Distribution of waters 71% of earth surface is

Distribution of waters 71% of earth surface is

Distribution of waters 71% of earth surface is ocean 4:1 in southern hemisphere 1.5:1 in northern hemisphere Surface temperature: note where the 4C isotherm occurs (most ocean volume is colder than this)

DPO Figure 4.1: Winter data from Levitus and Boyer (1994) Surface salinity Surface density (winter) DPO Figure 4.16 Pacific potential temperature section

Inversions (dichothermal layers) thermocline DPO Fig. 4.11 Pacific salinity section Salinity maximum layers

Salinity minimum layers intermediate waters (Antarctic and North Pacific I.W.) DPO Fig. 4.11 Atlantic potential temperature section Inversions (Antarctic surface and one much deeper, large-scale one)

thermocline DPO Fig. 4.10 Atlantic salinity section Salinity maximum layers Salinity minimum layers (Antarctic I.W.

and Labrador Sea Water) Mediterranean Water North Atlantic Deep Water DPO Fig. 4.10 Water masses and water types

Water mass: body of water with a common formation history. Names are capitalized. Water type: point on a temperature-salinity diagram (or more carefully, point in propertyproperty-property-nthproperthy space) Source water type: water type at the source of a water mass Water mass

Example: Antarctic Intermediate Water - (a) low salinity layer, (b) originating in surface mixed layers near Antarctic Circumpolar Current Deep layer This is a thick layer below the intermediate layer and above the bottom waters. Roughly from 2000 to 4000 m depth. The North Atlantic Deep Water originates through deep water formation processes north of the N. Atlantic (joined by Labrador

Sea and Mediterranean Sea intermediate waters after they all more or less mix together in the tropical Atlantic). It is relatively new. The Pacific Deep Water originates through slow upwelling of bottom waters in the North Pacific, and is the oldest water in the ocean. The Indian Deep Water is similar to the PDW. The Circumpolar Deep Water is a mixture of these new (NADW) and old (PDW and IDW) waters.

Bottom layer This is the bottommost layer, and usually connotes very dense water from the Antarctic. (Formed by brine rejection close to the continent). Various names: Antarctic Bottom Water Lower Circumpolar Deep Water Maximum mixed layer depth (mainly late winter

in each location) Using delta T = 0.2C deBoyerMontegut et al. (JGR, 2004) Mixed layer development Winter development of mixed layer: Wind stirring and cooling erode

stratification, gradually deepening the mixed layer to maximum depth at the end of winter (Feb. to April depending on location) Summer restratification: Warming at the top adds stratified layer at surface, usually leaves remnant of winter mixed layer below.

Large, McWilliams and Doney (Rev. Geophys 1994) DPO Figure 4.7 Mixed layer development Winter development of mixed layer: Wind stirring and cooling erode stratification, gradually deepening the mixed layer to maximum depth at

the end of winter (Feb. to April depending on location) Summer restratification: Warming at the top adds stratified layer at surface, usually leaves remnant of winter mixed layer below. DPO Figure 8.4

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