Mucormycosis Prof. David W. Denning Professor of Infectious
Mucormycosis Prof. David W. Denning Professor of Infectious Diseases in Global Health The University of Manchester, UK Intended Learning outcomes To be aware of the epidemiology of mucormycosis To understand the pathophysiology of mucormycosis To be familiar with different clinical manifestations of mucormycosis To be aware of the available management options for mucormycosis To be aware of the complications and prognosis of mucormycosis Introduction: Mucormycosis Mucormycosis (previously Zygomycosis) is an uncommon life-threatening fungal infection that occurs mostly in immunocompromised or trauma patients It is an aggressive (acute), granulomatous, and opportunistic infection that is caused by several members of fungi in the subphylum Mucoromycotina Agents of mucormycosis (Mucorales) have an intrinsic ability to invade blood vessels and can affect different parts of the body
Cerebro-rhino-orbital mucormycosis is the most common, and the most aggressive, form of mucormycosis Uncontrolled metabolic conditions (especially diabetes mellitus in ketoacidosis) is the main risk factor and the core determinant of the world-wide incidence of Wali et al. J Infect Public Health. mucormycosis 2012;5(2):116-26 Epidemiology Mucormycosis is a rare fungal infection, estimated to affect ~10,000 individuals globally, although the incidence in India is much higher Most affected individuals have poorly controlled diabetes and may have metabolic acidosis, or are immunocompromised Rare cases occur in immunocompetent individuals following traumatic inoculation of fungal spores, including tornadoes and bomb blasts Outbreaks and clusters of mucormycosis, though rare, have been reported in hospitals and among organ transplant recipient populations Mortality remains high (30-70%) despite advances in diagnosis and Duffy et al. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2014;33:472treatment 6. Neblett et al. N Engl J Med. 2012;367:2214-
Epidemiology: Recent study from Mexico 72% of 418 cases of mucormycosis were diabetic patients Sinusitis accounted for 75% of the reported cases Mortality rate was 51% Corzo-Len et al. Med Mycol. 2018; 56: 1-16 Clinical spectrum of mucormycosis Rhino-cerebral mucormycosis Brain and nasal sinuses Most common Pulmonary mucormycosis
Cutaneous mucormycosis Gastrointestinal mucormycosis Disseminated mucormycosis Isolated renal mucormycosis Kauffman CA. Clin Infect Dis 2004;39:588-90. Roden et al. Clin Infect Dis 2005;41:63453. Risk factors - major risk factors Uncontrolled diabetes mellitus in ketoacidosis Burns (major) Severe trauma (tornados, 80-90% of rhinocerebral tsunamis, war) mucormycosis
Deferoxamine therapy Protein energy malnutrition Iron and aluminium overload Binders et al. Clin Microbial Infect. 2014;6:606. Risk factors - other risk factors Other forms of metabolic acidosis Prematurity and low birthweight (gastro-intestinal mucormycosis) Treatment with immunosuppressive drugs (corticosteroids, anti- HIV/AIDS neoplastics) Organ or bone marrow transplantation Neutropenia
Malignancies IV drug abuse Chronic kidney disease Liver cirrhosis and hepatic failure ~15-20% of patients have no evidence of underlying conditions Binders et al. Clin Microbial Infect. 2014;6:60-6. Aetiology: Several genera of Phycomycetes Common Rhizopus spp. ~70% of rhinocerebral mucormycosis cases Rare
Apophysomyces spp. Cunninghamella spp. Lichtheimia (Absidia) spp. Saksenaea spp. Mucor spp. Rhizomucor spp. Kauffman CA. Clin Infect Dis 2004;39:58890. Roden et al. Clin Infect Dis 2005;41:634-53. Binders et al. Clin Microbial Infect. 2014;6:60-6 Pathogenesis Agents of mucormycosis are ubiquitous and frequently airborne. Infections mainly involves the lungs, sinuses and the brain Pathogenesis involves invasion of major blood vessels, with consequent ischemia, necrosis, and infarction of contiguous tissues
Neutrophils play a central role in the defence of the host against mucormycosis Ketoacidosis, hyperglycaemia, and hypoxia are excellent growth conditions for these fungi Ketoacidosis decreases inflammatory responses and delays local Binders et al. Clin Microbial Infect. aggregation of granulocytes and fibroblasts 2014;6:60-6 Wali et al. J Infect Public Health. 2012;5:11626 Clinical manifestation: Rhinocerebral mucormycosis Unilateral headache - behind the eye Facial pain Eye swelling (Proptosis) + visual disturbance Necrotic lesions on the hard palate or nasal mucosa ENT symptoms
Nasal congestion Black discharge Acute sinusitis Epistaxis Systemic symptoms: fevers Wali et al. J Infect Public Health. 2012;5:11626. Clinical progression of rhinocerebral mucormycosis Stage I: Infection of the nasal mucosa and sinuses. Stage II: Orbital involvement (orbital apex syndrome, superior orbital fissure syndrome). Stage III: Cerebral involvement in which intracranial spread occurs via one of the following routes: Ophthalmic artery Superior orbital fissure Cribriform plate
Onerci et al. Rhinology. 1991;29:321-4 Wali et al. J Infect Public Health. 2012;5:116-26 Clinical manifestation - Pulmonary 2nd most common presentation after Cerebro-Rhino-Orbital mucormycosis Mainly in non-diabetic immunocompromised patients Radiologically. Acute pulmonary mucormycosis is usually indistinguishable from invasive pulmonary aspergillosis the halo and reverse halo signs may be seen Clinical presentation
Fever, Cough +/- haemoptysis Chest pain Increasing shortness or breath Pleuritic rub or rhonchi Reverse halo sign in Chronic pulmonary mucormycosis is mucormycosis Jung et al. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2015; a rare recognised syndrome 21:684.e11-18 Clinical manifestation Cutaneous ~20% of mucormycosis Pathophysiology Primary - direct inoculation of
organism into disrupted integument; trauma or burns Secondary - haematogenous seeding from disseminated diseases Clinical presentation Skin induration and erythema Necrotic ulcers with dark central Primary cutaneous area mucormycosis The margins of the ulcers are Castrejon-Perez. Ann Bras sharply demarcated Dermatol.2017;92:304-11. Clinical manifestation Gastrointestinal The least common clinical form ~10% of mucormycosis At risk: Protein energy malnutrition,
low-birth weight and premature infants, Ambulatory peritoneal dialysis Presentation Abdominal pain or distension Nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea Haematochezia Pathology: GI necrosis and perforationMohta et al. Indian J Pathol Microbial 2011;54:664-5 Isolated Renal Mucormycosis The kidney is involved in up to 20% of disseminated mucormycosis Isolated renal mucormycosis is very rare >70% of patients are immunocompetent with no identifiable classic risk factors Renal transplant recipient with concomitant diabetes mellitus are highest risk group Other risk factors AIDS Diabetes
Drug abuse Organ transplantation Male Female Dial Transplant Gupta et al.>Nephrol 1999;14:2720-5 Pathogenesis is not clear; haematogenous dissemination to the kidneys and retrograde spread from lower urinary tract have been suggested Pathology Extensive hyphal angioinvasion Renal vessels thromboses Pahwa et al. Korean J Urol. Parenchymal necrosis 2013;54:641-643. Chakrabarti
et al. J Infect. Cortical and medullary 2001;42:261-6. Goel et al. Am J Med Sci. Isolated Renal Mucormycosis Clinical manifestation Flank pain Flank mass Renal angle tenderness Gross haematuria
Pyuria Fever Renal failure due to occlusion of renal arteries Gupta et al. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1999;14:2720-5. Verma et al. Basic Appl Pathol. 2011;4:66-70. Thomas et al. Indian J Med Microbiol 2008;26:269-71. Management Renal mucormycosis WITH systemic dissemination Early nephrectomy + Parenteral antifungal Renal mucormycosis WITHOUT systemic dissemination Early nephrectomy +/parenteral antifungal Antifungals alone (2 of the 4 reported cases died)
Clinical manifestation Disseminated Disseminated disease stems from pulmonary focus Spread is haematogenous Deferoxamine therapy is the most significant risk factor for disseminated disease Manifestation: Headache Fever Visual disturbance Altered mentation Sarrami et al. Int J Prev Med. 2013; 4: 1468 1471.
Diagnosis: Laboratory Sample collection Tissue biopsy - GOLD STANDARD Tissue swabs unreliable Direct microscopy 10-20% KOH + routine fungal stains Fluorescent brighteners (Calcofluor) Culture Biomarkers Beta- D-glucan Negative Galactomannan Negative Blood cultures are rarely positive Positive tissue cultures alone are not sufficient to make a diagnosis Molecular analysis
Wali et al. J Infect Public Health. 2012;5:116-26 Diagnosis: Histopathology Aspergillus spp. Agents of mucormycosis Non-septate hyphae with right-angle branching Septate hyphae with acute-angle branching Guarner & Brandt. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2011;24:247-280 Diagnosis: Imaging studies Both CT and MRI can be used Roles
Sinus imaging Mucosal thickening Detect fungal angioinvasion Changes in air-fluid level Bone destruction and necrosis Cavernous sinus Soft tissue involvement involvement Intracranial involvement MRI provides better delineation of the blood vessels and intracranial extension Paranasal sinus mucormycosis
Opacification of the left maxillary (white arrow) and ethmoidal (black arrow) sinuses with scattered high-density areas in a patient with mucormycosis. Management of mucormycosis Antifungal therapy Amphotericin B Posaconazole Isavuconazole Early surgical debridement + antifungal therapy + control of underlying risk factor (if possible) is recommended Surgery (early surgical intervention is associated with improved survival) Removal of pulmonary lesions Aggressive-all necrotic tissues (palate, nasal cavity or eye structures) Excision of infected brain tissue may
be required Revision surgeries may be required Hyperbaric oxygen therapy High oxygen pressure increases the ability of neutrophils to phagocytose agents of mucormycosis Diabetic with control Monitor carefully for any signs of recurrence, repeated local inspection Complications Pulmonary Cerebro-Rhino-Orbital mucormycosis Pulmonary thrombosis/infarction
Neurological deficits Blindness Cutaneous Cerebral thrombosis / infarction and stroke Anosmia - loss of sense of smell Cavernous sinus thrombosis Internal carotid artery thrombosis Soft tissue loss Amputations
Gastrointestinal Malnutrition Short gut syndrome (following resection ) Kauffman CA. Clin Infect Dis 2004;39:58890. Binders et al. Clin Microbial Infect. Prognosis Prognosis is generally poor but variable (late diagnosis, extensive spread) All-cause mortality rate ~54% Mortality rates depends on: Clinical form (body site affected), Type of fungus Severity Underlying risk factors Use of surgical intervention
Clinical form Mortalit y Mucormycosis in HIV/AIDS ~100% Disseminated mucormycosis ~90% Rhino-cerebral mucormycosis ~30-85% Sinus mucormycosis
~46% Pulmonary mucormycosis ~76% Cutaneous mucormycosis ~4-10% Isolated renal ~35% Roden et al. Clin Infect Dis mucormycosis 2005;41:634-53. Skiada et al. Skinmed. 2013; 11:155-9 Summary Mucormycosis is an uncommon, aggressive and necrotizing
infection, estimated to affect some ~10,000 individuals globally each year Cerebro-rhino-orbital mucormycosis is the most common, and the most aggressive form of mucormycosis Radical surgical debridement, antifungal therapy, correction of the underlying metabolic or impaired immunological status, and control of other concomitant infections are necessary for improved survival Mortality is relatively low for cutaneous forms, higher (30-90%) in disseminated disease and cerebro-rhino-orbital mucormycosis, and is almost always fatal in HIV/AIDS END
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