Data for the ITER Plasma Control System L.

Data for the ITER Plasma Control System L.

Data for the ITER Plasma Control System L. Zabeo, P C de Vries, J A Snipes, A Winter, G Vayakis, C Watts, M F M de Bock ITER Organization The views and opinions expressed herein do not necessarily reflect those of the ITER Organization. L Zabeo, 1st IAEA-TM on Fusion Data Processing Validation and Analysis, 1-3 June 2015 Nice, France 2015, ITER Organization IDM UID: 1 Outline Introduction PCS background Data for the PCS ITER diagnostics Data for real-time PCS Data managing PCSSP Conclusion L Zabeo, 1st IAEA-TM on Fusion Data Processing Validation and Analysis, 1-3 June 2015 Nice, France 2015, ITER Organization IDM UID:

2 Introduction The ITER device to drive the plasma to high performance will: make use of numerous control systems; require constant optimization of the plasma parameters. have substantial magnetic and kinetic energies requiring avoiding or mitigating abrupt plasma disruptions in order to guarantee the expected life-time and the integrity of the in-vessel components. The two roles plasma execution/optimization and the first line of defense is reserved to the: Plasma Control System (PCS) L Zabeo, 1st IAEA-TM on Fusion Data Processing Validation and Analysis, 1-3 June 2015 Nice, France 2015, ITER Organization IDM UID: 3 PCS Conceptual Design summary PCS controls all aspects of plasma operation: plasma initiation, ramp-up, flattop, ramp-down, controlled termination throughout the control of all the available actuators. The PCS takes input signals from relevant diagnostics and plant systems and uses control algorithms to output signals to actuators to control the plasma, including plasma

operations related event handling. The PCS is the first line of defense for investment protection on ITER designed to operate within specified Operating Limits and Conditions (OLC) and to respond first to both plasma and plant system events in real-time to attempt to protect the ITER investment and avoid interlocks (dedicated system is in charge of the investment protection). L Zabeo, 1st IAEA-TM on Fusion Data Processing Validation and Analysis, 1-3 June 2015 Nice, France 2015, ITER Organization IDM UID: 4 PCS: functional breakdown ITER Organization L Zabeo, 1st IAEA-TM on Fusion Data Processing Validation and Analysis, 1-3 June 2015 Nice, France 2015, ITER Organization IDM UID: 5 PCS ongoing contract framework: few tasks Develop disruption predictors and detectors: perform analysis and design key disruption predictors (e.g. locked mode, VDE, radiation limit). Assess expected effectiveness. Identify

interdependencies among TQ/CQ mitigation control actions, RE control actions, and other PCS and EH/CIS actions. Investigations on stray field topology reconstruction during plasma initiation phase: assessment of the performance of EFIT++ in the reconstruction of stray field topologies in the presence of unknown 3D eddy currents affecting both the stray field and the magnetic sensor measurements. Performance assessment of an initial plasma shape (and flux in the vacuum region): identification algorithm suitable for low plasma current operations. Assessment of the performance of F4E reconstruction code in all the static and dynamic situation of interest for the Ip, RIp, ZIp control, for shape control during the limiter phase, and for X-point formation. Develop initial policies and methods for centralised and decentralised exception handling: develop detailed methods to a) detect control related events; b) select appropriate exception handling policies (prioritization, concurrency); c) execute exception handling actions, both in a central coordinating Pulse Supervision domain and as re-usable functions in PCS sub-modules. Demonstrate the viability of the architectural design with simulation models: implement an example architecture model in the PCS Simulation Platform (PCSSP) and execute simulation to proof the viability of the proposed architectural design. L Zabeo, 1st IAEA-TM on Fusion Data Processing Validation and Analysis, 1-3 June 2015 Nice, France 2015, ITER Organization IDM UID: 6 PCS ongoing contract framework: few tasks Develop disruption predictors and detectors: perform analysis and design key disruption predictors (e.g. locked mode, VDE, radiation limit). Assess expected effectiveness. Identify interdependencies among TQ/CQ mitigation control actions, RE control actions, and other PCS and EH/CIS actions.

Investigations on stray field topology reconstruction during plasma initiation phase: assessment of the performance of EFIT++ in the reconstruction of stray field topologies in the presence of unknown 3D eddy currents affecting both the stray field and the magnetic sensor measurements. Performance assessment of an initial plasma shape (and flux in the vacuum region): identification algorithm suitable for low plasma current operations. Assessment of the performance of F4E reconstruction code in all the static and dynamic situation of interest for the Ip, RIp, ZIp control, for shape control during the limiter phase, and for X-point formation. Develop initial policies and methods for centralised and decentralised exception handling: develop detailed methods to a) detect control related events; b) select appropriate exception handling policies (prioritization, concurrency); c) execute exception handling actions, both in a central coordinating Pulse Supervision domain and as re-usable functions in PCS sub-modules. Demonstrate the viability of the architectural design with simulation models: implement an example architecture model in the PCS Simulation Platform (PCSSP) and execute simulation to proof the viability of the proposed architectural design. L Zabeo, 1st IAEA-TM on Fusion Data Processing Validation and Analysis, 1-3 June 2015 Nice, France 2015, ITER Organization IDM UID: 7 ITER Diagnostics VESSEL WALL (Distributed Systems) UPPER PORT (12 used) EQUATORIAL PORT

(8 used) DIVERTOR PORT (6 used) DIVERTOR CASSETTES (16 used) ITER will be supported by about a large number of diagnostics that will provide about 50 measurements. Each measurement will provide from one to many parameters. L Zabeo, 1st IAEA-TM on Fusion Data Processing Validation and Analysis, 1-3 June 2015 Nice, France 2015, ITER Organization IDM UID: 8 ITER Diagnostics for Plasma Control ITER has allocated one or more diagnostics to plasma parameters to which one or more among the following roles is assigned: Machine Protection (MP) (either used for interlock, monitoring or after pulse) Basic Control (BC) Advance Control (AC)

Physics (PH) The identified requirements for each of the measurement parameters are the most demanding to address the roles. L Zabeo, 1st IAEA-TM on Fusion Data Processing Validation and Analysis, 1-3 June 2015 Nice, France 2015, ITER Organization IDM UID: 9 ITER Diagnostics list Magnetic sensors Neutron diagnostics Optical diagnostics Vessel Magnetics In-Vessel Magnetics Divertor Magnetics External Rogowskis Diamagnetic Loop Halo Current Sensors Radial Neutron Camera Vertical Neutron Camera Microfission Chambers Flux Monitors

Gamma-ray Spectrometers Activation Systems Lost Alpha Detectors Thomson Scattering (Core) Thomson Scattering (Edge) Thomson Scattering (X-point) Thomson Scattering (Divertor) Toroidal Interferometry/Polarimetry Poloidal Field Measurement System Operational diagnostics IR Cameras Visible / IR TV Thermocouples Pressure Gauges Residual Gas Analysers IR Thermography Langmuir Probes Spectroscopic diagnostics Microwave diagnostics Charge Exchange Resonance Spectroscopy H Alpha Spectroscopy Impurity Monitor for Main Plasma Divertor Impurity/Influx Monitor X-Ray Crystal Spectrometer Visible Continuum Array Neutral Particle Analysers

Motional Stark Effect Electron cyclotron emission Reflectometry for the main plasma Reflectometry for plasma position Reflectometry for the divertor Bolometric diagnostics Bolometry The majority of the diagnostics will have a contribution to measurements allocated to MP, BC or AC. That implies that a large fraction of the data to be delivered in realtime to PCS through the real-time network. L Zabeo, 1st IAEA-TM on Fusion Data Processing Validation and Analysis, 1-3 June 2015 Nice, France 2015, ITER Organization IDM UID: 10 ITER Diagnostics for MP L Zabeo, 1st IAEA-TM on Fusion Data Processing Validation and Analysis, 1-3 June 2015 Nice, France 2015, ITER Organization IDM UID: 11

ITER Diagnostics for BC L Zabeo, 1st IAEA-TM on Fusion Data Processing Validation and Analysis, 1-3 June 2015 Nice, France 2015, ITER Organization IDM UID: 12 ITER Diagnostics for AC L Zabeo, 1st IAEA-TM on Fusion Data Processing Validation and Analysis, 1-3 June 2015 Nice, France 2015, ITER Organization IDM UID: 13 ITER Diagnostics requirements Measurement Parameter Role Condition

Range or Coverage Resolution Accuracy Time or Freq, Spatial or Wave no 0-1 MA 1ms Integral 10kA 1-17.5MA 1ms Integral 1% 25-0MA 0.1ms

Integral 30%+10kA Default 11018-41020 m-3 1ms Integral 1% After killer pellet 81020-21022 m-3 1ms Integral 100% - 20us One site

- 0.1ms 5mm 5% 0.05-10keV 0.1ms 5mm 10% - 20us One site - Default 01 Plasma Current Ip

1a.1 Ip Quench 06. Line Averaged Electron Density Ne 1a.2 ELM D bursts 14. Hmode: ELMs and L-H Transition Indicator 1a.1 Main plasma ELM density transient 2 r/a > 0.85 ELM temperature transient 2

r/a > 0.85 L-H D step 1a.2 Main plasma 51018-31020 m-3 Measurement Group Contributing Diagnostics (primary) 01. Plasma current In-vessel Magnetics, MSE, Outer-Vessel Magnetics, Polarimeter, Continuous Rogowski 06. Line- averaged electron density Toroidal Interferometer/Polarimeter, Reflectometry, Thomson Scattering 14. H-mode, ELMs and L-H mode transition indicator H-Alpha, Visible spectroscopy, Reflectometry, Thomson scattering, BES, ECE, IR cameras, CXRS, Divertor interferometer

L Zabeo, 1st IAEA-TM on Fusion Data Processing Validation and Analysis, 1-3 June 2015 Nice, France 2015, ITER Organization IDM UID: 14 Plasma parameter flow down (1) Because of the way plasma parameters have been defined a flow-down exercise is ongoing in order to extract the requirements per diagnostics. PCS/diagnostic has to organize the input data in a way to provide controllers with the plasma parameters performing as in the requirements. Different performance might be associated to different use of the diagnostic. Multiple diagnostics may have to be integrated in order to derive a plasma parameter. The difficulty is that each diagnostic has its own capabilities but ultimately the parameter has to meet the requirements. Distributing the requirements among the involved diagnostics is not easily done. L Zabeo, 1st IAEA-TM on Fusion Data Processing Validation and Analysis, 1-3 June 2015 Nice, France 2015, ITER Organization IDM UID: 15

Plasma parameter flow down (2) Distribution of multiple diagnostics for covering the entire set of requirements. PoPola TIP Line-averaged electron density H-mode, ELMs and L-H mode transition indicator Electron density profile TS edge/core Reflect.s Div. Inter. High frequency instabilities Integration of multiple diagnostics for providing one or more plasma parameters. Magn. MSE Equilibrium code for: Plasma shape and internal kinetic profiles density

L Zabeo, 1st IAEA-TM on Fusion Data Processing Validation and Analysis, 1-3 June 2015 Nice, France 2015, ITER Organization IDM UID: 16 PCS requirements parameters-diagnostics The original requirements table didnt include a basic control parameter: latency. Data necessarily are delivered with a delay that is compatible with the time scale of the controlled parameter and the controller cycle time. This requirement has an impact on the processing of the raw data. Additionally PCS requires to: Low failure of the input for the controllers; Guarantee availability of the parameters by means of providing alternative input accepting, eventually, reduced performance. Particular important is the capability of terminating the plasma with a limited set or less accurate input parameters. Control parameter should be validated. Data from diagnostics, either raw or processed, are required to be associated with a quality flag. Example: Magnetic diagnostics for plasma shape. Alternative set of magnetics probes for improving robustness (failure) Alternative algorithm or cross comparisons for validations (failure, noise) L Zabeo, 1st IAEA-TM on Fusion Data Processing Validation and Analysis, 1-3 June 2015 Nice, France

2015, ITER Organization IDM UID: 17 Data integration in PCS PCS will be able to receive all of the real-time data generated by diagnostics either raw data or processed. Processed data might be either generated within diagnostics or within PCS environment (PCS already foreseen some supporting functionalities). PCS will also implement additional features that would allow prediction (disruptions) and interpretation of the data (plasma modes), validation through cross comparison (multiple densities), integration for more complex data generation (i.e. real-time transport code?). Real-time network Diag. Validation Diag. Process Events detection Process

Models Controller Diag. Diag. L Zabeo, 1st IAEA-TM on Fusion Data Processing Validation and Analysis, 1-3 June 2015 Nice, France 2015, ITER Organization IDM UID: 18 PCS-Diagnostic interface Interface documentation definition between the PCS and Diagnostics is ongoing. The interfaces will include the requirements from PCS for each of the diagnostics allowing additional documentation (i.e. flow-down reports) with the specifications from diagnostics to plasma parameters. L Zabeo, 1st IAEA-TM on Fusion Data Processing Validation and Analysis, 1-3 June 2015 Nice, France 2015, ITER Organization IDM UID: 19 PCS Interlock data integration High reliability for the data associated to machine protection. Not only data as

input to controllers but also for the monitoring of plant system limits are essential. Estimation and forecast of various plasma and plant conditions linked to investment protection are needed. From the list some very important examples are: - shine-through (estimation and monitoring) - electromagnetic forces at the coils - heat load at the in-vessel components - vertical moments for VDE avoidance Close collaboration among PCS team, plant system experts and CIS (Central Interlock System). Simplified version for the in Interlock Accurate estimation of the IxB forces at the magnets Threshold for the Interlock Threshold for PCS operation L Zabeo, 1st IAEA-TM on Fusion Data Processing Validation and Analysis, 1-3 June 2015 Nice, France 2015, ITER Organization IDM UID: 20 PCSSP Development of controls will strongly rely on simulations:

Controllers and algorithms will be tested before to be deployed in the actual control system. Because of the installation during time of the machine simulations are required in absence of real data. In order to perform the better simulations the plasma and plant systems behaviors have to be properly simulated. That includes also diagnostic simulation. PCSSP: Plasma Control System Simulation Platform It is available in ITER (first version). Modelling/simulations are organized as blocks to be properly connected (rules available). L Zabeo, 1st IAEA-TM on Fusion Data Processing Validation and Analysis, 1-3 June 2015 Nice, France 2015, ITER Organization IDM UID: 21 PCSSP ITER Organization Diagnostic procurement should include synthetic data generation to be provided in order to guarantee the more realistic (as realistic as needed) control simulations.

L Zabeo, 1st IAEA-TM on Fusion Data Processing Validation and Analysis, 1-3 June 2015 Nice, France 2015, ITER Organization IDM UID: 22 Conclusions PCS will rely on a significant and diversified set of diagnostics that will provide parameters input for controllers and event detection. Integration of the diagnostics is not trivial because of the requirements from PCS: quality is not the only requirement for PCS. Robustness and availability are even more stringent especially when approaching the nuclear phase. Integration of diagnostics with other plant systems and Interlock is also strategic for the success of ITER plasmas. Synthetic data are mandatory for the design of controllers through out simulations (PCSSP is available). PCS aiming at the PDR has to define the interfaces with the diagnostics involved in the first phase of operation. Data processing techniques, new algorithms and data interpretation are still needed as opportunity for providing PCS with better, more reliable and novelty inputs. L Zabeo, 1st IAEA-TM on Fusion Data Processing Validation and Analysis, 1-3 June 2015 Nice, France 2015, ITER Organization IDM UID:

23 Backup slides L Zabeo, 1st IAEA-TM on Fusion Data Processing Validation and Analysis, 1-3 June 2015 Nice, France 2015, ITER Organization IDM UID: 24 PCS Preliminary Design The PCS design is now aiming the preliminary design review (PDR). The aim is the identification and the proposing of feasible solutions in the areas of plasma control and protection. The design will focus on: - a subset of the functionalities identified during the conceptual design that are required for the first phase of ITER operations (up to few MA) and commissioning; - the PCS architecture. (*) No advanced controls or MHD control/avoidance will be investigated at this stage. L Zabeo, 1st IAEA-TM on Fusion Data Processing Validation and Analysis, 1-3 June 2015 Nice, France 2015, ITER Organization IDM UID:

25 Required plasma parameter for first plasma Diagnostic Magnetics for position, velocity, shape and mode structure Line averaged electron density (toroidal polarimeter/ interferometer) Runaway electron detection (hard X-rays) Impurity identification and influxes (visible and near UV spectroscopy including H and visible bremsstrahlung), partial systems Visible TV viewing (spectroscopically filtered), partial coverage Torus pressure and gas composition (torus pressure gauges, RGA) Data for gas balance measurements Stage required From first plasma From first plasma From first plasma From first plasma From first plasma From first plasma From first plasma This list is only reporting what it is necessary for achieving the first goal of this phase of ITER operation. More diagnostics might be beneficial to better understanding of the machine conditions and plasma breakdown but they are not mandatory. L Zabeo, 1st IAEA-TM on Fusion Data Processing Validation and Analysis, 1-3 June 2015 Nice, France

2015, ITER Organization IDM UID: 26 Required plasma parameter for ITER research plan Diagnostic Stage required Magnetics for position, velocity, shape and mode structure Line averaged electron density (toroidal polarimeter/ interferometer) Runaway electron detection (hard X-rays) Impurity identification and influxes (visible and near UV spectroscopy including H and visible bremsstrahlung), partial systems Visible TV viewing (spectroscopically filtered), partial coverage From first plasma From first plasma From first plasma Torus pressure and gas composition (torus pressure gauges, RGA) Data for gas balance measurements From first plasma From first plasma From first plasma From first plasma

Visible/IR TV viewing (full coverage) and divertor thermography H/He C1 Langmuir Probes and Divertor Thermocouples (divertor plasma, divertor target characterization) Divertor duct pressure and gas composition (divertor duct pressure gauges, RGAs) H/He C1 H/He C1 Impurity identification and influxes, Zeff (visible and near UV spectroscopy, including H and visible bremsstrahlung, He, Be, Ne, Kr, Ar, W emission), complete systems Vacuum Ultra Violet spectroscopy High-Z impurity content (XRCS and Radial Soft X-ray Cameras) H/He C1 H/He C1 H/He C1 Halo current measurements Radiated power distribution (Bolometry) H/He C1 H/He C1 Core profiles of density, electron and ion temperatures (TS, ECE, XRCS) H/He C1

Edge profiles of density, electron and ion temperature (TS, ECE, Reflectometry, CXRS) Divertor pressure (Cassette pressure gauges) Dust (and erosion) monitors H/He C2 H/He C2 H/He C2 L Zabeo, 1st IAEA-TM on Fusion Data Processing Validation and Analysis, 1-3 June 2015 Nice, France 2015, ITER Organization IDM UID: 27 PCS: functional breakdown ITER Organization L Zabeo, 1st IAEA-TM on Fusion Data Processing Validation and Analysis, 1-3 June 2015 Nice, France 2015, ITER Organization IDM UID: 28

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