1 PDB and Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) Antibiotics have
1 PDB and Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) Antibiotics have saved countless lives, but pathogens are quickly finding ways to survive antibiotic treatment. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria are predicted to become the leading cause of death worldwide, with an expected death rate of 10 million people, annually, by 2050.1 They take many approaches: pumping antibiotics out of their cells, altering the molecular machinery that the antibiotics target, and attacking the antibiotics directly. Atomic structures publicly available in the PDB are revealing the details of drug resistance and providing new ways to combat it. The following presentation contains illustrations and information from the RCSB PDB 2018 Calendar. Download a PDF at pdb101.rcsb.org > Learn > Posters, Flyers, & Calendars ONeill J. Antimicrobial resistance: tackling a crisis for the health and wealth of nations. 2014. Review on Antimicrobial Resistance, London, United Kingdom amr-review.org 1 2 Bacteria build a tough
network of peptidoglycan to support their cell walls. Penicillin V (a beta-lactam antibiotic shown in ball and stick representation) blocks one of the enzymes that builds this peptidoglycan sheath. Penicillin binds to the portion shown in light green. PDB ID 2ex9 Kishida, H. et al. Crystal structure of penicillin binding protein 4 (dacB) from Escherichia coli, both in the native form and covalently linked to various antibiotics. Biochemistry 45,
783-792 (2006) 3 Bacteria have become remarkably adept at overcoming the effects of even our most powerful antibiotics. Many bacteria now possess enzymes (betalactamases) capable of opening up the beta-lactam ring (highlighted in magenta), thereby inactivating the drug. PDB ID 5eph Pozzi, C. et al. Crystal structure of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa BEL-1 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase
and its complexes with moxalactam and imipenem. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 60, 7189-7199 (2016) 4 KPC-2 is another versatile betalactamase, with a large and shallow active site that breaks down nearly all known betalactam antibiotics. This structure captures the enzyme after it has destroyed a molecule of the broad-spectrum antibiotic cefotaxime. PDB ID 5uj3 Pemberton, O.A. et al. Molecular basis of substrate recognition and
product release by the Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC-2). J Med Chem 60, 3525-3530 (2017) 5 Bacteria that possess NDM-1 metallolactamase enzymes pose a great danger because they can inactivate all approved penicillinlike antibiotics, including our most advanced carbapenems. PDB structures, such as this one with benzylpenicillin, have revealed that NDM-1 uses zinc in its active site to inactivate a
wide range of different antibiotics. PDB ID 4eyf King, D.T. et al. New Delhi metallobeta-lactamase: structural insights into beta-lactam recognition and inhibition. J Am Chem Soc 134, 11362-11365 (2012) 6 Aminoglycosides are effective broadspectrum antibiotics, because they target ribosomes in many types of bacteria. This structure shows how neomycin (yellow) binds to ribosomes and shifts their structure, blocking recycling of ribosomes after
they finish building a protein. PDB ID 4v52 Borovinskaya, M.A. et al. Structural basis for aminoglycoside inhibition of bacterial ribosome recycling. Nat Struct Mol Biol 14, 727-732 (2007) 7 Resistant bacteria block the function of aminoglycoside antibiotics by attaching adenosine nucleotides to them. Structures of the enzymes that perform this reaction may help researchers discover
new aminoglycosides that are not susceptible to inactivation. PDB ID 4wql Cox, G. et al. Structural and molecular basis for resistance to aminoglycoside antibiotics by the adenylyltransferase ANT(2)-Ia. MBio 6, mBio.02180-14 (2015) 8 After 40 years of searching, researchers have discovered bedaquiline (shown in yellow), a new drug now approved for the treatment of
multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. It binds to the rotor of ATP synthase, blocking the central energyproduction machinery of mycobacteria. PDB ID 4v1f Preiss, L. et al. Structure of the mycobacterial ATP synthase Fo rotor ring in complex with the anti-TB drug bedaquiline. Sci Adv 1, e1500106 (2015) 9 Beta-lactamases usually confer resistance by breaking the betalactam ring of penicillin-like
antibiotics. To overcome resistance, researchers are working to design inhibitors of betalactamases that can be given together with established beta-lactam antibiotics. PDB ID 1ll9 Trehan, I. et al. Using steric hindrance to design new inhibitors of class C beta-lactamases. Chem Biol 9, 971-980 (2002) 10 The antibiotic vancomycin (shown on top in ball and stick representation)
blocks the process of building bacterial cells walls. Resistant bacteria have responded by developing new enzymes like VanA that build the cell wall in a slightly different way that is not susceptible to the antibiotic. PDB ID 1e4e Roper, D.I. et al. The molecular basis of vancomycin resistance in clinically relevant Enterococci: crystal structure of D-alanyl-D-lactate ligase (VanA). Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97, 8921-8925 (2000) 11
The war of antibiotics and resistance began long before medical science discovered the utility of antibiotics. Researchers reconstructed the vancomycinresistance enzyme VanA from a 30,000 year old bacterium found in Arctic permafrost, showing it to be very similar to VanA enzymes made by modern bacteria. PDB ID 3se7 DCosta, V. M. et al. Antibiotic resistance is ancient. Nature 477,
457-461 (2011) 12 The gene regulator BmrR senses when antibiotics (such as puromycin, in yellow) get into a bacterial cell, directing the synthesis of multidrug efflux pumps to eject them out of the cell. PDB ID 3q3d Bachas, S. et al. Structural contributions to multidrug recognition in the multidrug resistance (MDR) gene regulator, BmrR. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 108, 11046-11051 (2011)
13 Bacteria build huge protein pumps that span their cell walls and expel many types of antibiotics. This cryoEM structure reveals how the pump works to expel antibiotics from bacterial cells. PDB ID 5o66 Wang, Z. et al. An allosteric transport mechanism for the AcrABTolC multidrug efflux pump. Elife 6, eLife.24905 (2017) 14
Acknowledgements This calendar was created by RCSB PDB members Luigi Di Costanzo, Sutapa Ghosh, David S. Goodsell, Brian Hudson, Monica Sekharan, Maria Voigt, and Christine Zardecki, and undergraduate researchers Jenna Abyad and Priscilla Salcedo. Software Molecular images were created using UCSF Chimera [Pettersen, E. F. et al. Chimeraa visualization system for exploratory research and analysis. J Comput Chem 25, 1605-1612 (2004)] Molecular Maya, a plug-in for Autodesk Maya available at clarafi.com PyMOL (The PyMOL Molecular Graphics System, Version 1.7.4 Schrdinger, LLC.) Additional credits Slide 6 Background Image: Klebsiella pneumoniae, the bacterium in which NDM-1 was first identified, on agar plate. Source: Center for Disease Control and Prevention Slide 9 Lipid Bilayer Model: Tielemans Biocomputing Group, University of Calgary Slide 12 Background Photo: Erosion caused by thawing permafrost. Dentren/CC-BY-3.0 15
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