STAAR Review 8 Interactions between animal systems Interactions
STAAR Review 8 Interactions between animal systems Interactions between plant systems Homeostasis Response to external stimuli Animal Systems Eleven major organ systems: System Function(s) Skeletal
Structural support Muscular Movement Integumentary (skin) Barrier from external environment Circulatory/ Cardiovascular Transport molecules throughout body Respiratory
Exchange carbon dioxide & oxygen Digestive Break down food molecules Excretory/Urinary Remove waste products from blood Immune Destroy pathogens that enter body Nervous Send regulatory messages throughout body
Endocrine Produce hormones that regulate vital processes Regulation Regulated body conditions include: Body temperature Heart and respiration rates Molecule concentrations in blood Body Temperature Constant internal temperature required to maintain optimal function of cellular processes Negative feedback loop: Receptors in skin and brain monitor temperature
High temperature brain signals sweat glands to cool body down Low temperature brain signals muscles to contract (shiver) to warm body up Body Temperature Organ systems involved: System Functions Integumentar y Skin contains temperature receptors & sweat glands Muscular
Muscle contractions (shivering) Nervous Brain interprets input from temperature receptors and signals effectors to adjust body temperature Heart and Respiration Rates Heart rate number of times heart contracts per minute Respiration rate number of breaths per minute
Body varies these rates based on oxygen needs of body cells Example: Exercise Cells utilize oxygen faster Blood pressure rises to meet increased oxygen demand Heart and respiration rates increase Heart and Respiration Rates
Organ systems involved: System Functions Circulato ry Heart varies heart rate according to signals from brain Respirat ory Lungs vary respiration rate according to signals from brain Nervous
Monitors blood pressure and oxygen levels Sends signals to heart and lungs to adjust heart and respiration rates Molecule Concentrations in Blood Body monitors molecule concentrations in blood to ensure appropriate delivery to and from cells Regulated concentrations include: Water balance Blood sugar
Utilizes hormones sent through blood Molecule Concentrations in Blood Organ systems involved: System Functions Endocrine Hormone levels regulate molecule concentrations in blood Nervous
Receives input from receptors Signals endocrine glands to alter hormone production Excretory Kidneys remove excess water from blood Integumentar Skin contributes to water balance (sweating) y Digestive Liver adjusts glucose level in blood to regulate blood sugar Circulatory
Blood requires appropriate concentration of molecules Blood transports hormones Nutrient Absorption Nutrient absorption passage of broken down food molecules through intestinal walls into bloodstream to be delivered to body cells Two processes: Digestion Absorption Nutrient Absorption
Organ systems involved: System Functions Digestiv e Mouth, stomach, and small intestine digest large food molecules Small intestine is site of absorption Muscula r Muscle contractions push food through digestive tract Muscle contractions in stomach aid mechanical
digestion Circulat ory Blood vessels absorb nutrients through intestinal walls Blood transports absorbed nutrients to cells throughout body Defense Against Injury Organ systems involved: System Functions Integumentary
Skin provides physical barrier to foreign objects Skeletal Skeleton protect internal organs Muscular Muscle reflexes allow quick reactions Nervous Sensory receptors detect changes in environment Brain sends signals to muscles Defense Against Illness
Organ systems involved: System Functions Integument ary Skin, hair and mucus provide physical barriers to pathogens Respiratory Nasal mucus and hairs, coughing and sneezing provide physical barriers to pathogens Digestive Stomach acids kill pathogens in food molecules Circulatory
Blood transports defensive molecules, white blood cells, and antibodies to site of pathogen Immune Phagocytes and lymphocytes attack and destroy pathogens Adaptive response leads to immune memory Plant Systems Shoot system aboveground Root system belowground Shoot system Organ systems:
Dermal barrier Ground metabolic functions Vascular transport Root system Tissue systems: Tissues Dermal Ground Vascular Interactions Among Plant Systems Organ and tissue systems interact to carry out vital functions
Transport Reproduction Response Transport Movement of needed materials throughout plant Major function of vascular tissue Xylem transports water and minerals Phloem transports glucose Both transport hormones Interactions Among Plant
Systems Interactions during transport Root system Absorbs water and minerals Shoot system Ground tissue produces glucose through photosynthesis Both organ systems Produce hormones Vascular tissue transports all materials throughout the plant Reproduction Vegetative propagation offspring produced
from part of a plant organ Asexual Image by Roberto MM [GFDL] Pollination offspring produced via pollinated seeds Sexual Reproduction by Pollination Flower organ that produces seeds Fruit develops
around fertilized ovule(s) Seed fertilized ovule (embryo) and stored food (cotyledon) surrounded by a protective seed coat Interactions Among Plant Systems Interactions during reproduction Vegetative propagation Shoot and root systems: part of an organ produces a new plant
Pollination Shoot system: flowers are the site of seed pollination and fruit development Shoot and root systems: produce hormones, transported by the vascular tissue, that regulate flower budding, fruit ripening and seed growth Response Tropisms plants hormonal growth response toward or away from an external stimulus Examples: Phototropism stem and leaves grow toward a light source Positive gravitropism roots grow toward gravity (downward) Negative gravitropism stem and leaves grow away from gravity (upward)
Interactions Among Plant Systems Interactions during response Root system Grows toward gravity Shoot system Grows toward light and/or away from gravity Both systems Produce hormones Transported hormones Homeostasis Homeostasis maintaining a stable, internal environment Essential for life
Involves body systems working together Involves monitoring levels of variables and correcting changes Body temperature Blood glucose Water potential O2 and CO2 concentrations Blood pH Negative Feedback Mechanisms Negative Feedback Mechanism control
system (loop) that monitors and corrects changes to maintain homeostasis Regulation is in a negative, or reverse, direction Ex: body temperature rises, body acts to cause body temperature to drop Body Temperature Regulation Blood Glucose Regulation Regulation of blood glucose (sugar) Involves negative feedback loop Rise in glucose stimulates secretion of insulin Insulin hormone that lowers blood glucose levels
Blood Glucose Regulation Comparison of Feedback Mechanisms Negative Feedback: Maintains homeostasis Corrects change Regulation is in reverse direction Examples: Body temperature regulation Blood glucose regulation
Positive Feedback: Leaves homeostasis Increases change Regulation is in forward direction Examples: Blood clotting Contractions during childbirth
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