Sharps Safety in the OR Lets Walk the Talk Main Image Here Overview This sharps safety presentation provides the perioperative educator, manager, and staff RN with a complete presentation to educate perioperative team members on the importance of sharps safety in the surgical setting. This presentation emphasizes the techniques to prevent sharps injury in the surgical setting and can
also be modified to meet the needs of the individual work setting. Objectives 1. Identify the risks of bloodborne pathogen exposure. 2. Discuss the current status of multidisciplinary OR sharps safety initiatives. 3. Discuss the components of an OR sharps safety program. 4. Describe barriers to change. AORN Workplace Safety Background Workplace Safety Task Force Position Statement on Workplace Safety
Position Statement on Safe Work/On-call Practices AORN Guidance Statement: Sharps Injury Prevention in the Perioperative Setting AORN Recommended Practices for Sharps Safety Safe Patient Handling & Movement Surgical smoke initiatives Workplace Safety Tool Kit The Bloodborne Pathogens Standard Promulgated by Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) in 1991
o Purpose: to protect all workers who may come into contact with human blood or body fluids as a routine part of their job Revised in 2001 o New requirements for employers to maintain a sharps injury log and provide employees with safety needles 29 CFR 1910.1030. Occupational exposure. Bloodborne pathogens. 2009.Occupational safety and health standards: Bloodborne pathogens 19110300. Occupational Safety and Health Administration. http://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table=standards&p_id=10051. Accessed February 27, 2014.
Epidemiology of Bloodborne Diseases Bloodborne pathogens are viruses or infectious agents carried by human blood and body fluids They can enter our bodies and cause disease and immune deficiencies, which can sometimes lead to death Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Hepatitis B Virus (HBV)
Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Transmission of Bloodborne Pathogens Blood and body fluids from accidents, illnesses, medical procedures, research samples, or handling medical waste Disease transmission through cuts, punctures, contact with broken skin, or contact with mucous membranes Bloodborne Pathogen Hepatitis B
1 in 20 Hepatitis C 1 in 50 HIV Prevalence* 1 in 250
* Prevalence in an average population, prevalence is higher for at risk populations Prevalence of Bloodborne Pathogens in an Urban, University-Based General Surgical Practice* Results: Prevalence of HIV, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C among Surgery Patients * Weiss ES, Makary MA, Wang T, et al. Prevalence of blood-borne pathogens in an urban, university-based general surgical practice. Ann Surg. 2005;241(5):803-809.
Prevalence of Bloodborne Pathogens * Soft-tissue abscess procedures-71% Lymph-node biopsies-67% * Weiss ES, Makary MA, Wang T, et al. Prevalence of blood-borne pathogens in an urban, university-based general surgical practice. Ann Surg. 2005;241(5):803-809. Locations: Blood and Body Fluid Exposures http://www.cdc.gov/nhsn/PDFs/NaSH/NaSH-Report-6-2011.pdf Personnel: Exposed to Blood and Body Fluids
http://www.cdc.gov/nhsn/PDFs/NaSH/NaSH-Report-6-2011.pdf Sharps Injuries http://www.cdc.gov/nhsn/PDFs/NaSH/NaSH-Report-6-2011.pdf Increase in Sharps Injuries in Surgical Settings* Update 1993-2006 Epinet Data In the OR
Outside the OR Injury rates in non-surgical dropped 31.6% settings
Injury rates increased 6.5% Suture needles 43.4% Scalpel blades 17% Syringes 12% 75% of the injuries occurred during passing or use *Jagger J, Berguer R, Phillips EK, Parker G, Gomaa AE. Increase in sharps injuries in surgical settings versus nonsurgical settings after passage of national needlestick legislation. J Am Coll Surg. 2010;210(4):496-502.
OR Sharps Injuries Each year, 30% of the estimated needle sticks and other sharpsrelated injuries that occur happen in the OR. Of injuries, 6% to 16% are self-inflicted while passing suture needles. Sutures are the most frequent percutaneous injury. Scalpels are the second most frequent percutaneous injury. Patient Safety Risk Percutaneous injury to perioperative personnel places patients at an equal risk. The OR setting is the highest risk for this type of transmission.
Open wounds are susceptible to contamination. Personnel injuries often result in bleeding. Of 132 documented health care worker-to-patient transmissions of HIV, HBV, & HCV, 131 were transmitted during invasive surgery. Reducing injuries during surgery would correspondingly reduce patients risk of exposure. *Jagger J, Berguer R, Phillips EK, Parker G, Gomaa AE. Increase in sharps injuries in surgical settings versus Nonsurgical settings after passage of national needlestick legislation. J Am Coll Surg. 2010;210(4):496-502. Organizational Support
Collaboration with National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health [NIOSH] Memorandum of Understanding Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) National Sharps Injury Prevention Meeting-2005 American College of Surgeons (ACS) Statement on the Sharps Safety American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons (AAOS) Association of Surgical Technologists (AST) Council on Surgical and Perioperative Safety (CSPS) American Nurses Association (ANA) Recommitment: Safe Needles Save Lives- 2010 International Healthcare Worker Safety Meeting; University of Virginia-2010 Consensus Statement for Improving Sharps Safety-2012 Council on Surgical and Perioperative Safety (CSPS)
Principle #5 Sharps Safety The CSPS endorses sharps safety measures to prevent injury during perioperative care. Sharps safety measure should include o double-gloving; o use of blunt suture needles for fascia closure; and o use of the neutral zone, when appropriate, to avoid hand to hand passage of sharps. Adapted 7.15.07, Modified 2.5.09 Hierarchy of Controls
Hierarchy of Controls Elimination of the hazard Removing sharp objects from use when feasible Engineering controls Perioperative personnel must use sharps with safety-engineered devices Blunt suture needles, safety scalpels, safety syringes, and needles Hierarchy of Controls
Work practice controls Perioperative personnel must use work practice controls when handling sharp devices Neutral or safe zone No touch technique Sharp devices must be contained and disposed of safely Hierarchy of Controls
Administrative controls Health care facilities must establish a written exposure control plan. Initial and ongoing education competency validation of their understanding of the principles and performance of the processes for sharps safety. Documentation should reflect activities related to sharps safety. Policies and procedures for sharps safety processes and practices should be developed. Perioperative team members should participate in a variety of quality improvement activities . Hierarchy of Controls Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
Perioperative personnel must use PPE Double gloving Creating an OR Sharps Safety Program Engineering Controls o Tools, instruments, and sharps shelters o Blunt-tip suture needles, safety scalpels Work Practices
o Safe zone, and one-hand re-capping PPE o Double gloving Making Changes o Reviewing data, assembling committee, evaluating education and safety conversion
product, and active participation in Implementation Use alternative cutting methods: Electrosurgery Implementation Use alternative cutting
methods Ultrasonic scalpel Implementation Alternative suture devices
Use blunt rather than sharp retractors. Implementation Use protective caps on sharp instruments. Courtesy of Aspen Surgical. Implementation Use mechanical/instrument tissue retraction whenever possible.
Implementation Use scalpels with safety blades. Reusable Disposable Implementation Use next generation safety scalpel handles that will work with the any standard blade.
Courtesy of Aspen Surgical. Implementation Use blunt suture needles whenever possible. Joint Safety Communication US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), and OSHA. Encourage health care professionals in surgical settings to use blunt-tip suture needles for suturing muscle and fascia when it is clinically
appropriate. Blunt-tip suture needles reduce the risk of needle stick injury the risk of bloodborne pathogen. FDA, NIOSH and OSHA Joint Safety Communication: Blunt-Tip Surgical Suture Needles Reduce Needlestick Injuries and the Risk of Subsequent Bloodborne Pathogen Transmission to Surgical Personnel. Support for Blunt Suture Needles Suture needles are involved in as many as 77% of injuries. The 2007 New England Journal of Medicine study states that 99% of surgical residents experience a stick during training; more than half were not reported.
An American College of Surgeons study states that surgeons and first assistants are at the highest risk, incurring as many as 59% of the injuries. Support for Blunt Suture Needles An Epinet Study found that 59% of suture needle injuries occurred during suturing of internal tissue and that the use of blunt suture needles could potentially reduce rates by as much as 30.4%. Blunt needles are sharp enough to penetrate internal tissue with little or no change in technique but will not pierce the skin of the user. Implementation
Adopt the neutral zone/ hands-free technique of passing sharps and suture needles between perioperative team members Neutral Zone The neutral or safe zone is a designated area on the sterile field where a sharp can be placed and then picked up by the user. The ideal device for a neutral zone should be large enough sharps, not easily tipped over, and preferably mobile. to hold
Kidney basins may be dangerous when used to pass instruments because fingers wind up inside the basin next to the sharp. Neutral Zone Only one sharp should be in the neutral zone at a time.
The person passing the sharp can announce sharp when moving the instrument. There will be times when a surgeon cannot safely use the neutral zone because eye contact must be maintained with the surgical site.
Non-sharp instruments may still be passed hand-to- hand. Courtesy of Aspen Surgical. Why use a neutral zone? One-fourth of suture needle injuries and more than one half of scalpel injuries occur
when an instrument is passed from one person to another. Implementation Double gloving during all surgical procedures Punctured Gloves Linked to Higher Infection Rates*
University Hospital; Basel, Switzerland 4,147 surgical procedures analyzed Overall Surgical Site Infections(SSI) occurred 4.5% of time Glove perforation o infections increased to 7.5% of time o compared to 3.9% of time when gloves remained intact In procedures without prophylaxis but with perforation 12.7% compared to 2.9% when all gloves stayed intact Misteli H, Weber WP, Reck S, et al. Surgical glove perforation and the risk of surgical site infection. Arch Surg. 2009;144(6):553-8.
Punctured Gloves Linked to Higher Infection Rates* Recommendations o Use antibiotics in Class 1 procedures Double gloving and changing gloves every two hours prevents glove puncture or breakage. Studies cited in the article report that double gloving can reduce failure from a high of 51% to 7% depending on the study. Double gloving also decreases surgical site infection. * Misteli H, Weber WP, Reck S, et al. Surgical glove perforation and the risk of surgical site infection. Arch Surg. 2009;144(6):553-8.
Implementation No Touch Technique Load suture needles using the suture pack to help mount the needle in the needle holder. Use a one-handed or instrument-assisted suturing technique to avoid finger contact with needles. Use control-release or pop-off needles. Cut off the needle before tying knots. Implementation DO NOT bend, break, or re-cap contaminated needles.
If re-capping is absolutely required, use a recapping device or the one-handed scoop technique: One-handed scoop technique o Place the needle cap on the table. o Holding the syringe only, guide the needle into cap.
o Lift up the syringe so cap is sitting on the needle hub. o Secure needle cap into place. Local Solution on the Back Table High Volume - High Risk
o Use multiple labeled syringes instead of refilling a single syringe that must then be re-capped. o The cost of using multiple syringes is only pennies compared to the cost of a needlestick both literally and emotionally. o Activate the device immediately after use. Implementation Keep used needles on the sterile field in a disposable puncture-resistant needle container. Sharps Container Disposal
Sharps containers should either be color-coded red or orange and/or labeled with the universal biohazard symbol and the word biohazard. Use closable, leakproof puncture resistant containers. Place the sharps container close to the point-of-use and maintain it in an upright position either o wall mounted or o floor mounted. Replace the container routinely and do not allow it to become overfull.
Sharps Disposal Safety sharps containers Goal: to prevent needlesticks Counter-balanced drop Automatically closes at full prevents overfilling Reusable sharps containers Goal: to reduce landfill waste Outside contractor
removes contaminated sharps, cleans container, and returns it. Improper Sharps Disposal Knife blades and suture needles left on instruments that are returned to sterile processing have the potential to injure a sterile processing team member. Sharps not accounted for at the end of the case may be discarded in the garbage or fall on the floor, and have the potential to injure an environmental services team member.
Worker Responsibilities CDC Recommended work practices simplified: be prepared, be aware, and dispose with care.
Observe regulations. Actively participate in safety conversion. Practice using safety devices. Use safety devices. Prevent hollow-bore injuries. Worker Responsibilities Comply with methods available to protect yourself. Use personal protective equipment (i.e., surgical mask, eye
protection, double gloving, fluid-resistant gown). Use appropriate sharps containers. Participate in education and follow recommendations. Support others to follow the recommendations. Follow your exposure control policy. Report exposures. Employer Responsibilities Reporting Exposures Employers are required by OSHA to document all staff member exposures to blood or body fluids
anonymously. o OSHA 300 Log o Sharps Injury Log Location, job title, description of incident, and type and brand of sharp involved Source testing, risk analysis, and post-exposure prophylaxis Employer Responsibilities
Comply with regulations. Create a safety-oriented culture. Encourage reporting. Analyze data. Provide training.
Evaluate devices. Establish safe staffing patterns. Barriers to Implementation Psychosocial and organizational factors Attitude and resistance to change
Shortcomings associated with safety devices Perceived costs associated with engineered devices and safe work practices Inadequate training Time limitations Barriers to Implementation
Communication Resistance to change Intimidation Powerlessness Inconsistencies Perceived costs Inaccurate beliefs
Communication Practice change is effected by inadequate communication between OR administrators, managers, nursing staff members, and medical staff members. Perceived lack of support from management may cause staff feel that they are not empowered to enforce policy and make change. Lack of management follow through may lead to resistance to change. Negative attitudes of staff members impede effective communication and teamwork.
Resistance to Change Not wearing PPE. Not using safety products. Not using one handed recapping technique or multiple syringes as appropriate. Not double gloving or failure to monitor for glove puncture Not using a neutral or hands-free technique for passing sharps
Intimidation Surgeon resistance to change may cause staff members to feel intimidated. Surgeon is perceived as powerful and able to control policy and procedure implementation. Team members do what it takes to get through the day and do not report noncompliant behavior. Non-reporting leads to non-compliant behavior. Lack of consistency in practice causes conflict between surgeons and staff members.
Powerlessness Team members perceive surgeons as powerful and in control of policy and procedure implementation. Staff members feel divisive and powerless. Staff members feel negative to one another. Staff members are unwilling to report surgeons behavior due to fear of reprisal. Inaccurate Beliefs Safety items are time consuming. Safety items are cost prohibitive.
I am always careful. Overcoming Obstacles to Compliance Frequent and multiple training methods Multidisciplinary sharps injury prevention plan Education of new employees, incoming residents, and medical students Multidisciplinary sharps safety committee Networking with other facilities Overcoming Obstacles to Compliance
Collaborate with personnel who use the device and facilitate change. Discuss current research. Work with resistant team members. Remove old technology when new technology is trialed and available. Create a culture of safety. Developing & Implementing a Prevention Program Organizational Steps Assess
o review what is currently in place Document the development phase Evaluate the impact of your prevention interventions Workbook for Designing, Implementing, and Evaluating a Sharps Injury Prevention Program. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/sharpssafety/pdf/sharpsworkbook_2008.pdf. Accessed February 27, 2014. Assemble a Multidisciplinary Team Develop an action plan o Review current process.
Operational processes o Assess culture of safety. o Identify a procedure for reporting injuries. o Analyze data and use of information. o Select, evaluate, and implement a program. o Educate and train personnel. Education & Training Opportunities Annual BBP Training
Initial orientation to department Annual bloodborne pathogens training Staff development training on procedures Introduction of new devices Educate residents and medical students including using the products currently available for hands-ontraining Annual Training Content* Number of sharps injuries reported Occupations, devices, and procedures involved The most common ways injuries occurred
Questions and Answers opportunity for employees to ask questions. *OSHA requirement Sample Tool to Make Change Assess Culture of Safety Questions What strategies does administration use to communicate the importance of safe environments for patients and health care personnel?
How has administration shown support for the introduction of safety interventions (eg, devices with engineered sharps injury prevention features)? What strategies are used to document that sharps injury hazards have been corrected? How are workers who identify a hazard informed that corrective action has been taken? Current Practice Strategies for Improvement
Identify Procedure for Reporting Injuries Questions Where are copies of the organizations policy/procedure for reporting occupational blood and body fluid exposures located? On what date was the policy/procedure last reviewed? Is this date within the past 12 months? What items of information (eg, name, date,
device, procedure) are collected on the injury report form? How does this list compare to the variables recommended standards? Current Practice Strategies for Improvement Analyze Data & Use of Information
Questions How are data on sharps injuries stored (eg, computerized database, incident log)? Where is the information kept? Who compiles, analyzes, and interprets the data? How often is this done? How often are summary reports on injury trends prepared? Who receives copies of this information? What data sources (eg, committee reports) are used to monitor improvement in sharps injury
data analysis? Current Practice Strategies for Improvement Select, Evaluate, and Implement Questions What committee or group is responsible for evaluating devices with sharps injury
prevention features? How are front-line workers involved in this review? How are priorities determined for what devices will be considered for implementation? Which devices currently have the highest priority? How are health care personnel trained in the use of new devices? Who is responsible for ensuring that this is done, and how is it documented?
Current Practice Strategies for Improvement Education and Training Questions How training is provided to the perioperative program? Are there any groups who are not being reached? How are students, per diem staff, members, and
contractors trained on sharps injury prevention? How is completion of training documented? Who is responsible for maintaining this information, and where is it located? Current Practice Strategies for Improvement
Sample Plan to Make Change Create a Case Study Presentation What sharps injury occurred? How did it happen? Group discussion of prevention methods Review facilities recommendations and suggestions for improvement Change to Blunt Needles Surgical champion(s)
Reasons to support change to blunt needles surgeon safety resident safety o education starts with them surgical scrub safety cost of suture verses cost of needlestick Use Sales Representative
Set up the trial. Plan the time line. Work with positive surgeons. Stage service lines. Use the sales representative effectively by having him or her help surgical scrub person. Select comparable suture for procedure. Update preference cards with nursing staff.
Communication Communicate with surgical chairpersons regarding the blunt suture trial with dates. Recruit positive surgeons (champion) first. Communicate with the perioperative staff members the trial and how it will work. Substitute the blunt needle suture and remove the current product. Provide evaluation sheets to be completed by surgeons.
Reasons to Change Decreases potential for injury from inadvertent sticks while suturing. Provides for addition of antibiotic coated suture. Decreases incidents of glove punctures caused by needlesticks. Cost Opportunities for Magnet Hospitals Occupational health injuries The CDC reports 385,000 needlestick injuries per year, which averages 67.5 per hospital.
Multiple studies report up to a 1/3 reduction in needlestick injuries in Magnet facilities at a cost of $405/event. Blood and body fluid exposures are also lower in hospitals with Magnet status. Drenkard K. The business case for Magnet. J Nurs Adm. 2010;40(6):263-271. . AORN Sharps Safety Tool Kit
How to implement blunt-tip suture needles Online resources Literature review Sharps Safety Law! o OSHA 29 CFR 1910.1030 (1992) o
Needlestick Safety & Prevention Act (2000) Evidence supports sharps safety measures Support and recommendation of perioperative organizations Yesterday Today Clinical Nursing Practice Committee Sharps Safety Workgroup 2010-2012
Donna A. Ford, MSN,RN-BC,CNORChairperson Deborah G. Spratt, BSN,RN, MPA,CNOR,NEA-BCWorkgroup Lead o Beth A. Beilein, BSN,RN,MSM,CNOR o Nedra V. Brown, BSN,RN,MHA o Trudy A. Kenyon, RN,CNOR o Dawn M. Yost BSN,RN,CNOR o Ramon Berguer, MD o Sherri Alexander, CST Jane Kusler-Jensen, RN,MBA,CNORBoard liaison Mary J. Ogg, MSN,RN,CNORStaff liaison
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