upper Egypt)
Naqada B (Egypt)
Naqada T (Egypt)
Keneh (Luxor, Egypt)
Egyptian **
Nubia (Egypt)

0 (17)

0 (25)

--

--

0 (22)

8 (67)

5 (42)

2 (24)

--

--

2 (22)

--

--

--

--

5 (16)

9 (16)

--

--

--

--

--

3 (53)

200-750 CE
modern
19th c. CE

Romans (Italy)
Weingarten (Germany)
Mikulcice (Czech Republic)
Gray Friar (Denmark)
St. Alban (Denmark)
British
Prague (Czech Republic)
Dutch (Amsterdam)
French

--

--

--

16 (178) 67 (178)

--

--

--

54 (177) 108 (177)

--

--

--

16 (180) 64 (179)

--

--

--

55 (177) 99 (180)

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

14 (273)

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

17 (350)

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

6 (208)

--

--

--

---

---

0 (33)

12 (88)

2 (86)

46 (88)

14 (82)

42 (66)

54 (72)

5 (118)

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

11 (88)

--

--

4 (59)

31 (42)

10 (41)

2 (58)

--

--

--

--

--

--

----

----

61 (567) 90 (567)

--

--

--

--

--

102 (303)

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

276 (606)

--

--

--

--

23 (209)

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

17 (123)

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

6 (182)

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

12 (122)

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

430 (500)

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

4 (844)

--

--

--

---

---

--

--

--

--

13 (49)

32 (56)

24 (56)

3 (64)

--

--

1 (47)

2 (94)

30 (88)

--

18 (75)

--

54 (92)

7 (79)

--

--

4 (54)

8 (106)

24 (96)

--

5 (89)

--

46 (101) 5 (89)

--

--

2 (76)

14 (154) 32 (136)

--

7 (101)

--

73 (150) 7 (113)

--

--

1 (29)

13 (46)

15 (46)

--

4 (24)

--

29 (57)

1 (24)

--

--

0 (42)

19 (63)

1 (59)

--

10 (24)

--

45 (66)

10 (24)

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

67 (121) 8 (128)

---

---

18 (250) 69 (494) 62 (496) 190 (496)
1 (46)

17 (90)

10 (33)

--

21 (120)

--

--

--

--

--

42 (58)

20 (58)

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

2700-600 BCE
700 BCE
19th c. CE
19th c. CE
historic
modern

1 (122)

Bab edh-Dhra' (Jordan)*
Dothan (ancient Palestine)*

4 (54)

17 (95) 41 (108) 25 (108)

17 (75)

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

13 (70)

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

52 (246)

--

--

--

--

--

1 (18)

1 (33)

7 (36)

12 (36)

--

--

--

--

--

--

3000-2300 BCE
1500-1000 BCE

9 (189)

4 (71)

13 (56)

27 (56)

1 (9)

0 (4)

0 (3)

1 (3)

0 (4)

5 (6)

5th-7th c. CE

4 (59)

3 (67)

7 (37)

17 (37)

6 (37)

41 (52)

7 (124) 94 (126) 47 (129) 2 (179)
0 (6)

1 (7)

17 (53) 1 (67)

Pietrusewsky 1974
Pietrusewsky 1976
Berry & Berry 1967
Dodo 1987
Dodo 1987
Kaul 1984
Kaul 1984
Kaul 1984
Sempowski 1994

2 (149) Berry 1975

--

54 (470) 138 (470)

8000-11000 BCE
4000-3000 BCE
4000-3000 BCE
4000-3000 BCE
4000-3000 BCE
3500-3000 BCE
spans 4000 yrs.
2000 BCE

St. Stephens (Jerusalem)*

25 (106) 19 (106) 49 (106)

--

Kish (Iraq)
Lachish (ancient Palestine)
Tel Halif (Negev)
Tel Sheba (Negev)
Bedouin
Tell Farar (Palestine)

Ubelaker 2003
Hauser 1989
Hauser 1989
Hauser 1989
Case 2003
Case 2003
Hauser 1989
Mottl 2005
Hauser 1989
Kaul 1984
Greene
Prowse
Prowse
Prowse
Prowse
Prowse
Berry &
Prowse

1972
1994
1994
1994
1994
1994
Berry 1967
1994

Rathburn
Berry & Berry 1967
Arensburg 1977
Arensburg 1977
Kaul 1984
Berry & Berry 1967

32 (73) 2 (78)
3 (4)

0 (3)

23 (55) 6 (66)

* frequencies for left sides only
* "Egyptian" includes remains from Morant (1925): Early & Late pre-dynatic, Naqada A & Q groups; 6 th-15th, 18th-21st & 26th to 30th dynasties; early and Middle dynasties (el Kubanieh South); Ptolemaic period;

Chi-square Analysis -- Chi-square results revealed that the St. Stephens collection exhibited the most significant difference (p
0.05) with the Asian, European and North America groups (Table 3). The Non Nak Ta community showed a significant
difference from St. Stephens in all three traits that were compared (2 = 51.381, p<0.05 for the supraorbital notch, 2 = 4.2837, p< 0.05 for the supraorbital foramen, and 2 = 5.1834, p<0.05 for the accessory mental foramen) . Conversely, Tell Farar, showed no significant difference with St. Stephens for these four traits (p>0.05). Similarly the Bab edh Dhra material was
compared for all ten cranial non-metric traits, with no significant differences found (p>0.05).

Complete Posterior Bridge
and Naqada
[EBND 7.177]
B (MMD = 0.025,
p<0.025) (Table 4). Meanwhile an analysis of the same traits showed the Byzantine St. Stephens group to be clearly divergent from the outlier colComplete/Partial Transverse Foramen Bipartite lection at Teotihuacan (MMD = [EBND 13.216] 0.266, p<0.025) (Table 4). MMDs run with two traits (tympanic dehiscence and metopic suture) showed that St. Stephens held no significant difference with Tell Farar or Bab edh Dhra and the closest significant differences were maintained with the Egyptian collection (MMD = 0.030, p<0.025), and a Levantine group at Lachish (MMD = 0.061, p<0.025) (Table 5). Additionally, St Stephens Complete Double Facet showed great differences from the Japanese (MMD = [EBND 27.188] 0.322, p<0.025), Mongolian (MMD = 0.355, p<0.025), and Dutch (MMD= 0.23, p<0.025) collections (Table 6). Table 4. Mean Measure of Divergence (MMD) matrix for metopic suture, tympanic dehiscence, absent mastoid process & mastoid foramen India India Egypt Lach Tfar B e-D BSS 0.014 0.091 0.062 0.047 0.047 Egypt Lach Tfar B e-D BSS 0.000 0.002 0.001 0.003 0.001 0.003 0.001 0.001 0.003 0.000 0.001 0.001 0.004 0.000 0.000 0.107 0.007 0.035 0.016 0.060 0.108 0.112 0.000 0.000 Partial Posterior Bridge [EBND 5.367] 0.000 Table 3. Chi square comparisons of numerous skeletal collections to Byzantine St. Stephens COLLECTION Mastoid Foramen [EBND 12.773] COLLECTION 1 = slight suture or scarring suture fully bisects mastoid 3 = process Byzantine St. Stephens Project Table 2. Comparative cranial non-metric frequencies for numerous skeletal collections worldwide Mastoid Suture 0 = absent notable thinning or small hole in 1 = tympanic plate large portion of tympanic plate 3 = malformed The percent concordance of a blind test of inter-observer error was greater than 95% for all cranial non-metric traits surveyed. A chi-square test showed no significant difference (p<0.05) between right and left sides of the St. Stephens material for each trait scored. In order to avoid duplication of individuals from the commingled sample, left sides were used for all statistical analyses with comparative collections (Table 2). Non Nak Ta (Thailand) Nebira (Papau New Guinea) India (Punjab) Mongolian Japanese Thai India Japanese Teotihuacan (Mexico) America (NW Coast) Allegheny (Pennsylvania) Romans (Italy) Weingarten (Germany) Mikulcice (Czech Republic) Gray Friar (Denmark) St. Alban (Denmark) British Prague (Czech Republic) Dutch (Amsterdam) French Wadi Halfa (Nubia/Egypt) Abydos (Upper Egypt) Badari (Upper Egypt) Naqada B (Egypt) Naqada T (Egypt) Keneh (Luxor, Egypt) Egyptian ** Nubia (Egypt) DATE Metopic Suture Tympanic Dehiscence Ab. Mastoid Foramen 4000 BCE- present -- p -- 11th-17th c. CE 0.69 0.41 modern 0.02 0.88 12.50 4.07E-04 0.05 0.83 0.01 0.91 modern 0.64 0.42 27.88 1.29E-07 modern 0.13 0.72 25.67 4.05E-07 modern ---- ---- ---- ---- ------ ------ ------ ---- 4.77 0.03 -- -- 19th c. CE ---- 4.04 0.04 100 CE 0.94 0.33 7.16 0.01 6th - 8th c. CE 9th c. CE --- --- 11th-16th c. CE 1.43 0.23 11th-16th c. CE 2.69 0.10 modern 0.62 0.43 modern 0.92 0.34 ------- ------- modern 1.72 0.19 modern -- -- -- 8000-11000 BCE -- -- 4000-3000 BCE 0.44 4000-3000 BCE 4000-3000 BCE modern modern 200-750 CE --- p --- Ex. Mastoid Foramen --- p --- --- p --- 8.45 3.64E-03 Mylohyoid Bridge ------ ------ p ------ 4.93 0.03 5.83 0.02 0.71 0.40 0.14 - 0.74 0.28 0.60 1.69 0.19 -- -- -- -- ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- 2.05 0.15 --------- --------- --------- 0.70 3.65 0.06 0.25 0.62 1.27 0.26 0.95 0.33 0.55 0.46 2.12 0.14 0.67 0.41 4000-3000 BCE 0.02 0.88 14.73 1.24E-04 2.74 0.10 3500-3000 BCE -- -- 17.11 3.52E-05 6.72 0.01 spans 4000 yrs. 0.16 0.69 5.64 0.02 0.75 0.39 0.55 1.93 0.17 -- -- 5.41 0.01 19th c. CE 7.57 0.01 19th c. CE 4.99 0.03 historic -- -- ---- ---- modern 0.13 0.72 0.04 0.85 Bab edh-Dhra' (Jordan) Dothan (ancient Palestine) 3000-2300 BCE 0.07 0.79 0.49 0.49 1500-1000 BCE 1.32 0.25 -- -- ---- -- -0.02 0.11 0.15 7.83 -- --------- 4.56 0.03 ----- ----- 2.54 0.11 ---- 5.53 0.26 35.81 2.17E-09 ---- ---- --------- 0.51 0.62 9.55 2.00E-03 1.28 1.97 0.25 35.74 2.26E-09 ---- ------- 700 BCE 14.96 1.10E-04 - ------- -- 36.72 1.36E-09 0.15 -- -- -- -------- - -- 0.02 -- -- --------- 2.09 -- -- -- -------- -- -- 5.37 0.02 -------- -- -- 0.07 5.18 0.04 -- ---------- 0.52 0.04 4.18 0.11 ---------- 3.27 4.28 10.58 1.14E-03 p --------- -- ---------- 0.41 51.38 7.60E-13 p --------- 2.54 ---------- 2000 BCE p Auditory Torus - --- 2700-600 BCE p Mastoid Foramen 0.70 9.29 2.30E-03 --- Kish (Iraq) Lachish (ancient Palestine) Tel Halif (Negev) Tel Sheba (Negev) Bedouin Tell Farar (Palestine) p Acc. Mental Foramen ---- --- 20.06 7.50E-06 Supraorbital Foramen ---- --- modern Supraorbital Notch 25.56 4.30E-07 -- -- 0.16 4.85 0.03 1.41 0.23 2.47 0.12 1.76 0.19 0.16 0.69 6.28 0.01 0.46 -- -- -- -- 0.18 0.67 -------- -------- -- -- 0.57 0.00 0.96 5.90 0.02 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----- 0.31 0.02 ----0.85 0.36 0.13 0.72 0.74 0.39 -- -- ------ ------ ------ ------ 0.00 0.95 1.46 0.23 2.98 0.08 0.17 0.68 0.53 0.47 -- -- 0.05 0.83 -- -- 0.73 0.39 -- -- 64.88 7.90E-16 2.47 0.12 11.21 8.15E-04 5.36 0.02 3.50 0.06 3.05 0.08 5.48 0.02 3.44 0.06 5.14 0.02 2.49 0.11 --- --- 3.47 0.06 --------- ------- ------- ------- ------- ------- ------- 0.17 0.68 0.17 0.68 1.79 0.18 3.28 0.07 -- -- 17.52 2.84E-05 -- -- 9.52 2.03E-03 25.10 5.45E-07 Analysis of the vertebral non-metric traits, including posterior and lateral atlas bridging, double facet form on the atlas, and transverse foramen bipartite on the C3-C7 vertebra yielded similar results. Using chi square for the posterior atlas bridging, the St. Stephen's collection showed the most significant difference with collections from Denmark (2 = 8.967, p<0.05) and Teotihuacan (2 =21.778, p<0.05). Meanwhile, the most similar groups were those of neighboring communities of Bab edh Dhra' (2 = 0.149, p>0.05) and a local Jerusalem collection (2 = 0.617, p>0.05).
Atlas facet form and the transverse foramen bipartite contradict the previous results. For the atlas facet form, there is a
significant difference between the Bab edh Dhra' and the St. Stephen's collection (2=9.58, p<0.05). For the transverse foramen bipartite there is a significant difference between St. Stephen's and the Jerusalem collection (2=37.262, p<0.05). Following the scoring protocol of Case (2003), the curvature of the osseous extension was critical. However, the closest relation to St. Stephen's for this trait was Bab edh Dhra' which would suggest similarities between the two populations (2=0.008, p>0.05).
Mean Measure of Divergence -- The mean measure of divergence statistics (MMD) reconfirmed many of the results of the chi
square analysis. Using four cranial traits (tympanic dehiscence, absent mastoid foramen, mylohyoid bridging, and supraorbital
foramen), St. Stephens showed the smallest significant difference with Bab edh Dhra (MMD = 0.003, p<0.025), Badari (MMD Table 5. Mean Measure of Divergence (MMD) matrix for metopic suture & tympanic dehiscence India India Mong Jpns Rom Dutch Abyd Badari Naq B Naq T Egypt Nubia Lach Tfar B e-D BSS 0.031 0.020 0.016 0.008 0.225 0.075 0.067 0.000 0.015 0.000 0.000 0.127 0.111 0.130 Mong Jpns Rom Dutch Abyd Badari Naq B Naq T Egypt Nubia Lach TFar B e-D BSS 0.001 0.001 0.000 0.001 0.002 0.002 0.001 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.010 0.018 0.016 0.005 0.011 0.000 0.002 0.002 0.000 0.001 0.003 0.000 0.001 0.003 0.000 0.004 0.004 0.002 0.003 0.006 0.003 0.001 0.000 0.001 0.000 0.003 0.002 0.000 0.001 0.008 0.001 0.002 0.001 0.000 0.001 0.011 0.027 0.024 0.004 0.016 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.022 0.002 0.009 0.005 0.006 0.013 0.012 0.002 0.007 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.013 0.001 0.004 0.003 0.000 0.007 0.015 0.014 0.002 0.008 0.001 0.000 0.001 0.015 0.001 0.006 0.004 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.120 0.011 0.512 0.263 0.263 0.000 0.147 0.099 0.078 0.364 0.333 0.355 0.101 0.005 0.473 0.235 0.236 0.000 0.126 0.082 0.061 0.329 0.301 0.322 0.049 0.157 0.020 0.056 0.044 0.004 0.036 0.000 0.044 0.063 0.056 0.379 0.156 0.181 0.001 0.077 0.068 0.025 0.230 0.224 0.230 0.003 0.008 0.007 0.001 0.004 0.002 0.003 0.007 0.006 0.002 0.004 0.001 0.001 0.000 0.001 0.001 0.003 0.001 0.019 0.009 0.006 Given the existing historicPartial Lateral al accounts of the incorporation 0.041 Bridge 0.000 0.010 of foreigners into Jerusalem 0.000 0.000 0.000 [EBND 9.345] 0.192 0.017 0.084 0.052 monasteries, it was expected that 0.159 0.027 0.060 0.055 0.000 0.190 0.030 0.090 0.061 0.000 0.000 the St. Stephens collection would exhibit similarities with various European or Table 6. Mean Measure of Divergence (MMD) matrix for Asian communities (Hirschfield 1992). Primary sources indicate that tympanic dehiscence, absent mastoid foramen, mylohoid bridge, supraorbital foramen pilgrimage was taking place as early as the fourth century C.E. Two of Teo Abyd Badari Naq B Naq T Keneh Nubia B e-D BSS the most well known accounts are that of Egeria, a nun who traveled from Teo 0.006 0.006 0.004 0.008 0.005 0.008 0.008 0.009 Abyd 0.270 0.002 0.002 0.005 0.012 0.002 0.003 0.003 Spain, and the Pilgrim of Bordeaux (Wilkenson 1992). Even the founder of Badari 0.239 0.091 0.000 0.004 0.017 0.001 0.000 0.001 Naq B 0.209 0.089 0.000 0.003 0.015 0.001 0.000 0.001 St. Stephens, the empress Eudocia, was a pilgrim to Jerusalem (Hunt 1982). Naq T 0.233 0.139 0.085 0.067 0.013 0.000 0.005 0.005 Keneh 0.087 0.410 0.453 0.401 0.242 0.012 0.019 0.017 In spite of these historical records, the data reflect a consistent similarity between Nubia 0.196 0.068 0.052 0.038 0.000 0.257 0.002 0.003 B e-D 0.297 0.120 0.000 0.000 0.125 0.512 0.092 0.001 Byzantine St. Stephens and other Near Eastern collections, such as Farar, Bab BSS 0.266 0.077 0.025 0.025 0.119 0.385 0.086 0.003 edh-Dhra, and Lachish. Bab edh-Dhra and Lachish are both ancient those from Tell sites, suggesting biological continuity in the area in general. The data collected at Tell Farar was from modern crania, which indicates that the people of Byzantine St. Stephens were part of the same gene pool that contributed to modern groups. On a whole, the results of this study reflect the conclusions of other studies on the genetic make-up of St. Stephens (Williams, et al. 2006; Ullinger, 2002). 0.027 0.019 0.286 0.100 0.138 0.152 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.002 0.124 0.003 0.052 0.020 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.096 0.016 0.015 0.034 0.000 0.000 0.007 Despite the differences seen between teeth from Egyptian samples and St. Stephens, cranial differences do not appear to be as great. Comparing tympanic dehiscence, absent mastoid foramen, mylohyoid bridging, and presence of supraorbital foramina, several Egyptian groups appear to be fairly closely related, including Badari (MMD=0.025) and Naqada B (MMD=0.025). Bab edhDhra, an ancient group from modern-day Jordan is still the most closely related (MMD=0.003), and Teotihuacan, a clear outlier is the most distantly related (MMD=0.266). Although the MMD measures are fairly small between the Egyptian groups and Byzantine St. Stephens, the measure is relatively greater than that representing the distance between the two Levantine groups. Comparing presence of the metopic suture and tympanic dehiscence, the monks appear relatively similar to a group of Romans (MMD=0.056), a large Egyptian collection from several millennia (MMD=0.030), and seventh-century Lachish from the same region (MMD=0.061). Again, it is difficult to distinguish the monks either from Near Eastern or European groups. While we are confident that the monks are not composed of an enclave of European immigrants, we cannot speak at present to the amount of admixture from Mediterranean Europe, in particular. The repeated resemblance to other Near Eastern groups implies that the St. Stephens collection is relatively homogenous, and does not evince the heterogeneity that migration would introduce. Therefore, the consistently low MMD values with other Near Eastern groups suggest that the majority of monks were from the local region. National Science Foundation Research Experiences for Undergraduates (SES #0244096); Univ. of Notre Dame Undergraduate Research Opportunities Program (Institute for Scholarship in the Liberal Arts) & Undergraduate Intellectual Initiative(Office of Undergraduate Studies); Paul Sciulli, Ph.D., The Ohio State University; Matthew Tocheri, MA, Arizona State Univ; L'cole Biblique et Archologique Franaise de Jrusalem & Couvent St-tienne

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