Mandatory Reporting of At-Risk Elder Abuse, Caretaker Neglect,
Mandatory Reporting of At-Risk Elder Abuse, Caretaker Neglect, and Exploitation* When and how to report abuse, caretaker neglect, and exploitation Adult Protective Services P Colorado Colorado Adult Protective Services *Section 18-6.5-108, C.R.S. Welcome The goals of this training are to define: What is mandatory reporting. Who is required to report. What situations must be reported and to
whom. How to make a report to APS and Law Enforcement. 2 Beginning July 1, 2014 certain professionals must report: Abuse Caretaker Neglect and Exploitation Of at risk-elders 3 Who is an at-risk elder? An at-risk elder is any person who is 70
years of age or older. 4 When do I make a report? If you are a mandatory reporter and you witness, or become aware that an at-risk elder has been, or is at imminent risk for, mistreatment (abuse, caretaker neglect, or exploitation),you must make a report to law enforcement within 24 hours. 5 Mandatory Reporters.. Physicians, surgeons, physicians assistants, osteopaths, physicians in training, podiatrists, occupational therapists
Medical examiners and coroners Registered nurses, licensed practical nurses, and nurse practitioners Hospital and long term care facility personnel engaged in the admission, care, or treatment of patients Psychologists and other mental health professionals Social work practitioners Dentist Law enforcement officials and personnel Court appointed guardians and conservators 6 There are more.
Fire protection personnel Pharmacists Community Centered Board staff Personnel of banks, savings and loan associations, credit unions, and other lending or financial institutions A caretaker, staff member, employee, volunteer, or consultant for a licensed or certified care facility, agency home, or governing board, including but not limited to home health providers Emergency medical service providers Physical therapists Chiropractors Clergy ( as defined in the childrens code- CRS 19-3-304(2)(AA) and CRS 13-90-109(1)(C) 7
You will need to know what to look for and how to make a report. 8 Physical Abuse Physical abuse occurs when someone causes bodily harm to an at-risk elder, such as causing physical pain or bruising; or when unreasonable confinement or restraint is imposed on the at-risk elder. elder. 9 Indicators of Physical Abuse Repeated visits to the emergency room. Bruises or injuries in various stages of healing. Unconvincing explanations of injuries. Elder is isolated from family, friends, and medical care.
10 Examples of Physical abuse A caretaker roughly handles the at-risk elder and causes pain. A non-ambulatory at-risk elder is left alone for long periods of time, or for safety reasons, is restrained in a wheelchair or elsewhere using a rope or other material. A family member bites, hits, pushes, or slaps the atrisk elder. 11 Indicators of the Abuser Reacts inappropriately in situations with the at-risk elder
Expresses unrealistic expectations of the at-risk elder Unwilling to allow others contact with the at-risk elder; isolates at-risk elder Relates contradictory history when talking about the at-risk elder. Aggressive behavior
(threatens, insults and harasses) Previous history of abuse to others 12 Sexual Abuse Sexual abuse means subjecting an at-risk elder to unlawful sexual conduct or contact. 13 Physical Signs of Sexual Abuse
Behavioral Signs of Sexual Abuse Difficulty in walking, sitting, or standing. Scared or timid behavior. Depressed, withdrawn behavior. Torn, stained, or bloody underclothing.
Sudden changes in personality. Bruises, pain, bleeding, or injuries to the genitals, breast, or anal areas. Fear of certain people or of physical characteristics. Unexpected reluctance to cooperate with toileting and/or physical examination of genitalia. Sexually transmitted diseases. 14
Caretaker Neglect Caretaker neglect occurs when an at-risk elders caretaker fails to make sure the elder has adequate food, clothing, shelter, psychological care, physical care, medical care, or supervision OR The caretaker does not provide these things in a timely manner or with the degree of care that a reasonable person in the same situation would use. 15 Who is a Caretaker? It can be a person who is paid or unpaid and who has assumed responsibility for the care of an at-risk elder or has identified themself as the elders caretaker. It can be a family member, a home health provider, a facility staff or a neighbor who has
agreed to provide recurring assistance to help the elder meet his/her basic needs. Occasional shopping or cleaning for an at-risk elder doesnt mean the Good Samaritan has assumed responsibility for the at-risk elders care. 16 Signs of Caretaker Neglect Unusual weight loss, malnutrition, dehydration Untreated physical problems, such as bed sores Unsanitary living conditions: dirt, bugs, soiled bedding
Being left in dirty, soiled clothing Unsafe living conditions (no heat or running water; faulty electrical wiring, other fire hazards) Being left alone when unable to self care or protect self Improper use of medications in order to control the adult Lack of medical aids (glasses, walker or cane,
teeth or dentures, hearing aids, medications) Failure to provide food and water 17 18 Expresses unrealistic expectatio-ns of the elder (should be able to) Previous history of
abuse to others Aggressive behavior (threats, insults, harrassment) Caretaker blames the elder (e.g., accusation that incontinen-ce is a deliberate act) Expresses
anger and frustration with the elder Elder is not allowed to talk to others without the caregiver in the room Characteristics of the Abuser/Caregiver When it is NOT Caregiver neglect Remember, at-risk elders have the right to direct their own health care services. Some elders create advance directives or have their physician write orders about:
Medication, medical procedures/devices Hospice care Living Wills CPR Dialysis, and Artificial nutrition and hydration These situations are NOT considered to be caretaker neglect. 19 Exploitation Exploitation means taking an at-risk elders
money or other assets against their will or without their knowledge. In other words, stealing from the adult. It also means deceiving, harassing, intimidating, or using undue influence to get the elder to do something against their will. 20 Examples of Exploitation Guardians, Conservators, Representative Payees, or agents under a power of attorney use the elders assets for their own personal use; or do not use elders money to secure the elders basic needs and care.
An at-risk elders son uses his power of attorney to access the elders account to buy himself a new truck. An at-risk elder has a stroke and cognitive damage. His daughter agrees to move in to help with meals, cleaning and transportation. The daughter routinely tells her father she will put him in a nursing home if he doesnt give her money. 21 Signs of Exploitation
Deviations in financial habits Numerous unpaid bills Checks made to cash Disparity between lifestyle and assets Personal belongings missing 22 Behavioral Signs of Exploiters Conducts all banking transactions Makes all investment decisions Receives expensive gifts from
the elder Asks only financial questions Refuses to spend money on the at-risk elders care 23 Who Abuses, Neglects, and Exploits At-Risk Elders? The sad reality is that most often it is a family member, someone the elder knows, or a caregiver. It can be anyone: the neighbor, the home care staff, the handyman, clergy, family, friends, hired help, or anyone else who has contact with the elder. 24
How to Report to Law Enforcement Have as much information as possible about the at-risk elder, the alleged perpetrator, and what is concerning you. Law enforcement will need the following information: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Name and address of the at-risk elder. A description of the alleged mistreatment and the situation; what did you observe? What is the nature and extent of the injury? Who is the alleged perpetrator; name and address if possible. Any other information that you feel is relevant. 25
Its okay to report if you just suspect something is wrong. As long as you make the report in good faith you are immune from any criminal charges or a civil lawsuit for damages. You are not immune if you are the perpetrator of the mistreatment. 26 False Reporting If you knowingly make a false report of mistreatment it is a class 3 Misdemeanor. If charged and convicted of false reporting you could receive a fine of up to $750, or six months in jail, or both. If you make a false report and are found guilty, you will also be liable for any damages caused by your actions. 27 Failure to Report
If you are a mandatory reporter and you willfully fail to make a report of observed or suspected abuse, neglect, or exploitation of an at-risk elder, it is a class 3 Misdemeanor. If charged and convicted of failing to report you could receive a fine of up to $750, or six months in jail, or both. 28 What Happens After a Report is Made? Law enforcement will share the report with Adult Protective Services (APS) within 24 hours. Law Enforcement will also notify the District Attorney (DA) of the report. Law Enforcement may investigate the report. APS may investigate the report and offer the client protective services.
Law enforcement will provide a copy of their investigation report to APS and the DA. The DA will review the report for possible criminal charges. 29 What Are the Roles of APS and Law Enforcement? APS Helps at-risk adults when they are unable to meet their own needs and are victims of
mistreatment. Investigates reports of alleged mistreatment. Offers protective case services for at-risk adults who have been mistreated. Collaborates with law enforcement, the District Attorney, and other community partners to help protect at-risk adults. Law Enforcement Will complete a criminal
investigation when a report of abuse, neglect, or exploitation warrants one. Will notify APS within 24 hours of the report and will coordinate intervention, if needed. Will notify the District Attorney (DA) and will provide the DA with a written report of all investigations. 30 APS will continue to take reports of mistreatment and self-neglect of at-risk adults. The same group of professionals who are required to report mistreatment of at-risk elders are urged to report mistreatment and self-neglect of at-risk adults. Anyone can and should report suspected abuse or
neglect to APS or law enforcement. 31 At-Risk Adults At-risk adults are persons 18 years of age or older who are susceptible to mistreatment or self-neglect because: They are unable to obtain necessary support services, or They lack
sufficient understanding or capacity to make or communicate responsible decisions. Conditions that increase risk include dementia, physical or medical frailty, developmental disabilities, brain injury, behavioral disorders, and mental illness. 32 Examples of at-risk adults A 67 year old male with dementia who cannot remember to pay his bills and has
no water or electricity in his home. A 20 year old developmentally delayed (DD) adult who is being locked in her bedroom by her caregiver for 8 hours a day without food and water. A 36 year old female who is wheelchair bound, has advanced stages
of MS, and needs 24/7 care and is being physically abused by her husband. A 68 year old male who lives alone and there are reports he is not eating or bathing and he is unable to get to the store for food. 33 Examples of adults who are NOT at risk adults
An adult of any age with decision-making capacity A 35 year old man who walks who: with a cane or uses a poor investment decisions or wheelchair but is able to Makes participates in a lottery scam; perform all activities Is involved in a landlord-tenant necessary to provide for his dispute; Chooses to live in a dirty home or health and safety. with multiple pets; Uses alcohol and drugs to excess. 34 Self-Neglect
Self-neglect occurs when an at-risk adult endangers his/her health, safety, welfare, or life by not getting the services they need to meet their basic human needs. 35 Examples and Signs of Self-Neglect At-risk adult doesnt understand how to manage his/her medications and some days takes too many and some days doesnt take any at all. At-risk adult is not bathing and remains in the same soiled clothes for weeks. Unsafe living conditions; lack of food or basic utilities in the home. Hoarding animals or trash. Inability to manage finances and pay monthly bills. Inability to manage day to day activities. 36
Making a Report to APS Have as much information as possible about the at-risk adult, the perpetrator and what is concerning you. APS will need the following information: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Name and address of the at-risk adult. A description of the alleged mistreatment and the situation; what did you observe? What is the nature and extent of the injury? Who is the alleged perpetrator; name and address if possible. Any other information that you feel is relevant. 37
What Happens After I Make a Report? 1.APS will screen the report and determine the appropriate response. 2. The report may be shared with law enforcement. 3. APS will take appropriate action, which may include an investigation.
4. APS may request a joint investigation with law enforcement or another agency. 5. APS may offer protective services to the at-risk adult 38 APS Priorities Confidentiality Consent SelfDetermination
Least Restrictive Intervention APS At-risk adults At-risk adults APS will always investigations must consent to have the right to try to implement and reports are protective make their own services for the services. APS confidential and choices, unless shortest duration does not need cannot be shared they no longer and the
except in very consent to have capacity, or minimum extent limited conduct an unless their necessary to circumstances. investigation into choices violate a protect the atallegations of law or are a risk adult. mistreatment. danger to others. 39 Right to Refuse Services At-risk adults have the right to make lifestyle choices that others may see as objectionable or even dangerous, including: Refusing medical treatment or
medication Choosing to abuse alcohol or drugs Living in a dirty or cluttered home Continuing to live with the perpetrator Keeping large numbers of pets, or Engaging in other behaviors that may not be safe 40 To Summarize: Right now you are urged to report allegations of physical or sexual abuse, caretaker neglect, exploitation, and selfneglect involving at-risk adults (age 18 and older) to APS within 24 after making the observation or discovery. Beginning July 1, 2014 you must report suspected physical or sexual abuse, caretaker neglect, or exploitation of an atrisk elder (age 70 and older) to law enforcement within 24 hours after making the observation or discovery. You will continue to be urged to report suspected physical or sexual abuse, caretaker neglect, exploitation, or self-neglect of an
at-risk adult (age 18 and older) to APS. 41 Beginning July 1, 2014, you MUST report: Abuse, Caretaker Neglect, Exploitation Of an at-risk elder (someone age 70 and older) To law enforcement Law enforcement will share with APS Within 24
hours of observation or discovery Now and continuing after July 1, 2014, you are URGED to report: Abuse, Caretaker Neglect, Exploitation, and Selfneglect Of an at-risk adult (someone age 18 and older who is unable to complete or secure necessary services or who is unable to make decisions)
To APS APS may share with law enforcement Within 24 hours of observation or discovery 42 To make a report contact your local law enforcement agency or Mesa County Department of Human Services at 970-248-2888 or After Business Hours at 970-242-1211 (Child Protection Hotline) This training was provided by:
Mesa County Department of Human Services Adult Protective Services APS Colorado Mesa County APS Staff Candace McGuire Supervisor 248-2802 Debbie Petrocco Lead Worker/Case Manager 248-2747 Deborah Nelson Case Manager 256-2472 Cameron Ray Case Manager 683-2608 44 Staff Continued: Tanya May Case Manager 683-2929
Martha Monroe Case Manager 683-2643 Theresa Jones Case Services Aide/Case Manager 248-2865 45
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