CHAPTER 33 LECTURE SLIDES Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies,

CHAPTER 33 LECTURE SLIDES Copyright  The McGraw-Hill Companies,

CHAPTER 33 LECTURE SLIDES Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Noncoelomate Invertebrates Chapter 33 Porifera Parazoa Animals lacking tissues (and therefore organs) and a definite symmetry

7000 marine species; 150 freshwater species Among the most abundant animals in the deep ocean Bryozoa (Ectoprocta) Brachiopoda Platyhelminthes Cycliophora Rotifera Micrognathozoa

Acoela Ctenophora Cnidaria Porifera Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 3 Most members lack

symmetry Various growth forms Larval sponges freeswimming Adults remain attached sessile Cell types Truly multicellular 3 functional layers in vase 4 3 layers 1. Outer epithelium

Water comes in ostia, exits osculum 2. Mesohyl Middle layer gelatinous matrix Spicules needles of calcium carbonate Spongin reinforcing tough protein fibers 3. Choanocytes Collar cells

Flagellated contributes to water circulation Face internal cavity Engulf and digest food from passing water 5 6 Sponge reproduction Asexual Fragmentation Sexual Choanocytes transform into sperm Sperm captured and passed to egg cell in mesohyl

Development may occur within mother or in open water Larva is planktonic; will settle and transform into adult 7 Eumetazoa Animals with distinct tissues Embryos have distinct layers Inner endoderm forms the gastrodermis Outer ectoderm forms the epidermis and nervous system Middle mesoderm (only in bilateral animals) forms the muscles

True body symmetry Radial symmetry Bilateral symmetry 8 Bryozoa (Ectoprocta) Brachiopoda Platyhelminthes Cycliophora

Rotifera Micrognathozoa Acoela Ctenophora Cnidaria Phylum Cnidaria Porifera

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Most marine, few fresh water species Diploblastic Bodies have distinct tissues but no organs No reproductive, circulatory, or excretory systems No concentrated nervous system Latticework of nerve cells Touch, gravity, light receptors 9 Cnidarians use nematocysts to capture prey

Secreted within nematocyte Mechanism of discharge unknown Some carry venom 10 2 basic body forms Polyps cylindrical and sessile Medusa umbrella-shaped and free-living 11 Body plan has single opening leading to gastrovascular cavity

Site of digestion Most gas exchange Waste discharge Formation of gametes in many 2 layers to body wall 1. Epidermis 2. Gastrodermis Mesoglea between layers 12

Gastrovascular space also serves as hydrostatic skeleton Provides a rigid structure against which muscles can operate Gives the animal shape Many polyp species build an exoskeleton of chitin or calcium carbonate around themselves Some build an internal skeleton 13 Cnidarian life cycle Some cnidarians occur only as polyps, and

others exist only as medusae, but many alternate between these two phases Both phases consist of diploid individuals In general, in species having both polyp and medusa in the life cycle, the medusa forms gametes Sexes separate

Gonochorism individual is either male or female Zygote develops into planktonic planula Metamorphosis into polyp Polyp produces medusae or other polyps asexually 14 Major evolutionary innovation in cnidarians is extracellular digestion of food inside the animal Digestion takes place partly in gastrovascular cavity Cells then engulf fragments by phagocytosis 15

4 or 5 classes 1. Anthozoa Sea anemones, most corals, sea fans Solitary and colonial polyps Symbiotic dinoflagellates (zooxanthellae) photosynthesize and provide nutrients to reef coral Coral reefs economically important 16

2. Cubozoa Box jellies Strong swimmers, voracious fish predators Stings may be fatal to humans 3. Hydrozoa Hydroids, Hydra, Portuguese man-of-war Both polyp and medusa stages Only class with freshwater members 17

4. Scyphozoa Jellyfish Medusa more conspicuous and complex Ring of muscle cells allows for rhythmic contractions for propulsion 5. Staurozoa Star jellies Resembles a medusa in most ways but is attached to the substratum by a sort of stalk that emerges from the side opposite

the mouth 18 Bryozoa (Ectoprocta) Brachiopoda Platyhelminthes Cycliophora Rotifera Micrognathozoa

Acoela Ctenophora Cnidaria Phylum Ctenophora Porifera Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Known as comb jellies, sea walnuts, or sea gooseberries 8 rows of comblike plates of fused cilia that beat in a coordinated fashion Many bioluminescent 2 tentacles covered with colloblasts Discharge strong adhesive used to capture prey Phylogenetic position unclear 19

The Bilaterian Acoelomates Characterized by bilateral symmetry Allowed for high levels of specialization Bilaterians are traditionally classified by the condition of their coelom Bryozoa (Ectoprocta) Brachiopoda Platyhelminthes Cycliophora Rotifera

Micrognathozoa Acoela Ctenophora Cnidaria Porifera Acoelomates Pseudocoelomates Coelomates

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 20 Phylum Platyhelminthes Flatworms are ciliated, soft-bodied animals Bodies are solid aside from an incomplete digestive cavity Many species are parasitic Others are free-living Marine, freshwater, moist terrestrial 21

Only one opening to digestive cavity Muscular contractions in the pharynx allows food to be ingested and torn into small bits Lack circulatory system Diffusion for gas transport Gut functions in digestion and food distribution Some particles digested extracellularly Cells engulf particles by phagocytosis Tapeworms (parasitic flatworms) lack digestive systems absorb food directly through body walls 22

23 24 Have an excretory and osmoregulatory system Network of fine tubules runs through body Flame cells located on the side branches Flagella move water and excretory substances into the tubules and then to pores located between the epidermal cells through which the liquid is expelled Metabolic wastes are excreted into the gut

and eliminated through the mouth 25 Simple nervous system Anterior cerebral ganglion and nerve cords Eyespot can distinguish light from dark Reproduction Most are hermaphroditic Undergo sexual reproduction Also have capacity for asexual regeneration 26

2 major groups Free-living Turbellaria Probably not monophyletic Dugesia common planarian in bio labs Parasitic Neodermata Trematoda flukes Attach within host body by suckers, anchors, or hooks Life cycle may have 2 or more hosts Clonorchis sinensis, oriental liver fluke Cercomeromorpha tapeworms 27

28 One of most important trematodes to human health are blood flukes Schistosoma Afflict 5% of worlds population About 800,000 people die each year from schistosomiasis or bilharzia Fertilized egg must break through the wall of the blood vessels in intestine or the urinary bladder to get out 29 Cercomeromorpha tapeworms Adult hangs onto inner wall of host intestine using scolex

30 Most of tapeworm body is proglottids Complete hermaphroditic unit, containing both male and female reproductive organs Formed continuously Beef tapeworm, Taenia saginata Frequent human parasite From eating uninspected rare beef 31 Phylum Acoelomorpha Acoel flatworms were once considered basal

members of the phylum Platyhelminthes Have a primitive nervous system and lack a digestive cavity Based on molecular evidence, similarities are convergent 32 Phylum Cycliophora Discovery reported in 1995

Striking circular mouth surrounded by a ring of cilia Anatomy and life cycle are very unusual Live on the mouthparts of claw lobsters on both sides of the North Atlantic 33 Pseudocoelomates Pseudocoelom cavity that lies between tissues derived from the mesoderm and those derived from the endoderm

Pseudocoelomic fluid performs the functions carried out by a circulatory system in most coelomate animals Not monophyletic Chordata Echinodermata Chaetognatha Onychophora Arthropoda

Tardigrada Nematoda Kinorhyncha Loricifera Nemertea Mollusca Annelida

Bryozoa (Ectoprocta) Brachiopoda Platyhelminthes Cycliophora Rotifera Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 34

Phylum Nematoda Vinegar eels, eelworms, and other roundworms Members of this phylum are found everywhere abundant and diverse Marine, freshwater, parasites, free-living 35 Bilaterally symmetrical and unsegmented Covered by a flexible, thick cuticle that is molted as they grow Digestive system well developed Stylets piercing organs near mouth

Pharynx creates sucking action Anus 36 37 Sexual reproduction Most gonochoric Sexual dimorphism male smaller with hooked end Internal fertilization Indirect development egg, larva, adult

Eutely Adults consist of a fixed number of cells Caenorhabditis elegans has only 959 cells Important in genetic and developmental studies 38 Lifestyles Many are active hunters, preying on protists and other small animals Others are parasites of plants Still others live within the bodies of larger animals Largest known nematode, which can attain a

length of 9 m, parasitizes the placenta of sperm whales 39 About 50 species cause human diseases Hookworms Common in southern U.S. Produce anemia Trichinella causes trichinosis Forms cysts in muscles Infection from eating undercooked meat 40

Pinworms, Enterobius vermicularis Infects 30% of children in U.S. Causes itching of the anus Ascaris lumbricoides intestinal roundworm Infects 1 in 6 worldwide Adult female can be 30 cm long Rare in areas with modern plumbing Serious tropical nematode diseases Filariasis Elephantiasis 41

Phylum Rotifera Bilaterally symmetrical, unsegmented pseudocoelomates Highly developed internal organs Corona wheel animals Conspicuous ring of cilia at anterior end Used for locomotion and sweeping food into the mouth 42 43

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