Introduction to Prolog Notes for CSCE 330 Based on Bratko and Van Emden Marco Valtorta UNIVERSITYOF OFSOUTH SOUTHCAROLINA CAROLINA UNIVERSITY Departmentof ofComputer ComputerScience Scienceand and Department Engineering A Little History Prolog was invented by Alain Colmerauer, a professor of computer science at the university of Aix-Marseille in France, in 1972 The first application of Prolog was in natural language processing Prolog stands for programming in logic (PROgrammation en LOgique)

Its theoretical underpinning are due to Donald Loveland of Duke university through Robert Kowalski (formerly) of the university of Edinburgh UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH CAROLINA UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH CAROLINA Departmentof ofComputer ComputerScience Scienceand and Department Engineering Logic Programming Prolog is the only successful example of the family of logic programming languages A Prolog program is a theory written in a subset of first-order logic, called Horn clause logic Prolog is declarative. A Prolog programmer concentrates on what the program needs to do, not on how to do it The other major language for Artificial

Intelligence programming is LISP, which is a functional (or applicative) language UNIVERSITYOF OFSOUTH SOUTHCAROLINA CAROLINA UNIVERSITY Departmentof ofComputer ComputerScience Scienceand and Department Engineering Prolog in CSCE 580 (Skip for 330) Chapters 1-9 (the Prolog programming language), 11 (blind search), 12 (heuristic search), and maybe 14 (constraint logic programming) and some parts of 15 (Bayesian networks), 17 (means-ends analysis) and 18 (induction of decision trees) Prolog is introduced as a programming language before a thorough review of firstorder logic

UNIVERSITYOF OFSOUTH SOUTHCAROLINA CAROLINA UNIVERSITY Departmentof ofComputer ComputerScience Scienceand and Department Engineering Defining Relations by Facts parent( tom,bob). parent is the name of a relation A relation of arity n is a function from ntuples (elements of a Cartesian product) to {true, false}. (It can also be considered a subset of the n-tuples.) parent( pam, bob). parent( tom,bob). parent( tom,liz). parent( bob, ann). parent( bob,pat). parent( pat,jim). A relation is a collection of facts UNIVERSITYOF OFSOUTH

SOUTHCAROLINA CAROLINA UNIVERSITY Departmentof ofComputer ComputerScience Scienceand and Department Engineering Queries ?-parent( bob,pat). yes A query and its answer, which is correct for the relation defined in the previous slide: this query succeeds ?-parent( liz,pat). no A query and its answer, which is correct for the relation defined in the previous slide: this query fails UNIVERSITYOF OFSOUTH SOUTHCAROLINA CAROLINA UNIVERSITY

Departmentof ofComputer ComputerScience Scienceand and Department Engineering More Queries cf. pr1_1.pl ?-parent( tom,ben). /* who is Ben? */ ?-parent( X,liz). /* Wow! */ ?-parent( bob,X). /* Bobs children */ ?-parent( X,Y). /* The relation, fact by fact */ UNIVERSITYOF OFSOUTH SOUTHCAROLINA CAROLINA UNIVERSITY Departmentof ofComputer ComputerScience

Scienceand and Department Engineering Composite Queries Grandparents: ?-parent( Y,jim), parent( X,Y). the comma stands for and ?-parent( X,Y), parent(Y,jim). order should not matter, and it does not! Grandchildren: ?-parent( tom,X), parent( X,Y). Common parent, i.e. (half-)sibling: ?-parent( X,ann), parent( X,pat). UNIVERSITYOF OFSOUTH SOUTHCAROLINA CAROLINA UNIVERSITY Departmentof ofComputer ComputerScience Scienceand and

Department Engineering Facts and Queries Relations and queries about them Facts are a kind of clause Prolog programs consist of a list of clauses The arguments of relations are atoms or variables (a kind of term) Queries consist of one or more goals Satisfiable goals succeed; unsatisfiable goals fail UNIVERSITYOF OFSOUTH SOUTHCAROLINA CAROLINA UNIVERSITY Departmentof ofComputer ComputerScience Scienceand and Department Engineering Defining Relations by

Rules The offspring relation: For all X and Y, Y is an offspring of X if X is a parent of Y This relation is defined by a rule, corresponding to the Prolog clause offspring( Y,X) :- parent( X,Y). Alternative reading: For all X and Y, if X is a parent of Y, then Y is an offspring of X UNIVERSITYOF OFSOUTH SOUTHCAROLINA CAROLINA UNIVERSITY Departmentof ofComputer ComputerScience Scienceand and Department Engineering Rules

Rules are clauses. Facts are clauses A rule has a condition and a conclusion The conclusion of a Prolog rule is its head The condition of a Prolog rule is its body If the condition of a rule is true, then it follows that its conclusion is true also UNIVERSITYOF OFSOUTH SOUTHCAROLINA CAROLINA UNIVERSITY Departmentof ofComputer ComputerScience Scienceand and Department Engineering How Prolog Rules are Used Prolog rules may be used to define relations The offspring relation is defined by the rule offspring( Y,X) :- parent( X,Y):

if (X,Y) is in the parent relation, then (Y,X) is in the offspring relation When a goal of the form offspring( Y,X) is set up, the goal succeeds if parent( X,Y) succeeds Procedurally, when a goal matches the head of a rule, Prolog sets up its body as a new goal UNIVERSITYOF OFSOUTH SOUTHCAROLINA CAROLINA UNIVERSITY Departmentof ofComputer ComputerScience Scienceand and Department Engineering Example (ch1_2.pl) ?-offspring(liz,tom). No fact matches this query The head of the clause offspring( Y,X) :- parent( X,Y) does

Y is replaced with liz, X is replaced with tom The instantiated body parent( tom,liz) is set up as a new goal ?-parent( tom,liz) succeeds offspring( liz,tom) therefore succeeds too UNIVERSITYOF OFSOUTH SOUTHCAROLINA CAROLINA UNIVERSITY Departmentof ofComputer ComputerScience Scienceand and Department Engineering More Family Relations female and male are defined extensionally, i.e., by facts; mother and grandparent are defined intensionally, I.e., by rules female(pam). male(jim). mother( X,Y) :- parent( X,Y), female( X). grandparent( X,Z) :- parent( X,Y), parent( Y,Z).

UNIVERSITYOF OFSOUTH SOUTHCAROLINA CAROLINA UNIVERSITY Departmentof ofComputer ComputerScience Scienceand and Department Engineering Sister (ch1_3.pl) sister(X,Y) :- parent(Z,X), parent(Z,Y), female( X). Try: ?-sister(X,pat). X = ann; X = pat /* Surprise! */ (Half-)sisters have a common parent and are different people, so the correct rule is: sister(X,Y) :- parent(Z,X), parent(Z,Y), female( X), different(X,Y). (or: sister(X,Y) :- parent(Z,X), parent(Z,Y), parent(W,X), parent(W,Y), female(X), different(Z,W), different(X,Y).) UNIVERSITYOF

OFSOUTH SOUTHCAROLINA CAROLINA UNIVERSITY Departmentof ofComputer ComputerScience Scienceand and Department Engineering Clauses and Instantiation Facts are clauses without body Rules are clauses with both heads and non-empty bodies Queries are clauses that only have a body (!) When variables are substituted by constants, we say that they are instantiated. UNIVERSITYOF OFSOUTH SOUTHCAROLINA CAROLINA UNIVERSITY

Departmentof ofComputer ComputerScience Scienceand and Department Engineering Universal Quantification Variables are universally quantified, but beware of variables that only appear in the body, as in haschild( X) :- parent( X,Y)., which is best read as: for all X, X has a child if there exists some Y such that X is a parent of Y (I.e.: for all X and Y, if X is a parent of Y, then X has a child) UNIVERSITYOF OFSOUTH SOUTHCAROLINA CAROLINA UNIVERSITY Departmentof ofComputer ComputerScience

Scienceand and Department Engineering Predecessor (Ancestor) predecessor( X,Z) :- parent( X,Z). predecessor( X,Z) :- parent( X,Y), parent(Y,Z). predecessor( X,Z) :- parent( X,Y1), parent( Y1,Y2,), parent( Y2,Z). etc. When do we stop? The length of chain of people between the predecessor and the successor should not arbitrarily bounded. UNIVERSITYOF OFSOUTH SOUTHCAROLINA CAROLINA UNIVERSITY Departmentof ofComputer ComputerScience Scienceand and

Department Engineering Note on History in SWIProlog See p.24 of manual (query substitution) To set up the history mechanism, edit the pr.ini file and place it in one of the directories in file_search_path. (I placed it in the directory where my Prolog code is.) To check the values of Prolog flags, use ?-current_prolog_flag(X,Y). UNIVERSITYOF OFSOUTH SOUTHCAROLINA CAROLINA UNIVERSITY Departmentof ofComputer ComputerScience Scienceand and Department Engineering Note on Definition Graphs Skip for 330

Definition graphs indicate that definition of relations by rules is somewhat analogous to function composition in applicative (functional) languages See Figures 1.3 and 1.4. each diagram should be understood as follows: if the relations shown by solid arcs hold, the relation shown by a dashed arc also holds UNIVERSITYOF OFSOUTH SOUTHCAROLINA CAROLINA UNIVERSITY Departmentof ofComputer ComputerScience Scienceand and Department Engineering A Recursive Rule For all X and Z, X is a predecessor of Z if there is a Y such that (1) X is a parent of Y and

(2) Y is a predecessor of Z. predecessor( X,Z) :parent( X,Y), predecessor( Y,Z). UNIVERSITYOF OFSOUTH SOUTHCAROLINA CAROLINA UNIVERSITY Departmentof ofComputer ComputerScience Scienceand and Department Engineering The Family Program (fig1_8.pl) Comments /* This is a comment */ % This comment goes to the end of the line SWI Prolog warns us when the clauses defining a relation are not contiguous. UNIVERSITYOF OFSOUTH

SOUTHCAROLINA CAROLINA UNIVERSITY Departmentof ofComputer ComputerScience Scienceand and Department Engineering Prolog Proves Theorems Prolog accepts facts and rules as a set of axioms, and the users query as a conjectured theorem. Prolog then tries to prove the theorem, i.e., to show that it can be logically derived from the axioms Prolog builds the proof backwards: it does not start with facts and apply rules to derive other facts, but it starts with the goals in the users query and replaces them with new goals, until new goals happen to be facts UNIVERSITYOF OFSOUTH SOUTHCAROLINA CAROLINA

UNIVERSITY Departmentof ofComputer ComputerScience Scienceand and Department Engineering Goal Trees In attempting to prove theorems starting from goals, Prolog builds goal trees See example of proving predecessor( tom,pat) in Figures 1.9, 1.10, 1.11. Variables are matched as new goals are set up The scope of each variable is a single clause, so we rename variables for each rule application Prolog backtracks as needed when a branch of the proof tree is a dead end This is explained in more detail in Chapter 2 UNIVERSITYOF OFSOUTH SOUTHCAROLINA CAROLINA UNIVERSITY

Departmentof ofComputer ComputerScience Scienceand and Department Engineering Declarative and Procedural Meaning of Prolog Programs The declarative meaning is concerned with the relations defined by the program: what the program states and logically entails The procedural meaning is concerned with how the output of the program is obtained, i.e., how the relations are actually evaluated by the Prolog system It is best to concentrate on the declarative meaning when writing Prolog programs Unfortunately, sometimes the programmer must also consider procedural aspect (for reasons of efficiency or even correctness): we will see examples of this in Ch.2 UNIVERSITYOF OFSOUTH SOUTHCAROLINA CAROLINA

UNIVERSITY Departmentof ofComputer ComputerScience Scienceand and Department Engineering Knight Moves on a Chessboard % This example is from unpublished (to the best of my knowledge) notes by Maarten % Van Emden. /* The extensional representation of the (knight) move relation follows. It consists of 336 facts; only a few are shown. In particular, all moves from position (5,3) on the chess board are shown. */

move(1,1,2,3). move(1,1,3,2). .... move(5,3,6,5). move(5,3,7,4). move(5,3,7,2). move(5,3,6,1). move(5,3,4,1). move(5,3,3,2). move(5,3,3,4). move(5,3,4,5). ... move(8,8,7,6). move(8,8,6,7).

UNIVERSITYOF OFSOUTH SOUTHCAROLINA CAROLINA UNIVERSITY Departmentof ofComputer ComputerScience Scienceand and Department Engineering Intensional Representation of Moves /* The intensional representation of the (knight) move relation follows. It consists of facts (to define extensionally the relation succ/2) and rules (to define the relations move, diff1, and diff2. */

move(X1,Y1,X2,Y2) :- diff1(X1,X2), diff2(Y1,Y2). move(X1,Y1,X2,Y2) :- diff2(X1,X2), diff1(Y1,Y2). diff1(X,Y) :- succ(X,Y). diff1(X,Y) :- succ(Y,X). diff2(X,Z) :- succ(X,Y), succ(Y,Z). diff2(X,Z) :- succ(Z,Y), succ(Y,X). succ(1,2). succ(2,3). succ(3,4). succ(4,5).

succ(5,6). succ(6,7). succ(7,8). UNIVERSITYOF OFSOUTH SOUTHCAROLINA CAROLINA UNIVERSITY Departmentof ofComputer ComputerScience Scienceand and Department Engineering