Agile Philly: Traditional, Scrum, Lean, Kanban Which should
Agile Philly: Traditional, Scrum, Lean, Kanban Which should I use ? March 21, 2017 Bob Marini How We Got Here 196 9 Waterfall Development Feb 2, 2015 2000
Scrum: 2005 Kanban: 2012 Strengthened Commitment to Agile and Lean The Premise There is no standard project management approach that works for all projects. The choice of the approach for managing a project depends on various factors such as:
Complexity and type of project, Experience in conducting projects within the organization, The Clients willingness to be involved in the project and the norm in the industry Wrong Tool / Methodology or Too many ! Methodologies The old tool was better! Never blame the tool!
Adapted from Henrik Kniberg Any tool can be misused Traditional Project Management Sequential cycle: Initiation, planning, executing, monitoring and controlling, and closing. One phase completes before the others begin Assumes can plan the project up front and then execute. Changes are an exception to the plan and not expected. Requires a Fair level of certainty upfront on the work and work effort Different management style (PM vs. Agile Coach)
Traditional PM Methodologies Traditional Traditional PM Requires Perfect Vision Agile Development Requirements and solutions evolve through the collaborative effort of self-organizing teams Characteristics
Adaptive planning, Evolutionary development, Early delivery, Continuous improvement, Rapid and flexible response to change. Agile, Lean, Scrum, Kanban Whats the difference ? LEAN Lean value and Principles Kanban
Agile Manifesto http://agilemanifesto.org/ Agile Principles 1. Our highest priority is to satisfy the client through early and continuous delivery of valuable software. 2. Welcome changing requirements, even late in development. Agile processes harness change for the client's competitive advantage. 3. Deliver working software frequently, from a couple of weeks to a couple of months, with a preference to the shorter timescale. 4. Business people and developers must work
together daily throughout the project. 5. Build projects around motivated individuals. Give them the environment and support they need, and trust them to get the job done. 6. The most efficient and effective method of conveying information to and within a development team is face-to-face conversation. http://agilemanifesto.org/ 7. Working software is the primary measure of progress. 8. Agile processes promote sustainable development. The sponsors, developers, and users should be able to maintain a constant pace indefinitely.
9. Continuous attention to technical excellence and good design enhances agility. 10.Simplicity--the art of maximizing the amount of work not done--is essential. 11.The best architectures, requirements, and designs emerge from self-organizing teams. 12.At regular intervals, the team reflects on how to become more effective, then tunes and adjusts its behavior accordingly. Agile Values / Principles continues to evolve Modern Agile: Joshua Kerievsky Joshuas Key Note from Agile2016 https://vimeo.com/176856933
The Heart of Agile: Alistair Cockburn 7 PRINCIPLES OF LEAN SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT Eliminate Waste Empower the Team (Respect People) Defer Commitment Amplify Learning (Build Knowledge) Deliver Fast Build Quality In See as Whole Reference: 1. Poppendieck, Mary and Tom Poppendieck, Lean Software Development: An Agile Toolkit, Addison Wesley, 2003
Software Waste Poppendiecks 7 types of software waste Partially done work Extra processes Extra features Task switching Waiting Motion
Hand-offs; lack of co-located teams Defects Paradigm Shift Fixed Features Agile Traditional Date Cost
Date Cost Flexible Features Agile Expects Vision Shift Key Benefits Why Agile ? Kanban in a Nutshell Adapted from Henrik Kniberg
Visualize the workflow Limit WIP (work in progress) Measure & Optimize Flow To do 5 H I Build 3 F G Test
2 Releas e3 D C E J K Don e!
A B FLOW FLOW Dont build features that nobody needs right now. Dont write more specs than you can code. Dont write more code than you can test. Dont test more code than you can deploy Corey Ladas Cumulative Flow Diagram 35 Arrival Rate 30
Remaining Work 25 WIP Backlog 20 Completion Rate Cycle Time
15 Lead Time 10 Don e Rele ase Test Build 5 0 Day
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Real World Example
Spike In Dev Spike In Testing Good Flow? Should we change our WIP limit? Scatter Plot Why did these stories take so long ? Waterfall Backlog 7
44 11 55 2 6 33 8 99
Development Test Deployed Waterfall Development Backlog 77 44 11
n1 Develop 2 Test 1 Deployed First question: Traditional vs. Agile ? Project characteristics Rapidly changing requirements or fairly stable once set Need or desire to deliver some features quickly vs. all features need to be delivered at once.
Close client involvement and feedback is critical to success Fixed feature or fixed time and resources ? Organizational buy in Is your organization ready to make the move to the Agile philosophy and principles ? What method is the norm for the industry ? So Im ready to make the move to Agile. Whats next ? Agile Transition Scrum v Kanban - Similarities Both are Lean and Agile
Both based on pull scheduling (Scrum via Sprint planning , Kanban vs. continuous flow) Both limit WIP Both use transparency to drive process improvement Both focus on delivering releasable software early and often Both are based on self-organizing teams Both require breaking the work into pieces In both cases the release plan is continuously optimized based on empirical data (velocity / lead time) Adapted from Henrik Kniberg Scrum v Kanban - Differences Scrum Kanban Timeboxed iterations prescribed
Timeboxed iterations optional Team commits to a specific amount of work for this iteration Commitment recommended based on SLAs Uses Velocity as default metric for planning and process improvement Uses Lead and Cycle Time as default metrics for planning and process improvement Cross-functional teams prescribed Cross-functional teams optional; Specialist teams allowed Items broken down so they can be completed within 1 sprint No particular item size is prescribed Burndown chart prescribed
No particular type of diagram is prescribed WIP limited indirectly (per sprint) WIP limited directly (per workflow state) Estimation prescribed Estimation optional Cannot add items to ongoing iteration Can add new items whenever capacity is available A sprint backlog is owned by one specific team
A Kanban board may be shared by multiple teams or individuals Prescribes 3 roles (PO/SM/Team) Doesnt prescribe any roles A Scrum board is reset between each sprint A Kanban board is persistent Prescribes a prioritized product backlog Prioritization is optional, but recommended
Adapted from Henrik Kniberg Which One Should I Use? Scrum / Kanban or Hybrid? Recommendation It depends Scrum Team lacks discipline and doesnt meet commitments Team is new to Agile and Scrum ceremonies instill a sense of discipline Team is cross-functional Team is coming from a traditional model Delivering enhancements on a fixed schedule is a requirement
Kanban Support or other queue-based work Team can release on their own schedule and wants to release as soon as work is completed Team can break work down into small batch sizes where each adds value and can be released independently (if possible) Team has several specialist roles Team has responsibility for end-to-end process has tasks outside of software development Either Team wants to limit WIP Team wants to continuously improve Both Use Kanban for overall value stream and Scrum for development specific channel
What about the Framework ? OR Additional Questions / Discussion Extra Slides Modern Agile Lean Software Development Lean Principles apply, but not all Lean Manufacturing practices Development is creating the recipe; Manufacturing is following the recipe Focus on delivering VALUE to the customer rapidly Make improvements by focusing on the Value Stream
Principles Eliminate Waste Create Knowledge Decide as Late as Possible Deliver as Fast as Possible Empower the Team Build Quality In
Improve the System See the Whole Core Processes Visualize the Process (Value Stream Mapping) Limit Work In Process (WIP) Measure and Optimize Flow Eliminate Muda/Waste Leans primary goal eliminate muda or waste Definition Anything that does not create customer value; includes anything that will not be used or needed immediately 7 types of waste from Toyota
Overproduction Waiting Transportation or conveyance Over processing or incorrect processing Excess inventory Unnecessary movement Defects 8th waste Unused employee creativity
Toyota Motor Company Quick Facts Started in 1928 as a textile loom manufacturer Automotive division in 1933 with first vehicle built in 1935 World War II altered economy and forced major change 2008 became worlds largest automobile manufacturer Toyota Production System (aka TPS or The Toyota Way) Developed by Taichii Ohno, Shigeo Shingo and Eiji Toyoda Influenced by W. Edwards Deming and writings of Henry Ford
Introduced Lean Manufacturing and concepts such as Just-In-Time Brilliant process management is our strategy. We get brilliant results from average people managing brilliant processes. Our competitors get average results from brilliant people working around broken processes. When they get in trouble they hire even more brilliant people. Fujio Cho Chairman of the board, former President, Toyota Motor Corporation The Toyota Way 1. Base your management decisions on a Long-Term Philosophy, even at the Expense of ShortTerm Financial Goals
2. Create Continuous Process Flow to Bring Problems to the Surface 3. Use Pull Systems to Avoid Overproduction 4. Level Out the Workload (Heijunka) 5. Build a Culture of Stopping to Fix Problems, to Get Quality Right the First Time
6. Standardized Tasks are the Foundation for Continuous Improvement and Employee Empowerment 7. Use Visual Controls so No Problems are Hidden 8. Use Only Reliable, Thoroughly Tested Technology that Serves Your People and Processes The Toyota Way 9.
Grow Leaders Who Thoroughly Understand the Work, Live the Philosophy, and Teach It to Others 10. Develop Exceptional People and Teams Who Follow Your Companys Philosophy 11. Respect Your Extended Network of Partners and Suppliers by Challenging Them and Helping Them Improve 12. Go and See for Yourself to Thoroughly Understand the Situation (Genchi Genbutsu) 13. Make Decisions Slowly by Consensus, Thoroughly Considering All Options; Implement Decisions Rapidly 14. Become a Learning Organization through Relentless Reflection (Hansei) and Continuous Improvement (Kaizen)
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