Presentation Overview -Mission & Performance -3-view & aircraft

Presentation Overview -Mission & Performance -3-view & aircraft

Presentation Overview -Mission & Performance -3-view & aircraft dimensions -Aerodynamics -Stability and Control -Structures -Propulsion -Cost Analysis -Conclusion Mission & Performance Takeoff Climb -Estimated Values Cruise & Turn Descent

Land -Constraint Values -Takeoff distance: 35.5 ft -MAX. Takeoff distance:120 ft -Climb angle: 12 -MIN. Climb angle: 5.5 -Cruise & Turn: 13 min -MIN. Cruise & Turn: 12 min -Turn rate: 2.45 rad/sec -MIN. Turn rate: 0.8 rad/sec Mission & Performance -Phase Time Breakdown, Energy & Power Requirement Time (Min) Total Endurance 13.29 Cruise 9.17 Turn 4.01 Climb 0.07 TO 0.05 Turn Speed TO Speed Climb Speed Cruise Speed Energy Required (W-min)

2548.22 1651.42 863.85 18.85 14.10 Speed (ft/sec) Thrust(lbf) Batt. Power (W) 25 2.56 220.89 24 3.35 289.05 24 3.35 289.05 25 2.14 184.65 Constraint Diagram -Text Team Orion Aerospace -DIMENSIONS IN FEET Aircraft Dimensions Wing span (b) 6.6 ft Span v-tail

1.3 ft Chord (c) 1.5 ft Root chord V-tail 1.3 ft Wing Area (S) 20.0 ft2 Tip chord V-tail 0.8 ft L.E. sweep V-tail 21.0 chord sweep v-tail 10.9 Tip chord h-tail 0.8 ft Vertical tail area 1.3 ft2 L.E. sweep h-tail 18.4

Incidence wing 3 Horizontal tail area 3.3 ft2 Incidence h-tail 0 chord sweep h-tail 14.0 Fuselage length 5.9 ft Span h-tail 3.2 ft Root chord htail 1.3 ft Aerodynamics -Selection of Airfoil for Wing -Selection of Horizontal and Vertical Tail -Lift Curve -Drag Polar -Lift to Drag Ratio vs Angle of Attack

-CMARC Analysis Aerodynamics CL 3.93 rad-1 CLwing 4.10 rad-1 CLo .5242 Cm -.4235 rad-1 Cmo 0.50 CDo .0427 Velocit Re y Stall 20 ft/s

186279 Cruis e 25 ft/s 232849 Max 30 ft/s 279419 Aerodynamics -Airfoil Selection: Selig-Donavan 7062 -Low Reynolds Number, Slow Speed Flight -Experimental Data/ Xfoil Analysis -CL vs Alpha Curve, Drag Polar -Ease of Construction -Horizontal and Vertical Tail: Flat Plate Assumption Aerodynamics Method CLmax Warner 1.25

Roskam 1.48 Averag e 1.37 2-D 1.53 Aerodynamics Phase Angle of Attack CL Climb 4.0 .75 Cruise 3.0 .70 Turn

5.2 .84 Stall 9.0 1.3 Aerodynamic Effectiveness of the control surfaces -Rudder Effectiveness: 60% -Elevator Effectiveness: 60% -Aileron Effectiveness: 30% Effectiveness determined from Roskams Flight Dynamics and Controls CMARC Analysis Stability and Control Feedback Loop Description Static Margin, CG, and Aerodynamic Center Control Surface and Tail Sizing

Horizontal and Vertical Tail Size Verification Trim Diagram Pertinent Static Stability Derivatives and Comparison Loop Closure Description Rate feedback in the pitch axis Vary the stability of the short period mode Block Diagram Pilot inputs elevator command TX RX Pilot + Servo e +/ - ? kr Servo converts voltage to elevator deflection Sign of feedback gain is chosen o stabilize or destabilize he mode

qm Aircraft q(s) e (s) Pitch Rate Gyro qm ( s ) q( s) q Static Margin, CG, and Aerodynamic Center Static Margin Desired is 10% Past 451 final reports agree that 10-15% is an agreeable range for model aircraft Pick toward lower end of range to help with trimming Pick desired Static Margin and place internal equipment to obtain the CG that gives this Static Margin XLE XCG XNP XACHT Distances in ft Sizing of Control Surfaces And Tails Historical Methods (as described in Raymers Aircraft Design: A Conceptual Approach) Control Surfaces Guidelines Ailerons: 15-25% chord and 5090%

span Elevators: 2550% chord and ~90% span Rudders: 2550% chord and ~90% span Selected: Ailerons: 15% chord and full span Elevators: 40% chord and full span Rudder: 40% chord and full span Tails Sized using the Tail Volume coefficient method Vtail H-tail Span(ft) 1.3 3.2 AvgChord(f t) 1.0 1.1 Aspect Ratio 1.30

3.00 Taper Ratio 0.6 0.6 LE Sweep (deg) 21.0 18.4 Dihedral (deg) 0.0 0.0 Planform Area (ft2) 1.3 3.3 Analysis Of Tails -Horizontal Tail d r o h

C g n i W Longitudinal X-Plot 4 Lreq Lmax poss 3.5 Xcg Xnp 3 / e c n a t s i D 2.5 2 1.5

1 0.5 2.5 2.75 3 3.25 3.5 3.75 4 Horizontal Tail Area [ft 2] 4.25 4.5 4.75 5 Analysis Of Tails -Vertical Tail -Weathercock Stability Criterion Cn ? 0.057 r 1(Dr. Roskams Airplane Design Series) Lateral X-Plot 0.25

0.2 d ]a -1 r [ ta e nb C 0.15 0.1 0.05 0 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 Vertical Tail Area [ft

2 ] 2 2.25 2.5 Trim Diagram -Text Trim Diagram Static Stability Derivative Comparison SID-5 Cessna MPX5 172 Cm -0.40 -0.89 -1.13 Cn

0.12 0.07 0.16 Cm e Cn -0.81 -1.28 -1.15 -0.08 -0.07 -0.11 All units are rad-1 r Note: The MPX5 is a model aircraft designed by Mark Peters for his thesis, Development of a Light Unmanned Aircraft for the Determination of Flying Qualities Requirements, May 1996. Structures Overview -Basic layout of the wing

-Structures matlab code -Material properties -Equipment layout -Weight breakdown -Landing gear analysis Basic Layout of Wing Spar -Located at the 1/4 chord Sparcaps -Spruce -1/8 x 1/8 x 6.6 Shearweb -Balsa -1.5 x 1/16 x 6.6 Ribs -Balsa -Spaced every 3 inches from tip -Include lightening holes Added balsa at leading and trailing edge Geometric Layout of rib Typical rib section Material Properties -Normal Stress (at spar caps) = 2750psi Material Balsa Plywood Spruce Monokote (oz/sqin)

Epoxy (oz/sqin) CA glue (oz/joint) Young's Modulus (ksi) Stress Density (yield) (lbf/ft^3) (psi) 625 11 1725 800 37 4000 1500 34 8600 0.0021 0.007 0.0068 Table taken from Spring 99 AAE 451 report (Team WTA) Internal equipment layout Equipment Volume(in3)

Gear box 3 x 1.5 x 1 Motor 2.25 x 1.5 Speed Controller 1.5 x 1.25 x 1 Receiver 1.75 x 1.25 x 0.75 Gyro 1.5 x 1.25 x 1.25 Data Recorder 1.75 x 2.25 x 3.25 Battery(18) 2x1x1 Servo 1.5 x 1.25 x 0.75 Interface 1.25 x 3.5 x 5.75 Weight Breakdown

Wing 42.0 (oz) Tail 9.5 (oz) Fuselage 11.0 (oz) Misc 9.8 (oz) Total Weight SID5 = 163.2 (oz), 10.2(lbs) Receiver 1.0(oz) Speed controller 3.0(oz) Gyro

3.5(oz) Tattletail8 15.0(oz) Motor 7.5(oz) Gearbox 1.5(oz) Propeller 1.0(oz) Servo(4) 2.0(oz) Cell weight(18) 2.8(oz) Landing Gear -Conventional taildragger landing gear -Lateral separation angle of 37.7 -Located 1.2 from nose

0.6 in front of the leading edge Method for sizing and placement of landing gear Figure 11.4 Raymer Propulsion -Constraint Values for Propulsion Design -Motor Selection -Propeller Selection -Speed Controller Selection -Gearbox Selection -Battery Sizing & Energy Balance Propulsion Constraint Values for Propulsion Design -From Sizing Codes -Maximum Thrust Required = Climb Thrust = 3.35 lbf -Maximum Power Required into Air =109 Watts -Endurance Time= 13.3 minutes -Maximum Available Energy = 2592 Watts-Min. With 18 Battery Cells of Sanyo 2000mAh, 1.2 Volts. Propulsion Motor Selection -Tool : Modified Motor Code provided by Prof. Andrisani Efficiency at different Battery Currents -Criteria : High Efficiency, High Power at Low

95 Current 90 85 80 At 30 Amps Efficiency(%) 75 AstroCO25 At 17 Amps At 23 Amps Aveox 1415/1.5 Aveox 1415/2 Maxcim N32-13Y Maxcim N3213D Motors Power Output at diffent Battery currents 800 600 400 At 17 Amps At 23 Amps (watts)

200 At 30 Amps Power 0output AstroCO25 Aveox 1415/1.5 Aveox 1415/2 Motors Maxcim N3213Y Maxcim N3213D Propulsion Propeller Selection -Tool:Modified Gold Code provided by Prof. Andrisani -Criteria: High Efficiency, Low Power Usage, High Power used to run 8" pitch Propeller Thrust at 25 ft/sec. 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 Power 0 (kwatt) 13

Gear ratio=3.53 Gear ratio=3.75 Gear ratio=3.53 14 15 16 18 20 22 24 Diameter (inch) Thrust produced by Propeller at 8" pitch 30 Gear Ratio=3.53 Gear ratio=3.75 20 10 TRhrust(lbf) 0 13 Gear ratio =4 14 15

16 18 Diameter (inch) 20 22 24 Propulsion Efficiency of 8" pitch Propeller 0.6 Gear Ratio =3.53 0.4 Gear Ratio =3.75 Gear Ratio =4 0.2 Efficiency 0 13 14 15 16 18

20 22 24 Diameter (inch) Gearbox and Speed Controller Selection -Tool: Modified Motor Code provided by Prof. Andrisani -Criteria: Minimum Power dissipated by Controller, Controller Low RPMGearbox HighSpeed Efficiency, Model Max35B-21 Max35B-25NB Gear ratio RPM Efficiency (%) 99.3 99.06 3.53 8.292E+03 Resistance 0.009 0.012 3.75 7.81E+03 Power output (W) 367.2 367.2 4 7.32E+03 Power input(W) 369.801 370.668 Power Dissipated (Watts)

2.601 3.468 Power inputP ower output 333.9468 317.2495 333.9468 317.2495 333.9468 317.2495 Propulsion 3 Choices to Final Propulsion Design Consideration -Common Features: Maxcim N32-13Y Motor, Max35B21 S.C. -Choice 1: 14X8 Propeller, 3.53 Gear Ratio -Choice 2: 14X8 Propeller, 3.75 Gear Ratio -Choice 3: 14X10 Propeller, 4 Choice Gear Ratio Energy Usage for Each 3000.00 2000.00 Choice 1 Choice 2 1000.00 0.00 Energy (Watt-Min) Total Endurance Choice 3

Cruise Turn Phase Breakdown Climb TO Propulsion Battery Sizing & Energy Balance -Tool: Modified Motor Code provided by Prof. Andrisani & Iteration procedure to match Battery Size -Criteria: Minimum Number of Battery Cells, Minimum Energy Usage -Choice 2: Maxcim N32-13Y Motor, Max35B-21 S.C, 14X8 Propeller, 3.75 Gear Ratio, 18 Choice 2 S.C. GB Battery Cells Prop. Motor Efficiency (%) Power required by Prop. Battery Power needed Battery Power Provided Power provided into air MIN. Power into air req.

14X8 Maxcim N32-13Y Max35B-21 46.95 90.94 99.30 Watts 248.80 MAX. Thrust required Watts 290.02 Thrust provided by Prop. Watts 369.81 MIN.Energy required Watts 116.81 MAX.Energy provided Watts 109.00 Total Endurance time 3.75 95 lbf lbf W-Min W-Min Min 3.35 3.45 2548.22 2592.00 13.3 Cost Analysis -Wing Test Materials ~ $90 -SID5 Materials ~ $189.89

-Man Hours (estimate) ~ 2300 -Labor ($150/hour) ~ $345,000 Price Breakdown of SID5 PART # DESC QTY PRICE TOTAL REQUIRED PRICE TOWR1310 TOWR1335 1/16X3X36 BALSA (16) 3/32X3X36 BALSA (12) 2 1 7.79 6.99 15.58 6.99 24/32

4/12 11.69 2.33 TOWR1525 TOWR1910 1/4X3/8X36 BALSA (16) 1/8X6X12 PLYWOOD (1) 2 1 4.99 1.79 9.98 1.79 24/32 1/1 7.49 1.79 LXAS56 1/8X3/8X48 SPRUCE (15) 1 15.99

15.99 8/15 8.53 LXK196 GPMQ4258 1/4-20 WING BOLT (4) 6-32 (4) STRUT FITTING 1 6 1.25 2.29 1.25 13.74 4/4 24/24 1.25 13.74 LXJ041 GPMQ3130 SOCKHD SCRW 6-32X1 1/2 (4) 6X1/2 (8) SHEET METAL SCREW (8) 6

3 1.4 1.35 8.4 4.05 24/24 24/24 8.40 4.05 K+SR2803 GPMQ3750 1/2 STREAMLINE ALUM TUBE (4) 2-56X12 PUSHROD (6) 1 2 11.99 2.19 11.99 4.38 3/4 6/6 8.99 4.38

GPMQ3791 2-56 THREADED CLEVIS (12) 1 5.19 5.19 8/12 3.46 GPMQ3860 SWIVEL CLEVIS (2) 2 0.99 1.98 4/4 1.98 GPMQ3901 LXH958 CONTROL HORN (2) KLETT LANDING GEAR .40-.60

3 1 0.8 20.99 2.4 20.99 6/6 1/1 2.40 20.99 DAVQ5310 LXD850 2 1/4 WHEELS (2) TAILWHEEL BRACKET 1 1 3.89 1.99 3.89 1.99 2/2 1/1

3.89 1.99 LXK159 3/4 TAILWHEEL 1 1.39 1.39 1/1 1.39 LXJ212 LXJ215 INSTANT JET 2OZ SLOW JET 1OZ 2 1 9.99 6.19 19.98 6.19 2/2 1/1

19.98 6.19 1 1 54.99 13.99 TOTAL 54.99 13.99 227.12 TOPQ1205 TOPQ0402 ALUMINUM MONOKOTE METALLIC BLUE MONOKOTE 20/25 1/1 USED PARTS 41.00 13.99 189.89 conclusion Remaining Tasks Aerodynamics -Improve CMARC Model Stability & Control -Need transfer functions for Rate

Gyro and Servo. the a suitable -Determine transfer function for entire control loop and pick gain Structures -Torsion and Loading Tests of sample wing panel to verify Aircraft Durability Propulsion -Test for Propeller and Motor to verify the results from the codes Questions?

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