Understanding and Addressing the Impact of Stalking on

Understanding and Addressing the Impact of Stalking on Young People Presented by: Lorien Castelle, Director of Prevention Nasim Sarbandi, Project Coordinator ABOUT US Statewide Membership Organization Members: Domestic violence service providers, allied agencies and community members Mission:

Create and support the social change necessary to prevent and confront all forms of intimate partner violence Work: Training, technical assistance, public policy, systems advocacy, best practices, broad-based collaboration Philosophy: Anti-oppression, trauma informed, and survivor centered principles integrated into all of our work 2 IMPORTANT INFO Identify the most common ways technology

and online spaces are misused in the context of intimate partner stalking among student populations Identify strategies survivors can use to increase privacy and securely access technology and online spaces Stalking laws and remedies Learn strategies for helping survivors safety plan 3 DEFINITION OF STALKING

A pattern of behavior directed at a specific person that would cause a reasonable person to feel fear.* A Pattern of Behavior Not a single incident or one off event. Called a course of conduct in most stalking statutes Context is Critical in Stalking Cases * Slides information from SPARC 4 STALKING FACTS Prevalence across Lifetime: More than 1 in 6

women & more than 1 in 17 men. (Smith, S.G, et al (2018). The National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS) 2015 Data Brief. Atlanta, GA: National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) Women are more likely than men to experience stalking. (The National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS): 2010 Summary Report, Center for Disease Control (2011) 18-24 year olds experience the highest rates of stalking. (The National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS): 2010 Summary Report, Center for Disease Control (2011) Most stalkers are male.

(The National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS): 2010 Summary Report, Center for Disease Control (2011)) The majority of the time, the victim knows the perpetrator. (The National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS): 2010 Summary Report, Center for Disease Control (2011)) 5 STALKING FACTS Does leaving = Safety? 6


* Slide from SPARC 9 IDENTIFYING A PATTERN OF BEHAVIOR * Slide from SPARC 10 Understanding and Addressing the Impact of Stalking on Young People

Section 2: Technology Abuse, Safety Planning, Evidence Gathering, And Using Technology To Increase Safety Tools Abusers Use To Stalk And Harass Safety Planning With Survivors Gathering Evidence Of Technology Abuse 11 TECHNOLOGY ABUSE Simple

Complex Monitoring or changing functions or features Manipulating features Eavesdropping on calls Spying on activity Track location via phone app such as family location feature or find my phone 12 TECHNOLOGY ABUSE Email & Messaging Abusers can gain access to email accounts, phones, etc.

Delete messages Send fraudulent messages to coworkers, family and friends Intercept and monitor messages 13 ACTIVE SESSIONS ON GMAIL 14 TECHNOLOGY ABUSE Text Messaging & Instant

Messaging Messages can be falsified, spoofed, or sent anonymously from the carriers website or other third party services Apps and services can make evidence collection more difficult, e.g. Tiger Text, Snap Chat, etc. 15 ACTIVE SESSIONS ON FACEBOOK 16

ACTIVE SESSIONS ON MESSAGING APPS 17 TECHNOLOGY ABUSE Messaging, Phones & Evidence Collection With a valid search warrant, a carrier might be able to retrieve deleted messages or document that messages were sent from one party to another Using special software, law enforcement might be able to extract old backup files (e.g. iTunes / iPhone backups) SIM cards, internal memory and MicroSD cards may contain

evidence Survivors can take screenshots, photographs or video of phone and message content, as well as the properties of a message (time & date stamp, contact info: name and number sent from) 18 TECHNOLOGY ABUSE Smartphones & Apps Many companies now offer connecting your smartphone to your home security system (Ex. AT&T Digital Life)

19 TECHNOLOGY ABUSE Smartphones & Apps Receive text and video alerts of events at home Arm or disarm the alarm, unlock, lock and open doors Monitor indoor activity with contact sensors and cameras Family Map / Family Locator Plans Teen driving monitors Apps can be renamed, or completely invisible Photo apps that allow users to hide pictures, sometimes behind other pictures that require a password to be viewed

20 TECHNOLOGY ABUSE Caller ID & Email Spoofing Caller ID spoofing gives the caller the ability to show a different number on the caller ID display, change their voice, and record calls Email spoofing is the creation of email messages with a fake email address, misleading the recipient about the origin of the message Can you identify situations that these tools might be helpful for survivors? 21

SAFETY PLANNING Spoofing, Safety Planning & Evidence If survivor suspects a call has been spoofed, they can call the number that came in to check if a call was actually placed Spoofed numbers do show up on the survivors bill, but the owner of that number will not show a call on their bill. You can often identify the source of an email spoof by the IP address in the received line 22 SAFETY PLANNING

Truth In Caller ID Act of 2009 Signed into law December 2010 and enacted in June 2011, this law prohibits caller ID spoofing for purpose of defrauding or otherwise causing harm The FCC now: Prohibits any person or entity from transmitting misleading or inaccurate caller ID information with the intent to defraud, cause harm, or wrongfully obtain anything of value Subjects violators to a penalty of up to $10,000 for each violation Exempts authorized activities by law enforcement agencies and situations where courts have authorized caller ID manipulation to occur 23

TECHNOLOGY ABUSE Phishing - Phishing is a method of trying to gather personal information using deceptive emails and websites. - It uses social engineering methods to convince you to click or download something 24 TECHNOLOGY ABUSE Cell Phone Spyware

Hardware example: SIM Card Spy Transfer files on a cell phone SIM card to a computer for viewing, saving and editing Software can be difficult to install without physical access, but also can be very difficult to detect 25 TECHNOLOGY ABUSE Detecting Cell Phone Spyware Unusual battery drain, or battery is warm when not in use Unexplainable spikes in data usage May take longer to shut down Screen may light up when not using

May hear clicks or sounds when on calls Additional incoming calls on the bill that user didnt receive Perpetrator knows things that could only be known with access to the phone Perpetrator currently has or has had physical access 26 SAFETY PLANNING Safety Planning For Phones Ensure phone use is a part of every safety plan Use passcodes the more complex, the better Use pay-as-you-go phones Treat usual phone like a tracking device

Be wary of gifts Always give location information to 911 in an emergency in case phone settings have been changed without your knowledge Unmask blocked calls (TrapCall) 27 SAFETY PLANNING Safety Planning For Phones Educate and strategize about safe phone use and increased privacy Document calls, text messages, photo & video messages (date, time, content, number / IP address)

Record if possible, particularly if it is threatening (apps are available) Print out call logs and billing records that corroborate the documentation 28 TECHNOLOGY ABUSE Computer Spyware Can be used to record all: Keystrokes Websites visited Emails and IMs Windows and application details

Can take screen shots Restart, shutdown & logoff computer Control desktop and mouse remotely Make computer talk 29 SAFETY PLANNING Computer Spyware and Safety Planning Clearing history is not enough Identify safer computers (libraries, friends' houses, internet cafes, etc.) that can be used for sensitive web surfing If a survivors computer (or phone) is being

monitored, it may be important to continue using it, so as not to alert the abuser and risk escalation Create separate safe email/IM accounts and dont use your name 30 TECHNOLOGY ABUSE GPS Technology Track a person or object using satellite technology in real time Vehicle navigation systems Small and easily hidden Affordable and readily available (ex. Tile) 31

SAFETY PLANNING Safety Planning & GPS Technologies Trust instincts Do visual sweeps or ask law enforcement, mechanic or private investigator to do a sweep If a device is located, strategize about the removal remember it might be better to leave it where it is 32

TECHNOLOGY ABUSE Social Media Abusers can use social media to stalk and harass survivors Abusers can gain access to a survivors profile without consent Abusers can create false profiles 33 SAFETY PLANNING Social Media & Privacy Virtually every social media app has location based features that you opt into when you first set up the app

Posts and media are automatically time stamped and geo-tagged with the general or exact location Privacy settings change regularly and can be very nuanced Abusers can create false profiles on social media sites 34 SAFETY PLANNING

Social Media & Safety Planning More than Facebook! Keep profile settings as private as possible Only login on trusted devices Always logout!! Remember that even when set to private, abusers can still access Review: What are you sharing? Who do you want to see it? Avoid tying accounts to optional personal information

Use print screen to track harassment, stalking, etc. 35 SAFETY PLANNING

Social Media, Online Privacy, & Safety Planning Data brokers Do a Google search of your name Profile pictures Post only what you want the public to see or know, even if you have your page set with privacy in mind once its been shared online, its out of your control Request that people not post personal information about you on social media (including tags and checkins) Blocking and un-friending Temporary deactivation of accounts is often available 36 SAFETY PLANNING

You can report online abuse! Most sites have rules about what is allowed on their site Some content can be removed based on the sites: Terms of Service, Content Policies, Community Guidelines/Standards Most sites will remove images or videos content if the person who posted it doesnt have copyright over the material* * The language on this slide used from NNEDV 37

TECHNOLOGY ABUSE Video & Audio Monitoring Hidden cameras cheap and easy to get Very small, can be hidden anywhere and difficult to detect Phones can be left in places and set to auto answer so that conversations can be monitored 38 SAFETY PLANNING Safety Planning & Recording Devices Trust instincts Where does the victim feel like they are being

watched/overheard? Any new gifts or objects in the space they are being monitored? Meet in secure locations that arent being monitored If device is located, assess best next steps will abuse escalate if device is found? Will it be tampering with evidence? Obtain equipment to sweep for wireless signals 39 TECHNOLOGY ABUSE Wi-Fi Routers

Unsecured routers can be used to hijack devices; email accounts can be taken over; can use the connection for malicious/illegal purposes Wireless routers can be set to record all sites visited by any device connected to it Access to websites can be blocked (firewall) 40 SAFETY PLANNING

Wi-Fi Routers Dont connect to public WiFi Secure your wireless network (change the SSID and password protect) Use WPA2-PSK {AES} security Change default administrator passwords and usernames Turn off when not in use for extended periods of time Check for firmware updates 41

SAFETY PLANNING & EVIDENCE GATHERING Tech Abuse Safety Planning & Evidence Gathering Always do emotional safety planning first Pay attention to the subtleties of a survivors story Ask clarifying questions to identify the what, the how, the when and the where Consider not just the survivors use of technology, but also those they are close with 42

SAFETY PLANNING & EVIDENCE GATHERING Tech Abuse Safety Planning & Evidence Gathering Dont overwhelm survivors Encourage them not to delete evidence Blocking someone means you wont know what they are posting Educate about the use of the criminal justice system Does the abusers behavior violate an Order of Protection (OP)? Can it help the survivor get an OP? Consider using non-tech specific laws for prosecution

43 MORE ON EVIDENCE Advocates should NOT collect or store evidence Social media and email services have access logs that show where your account has been accessed from Email headers contain IP address Download Your Information tool on Facebook Be aware that you can access some websites digital trails such as Facebook, Snapchat, Google, etc. but some other digital trails are only available to law enforcement and courts with Warrant/Subpoena Warrant for account information from spoof company Record conversations (New York is a one party consent

state) 44 EVIDENCE & OPTIONS Police engagement Police collaboration with prosecution for evidence gathering Demonstrate course of conduct Email documentation to law enforcement for safe keeping / course of conduct demonstration Defamation claims Make sure orders of protection include

social media and electronic communication 45 PROSECUTION & SURVIVOR BEHAVIOR Survivor behavior can be confusing to some prosecutors Sometimes seemingly benign behavior from an abuser can be terrifying to a victim Bailiffs need to be trained to identify and respond to courtroom intimidation Remember - only unsuccessful intimidation ever comes to the attention of police or prosecutors Asking what was going through your mind when

can be a powerful question offering vital information sometimes factual, sometimes contextual 46 STALKING LAW All 50 states District of Columbia

US Territories Federal UCMJ Some tribal codes* * Slide from NNEDV 47 STALKING LAWS New York State Laws and Provisions Federal provisions

PL PL PL PL 120.45.

120.50. 120.55. 120.60. Stalking Stalking Stalking Stalking in in in in

the the the the fourth degree third degree second degree first degree * Slide from NNEDV 48 SAFETY PLANNING

Group Exercise 49 Passwords At least eight characters long Does not contain a complete word Contains characters from each of these categories: UPPERCASE LETTERS; lowercase letters; numbers(123); special characters ([email protected]#$%^&*) Does not contain your user name, real name, or company name

Is significantly different from previous passwords and other passwords currently in use Two-step verification pass for emails, websites and apps 50 Computers Maintain current antivirus/anti-malware/anti-spyware software and keep it updated Update operating system Be extremely cautious about connecting to unsecure public Wi-Fi Use a virtual private network (VPN) for remote connection to office Use complex passwords and change them every few months

Dont use the same password across different sites Dont click on any links in emails, even if you know who sent it to you, without first: hovering over the link to see what the actual URL is (example: http://www.google.com/), or typing the text of the link into a browser 51

Smart Phones Bluetooth: only turn on when you need it, then be sure to turn it off Using public Wi-Fi puts you at risk of hacking, malware and monitoring Cellular data connections are much more secure than Wi-Fi be sure to use it if doing work on the phone Use complex passcodes 52 Databases Many programs are transitioning to new databases Cloud vs. local

Remember that data entered can exist forever Data can be used for secondary purposes Risk of accidental deletion or alteration Privacy & safety Informed consent Backups use same security SafetyNet & Confidentiality Institute Toolkit: http://techsafety.org/selecting-a-database 53 CONSIDERATIONS IN USING TECHNOLOGY Social Media Social media spaces do not have the privacy or

safety mechanisms in place to be used as service provision forums Have clear content guidelines (ex. NYSCADV Facebook Page) Be thoughtful about what you post Best use of social media: education Plan how your agency will respond to negative or opposing views Plan how your agency will handle survivor posts that reveal personal stories 54 SURVIVOR-CENTERED TECH SAFETY

Remember Safety + Privacy + Technology = Possible! Getting rid of technology is not the answer Safety planning around technology should be individual and specific 55 SURVIVOR-CENTERED ADVOCACY Key Concepts Respect and maintain confidentiality

Offer support, information, safety options and advocacy unique to each survivor Identify and reinforce strengths and current methods of survival Do not offer personal opinions about what the survivor should do Accept and reinforce the survivors right to make their own decisions 56 IN CLOSING While its easy to get overwhelmed with all of the bad that can be done with

technology, work hard to keep in mind how much these same technologies have helped survivors seek and find connection and safety. SAFETY PLAN, SAFETY PLAN, SAFETY PLAN! 57 RESOURCES NYSCADV: Nasim Sarabandi nsarabandi @nyscadv.org 518-482-5465 NNEDV SafetyNet Project:

https://nnedv.org/content/safety-net/ NNEDV Tech Safety Blog: http://techsafety.org/ TechSafety APP: https://techsafetyapp.org/ Stalking and Harassment Assessment and Risk Profile: http://www.cdar.uky.edu/CoerciveControl/sharp.html The Stalking Prevention, Awareness, and Resource Center: https://www.stalkingawareness.org 58

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