Environmental Health & Risk Management HAZARD COMMUNICATION &
Environmental Health & Risk Management HAZARD COMMUNICATION & GHS GHS Globally Harmonized System of Classification & Labeling of Chemicals
GHS A system for standardizing and harmonizing the classification and labeling of chemicals Defines health, physical and environmental hazards of chemicals Communicates hazard information, as well as protective measures, on labels and Safety Data Sheets (SDS). Current Systems
Differences in systems within different countries and within different regulatory agencies within the same government leads to inconsistent protection for those potentially exposed to the chemicals as well as creating extensive regulatory burdens on companies producing chemicals GHS The GHS itself is not a regulation or a
standard Establishes agreed hazard classification and communication provisions with explanatory information on how to apply the system Why Was GHS Developed? To provide sound management of chemicals that includes a system through which chemical hazards are identified and communicated to all who are potentially
exposed International Mandate Adopted in the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), often called the "Earth Summit". It was recognized that an internationally harmonized approach to classification and labeling would provide the foundation for all countries to develop comprehensive
national programs to ensure the safe use of chemicals. GHS History GHS formally adopted by the UN Committee of Experts - The Transport of Dangerous Goods and GHS in December 2002 OSHA ANPR on GHS 2006 OSHA NPRM on GHS 2009
GHS History OSHA revised the Hazard Communication Standard, aligning it with the GHS March 26, 2012 Rule effective 60 days after publication in the Federal Register Estimated to prevent 43 fatalities and 521 injuries & illnesses annually Implementation Employers must complete all training
regarding new label elements and SDS format by Dec 1, 2013 Requiring compliance with all provisions for preparation of new labels and SDS by June 1, 2015 Implementation Distributors cant ship containers unless they have a GHS label by Dec 1, 2015 Employers given an additional year, June 1, 2016 to update their Hazard Communication
programs or any other workplace signs, if applicable Application of GHS Enhance the protection of human health and the environment by providing an internationally comprehensible system Provide a recognized framework to develop regulations for those countries without existing systems Facilitate international trade in chemicals
whose hazards have been identified on an international basis Reduce the need for testing and evaluation against multiple classification systems Overall Benefits of GHS To ensure that employers, employees and the public are provided with adequate, practical, reliable and comprehensible information on the hazards of chemicals, so that they can take effective preventive and
protective measure for their health and safety Benefits to Workers/Public Improved safety for workers and others through consistent and simplified communications on chemical hazards and practices to follow for safe handling and use, Greater awareness of hazards, resulting in safer use of chemicals in the workplace and
in the home GHS & Existing Regulations The specific hazard criteria, classification processes, label elements and SDS requirements within an existing regulation will need to be modified to be consistent with the harmonized elements of the GHS ALL existing hazard communication systems will need to be changed in order to apply the GHS
Classification Classification is the starting point for hazard communication Involves the identification of the hazard(s) of a chemical or mixture by assigning a category of hazard/danger using defined criteria Hazard Classes 16 classes of physical hazards
10 classes of health hazards 3 classes of environmental hazards GHS Physical Hazards
Reproductive Toxicology Target Organ Systemic Toxicity - Single Exposure Target Organ Systemic Toxicity - Repeated Exposure Aspiration Toxicity GHS Environmental Hazards Hazardous to the Aquatic Environment Acute aquatic toxicity Chronic aquatic toxicity
Bioaccumulation potential Rapid degradability GHS Hazard Communication Once a chemical has been classified, the hazard(s) must be communicated to target audiences Labels and Safety Data Sheets are the main tools for chemical hazard communication GHS Label Elements
Product Identifier Signal Word (Danger, Warning) Hazard Statement (for each hazard class and category) Pictogram(s) Precautionary Statement (for each hazard class and category) Name, Address and Tele. # of chemical manufacturer Signal Words
"Danger" or "Warning" are used to emphasize hazards and indicate the relative level of severity of the hazard, assigned to a GHS hazard class and category. "Danger" for the more severe hazards "Warning" for the less severe hazards. Hazard Statements Hazard statements are standardized and assigned phrases that describe the hazard(s) as determined by hazard
classification Hazard Statement Examples
Causes eye irritation Toxic if inhaled Flammable aerosol May cause cancer May cause respiratory irritation Harmful to aquatic life Contains gas under pressure; may explode if heated Symbols/Pictograms Convey health, physical and environmental
hazard information, assigned to a GHS hazard class and category. The GHS symbols have been incorporated into pictograms for use on the GHS label Pictograms will have a black symbol on a white background with a red diamond frame Health Hazard Carcinogen Mutagenicity Reproductive Toxicity
Respiratory Sensitizer Target Organ Toxicity Aspiration Toxicity Environment Aquatic toxicity Exclamation Mark Irritant (skin and eye) Skin Sensitizer
Acute Toxicity Narcotic Effects Respiratory Tract Irritant Hazardous to Ozone Layer (Non-Mandatory) Skull & Crossbones Acute toxicity (fatal or toxic)
Gas Cylinder Gases Under Pressure Corrosion Skin Corrosion/Burns Eye Damage Corrosive to Metals
Exploding Bomb Explosives Self-Reactives Organic Peroxides Flame Over Circle Oxidizers Flame
Flammables Pyrophorics Self-Heating Emits Flammable Gas Self-Reactives Organic Peroxides Physical Hazard Pictograms Health Hazard Pictograms
Precautionary Statements Precautionary Statements are standardized explanations of the measures to be taken to minimize or prevent adverse effects - Prevention Response Storage Disposal
Precautionary Statement Examples Prevention Wear protective gloves Response If inhaled remove person to fresh air Storage Store in well ventilated place Disposal Waste must be disposed of in accordance with federal, state and local environmental control regulations
Label Example Label Example Label Example Secondary Containers Employers must ensure that each container of hazardous chemicals in the workplace is labeled, tagged, or marked with either the
information specified under (i) through (v) for labels on shipped containers Secondary Containers (i) Product identifier;
(ii) Signal word; (iii) Hazard statement(s); (iv) Pictogram(s); (v) Precautionary statement(s); OR Secondary Containers Product identifier and words, pictures, symbols, or combination thereof, which provide at least general information regarding the hazards of the chemicals, and which, in conjunction with the
other information immediately available to employees under the hazard communication program, will provide employees with the specific information regarding the physical and health hazards of the hazardous chemical. MSDSs Information that is currently required on a MSDS:
Identity used on the label Physical & chemical characteristics Physical hazards Health hazards Primary routes of entry Exposure limits Carcinogenic information Safe handling Control measures (PPE) Emergency & First Aid procedures
Date of preparation Chemical mfg. contact info Safety Data Sheets (SDS) 1. Identification of the substance or mixture and of the supplier 2. Hazards identification 3. Composition/information on ingredients 4. First aid measures 5. Firefighting measures 6. Accidental release measures
7. Handling and storage 8. Exposure controls/personal protection Safety Data Sheets (SDS) 9. Physical and chemical properties 10. Stability and reactivity 11. Toxicological information 12. Ecological information 13. Disposal considerations 14. Transport information 15. Regulatory information
16. Other information including information on preparation and revision of the SDS Section 1 Substance & Supplier Identification Identifies the chemical on the SDS as well as the recommended uses. It also provides the essential contact information of the supplier: Product identifier used on the label and any other common names or synonyms by which the substance is known.
Name, address, phone number of the manufacturer, importer, or other responsible party, and emergency phone number. Section 2- Hazards Identification Identifies the hazards of the chemical presented on the SDS and the appropriate warning information associated with those hazards: The hazard classification of the chemical Signal word. Hazard statement(s).
Pictograms Precautionary statement(s) Description of any hazards not otherwise classified Section 3 Composition/Information on Ingredients Identifies the ingredient(s) contained in the product. This section includes information on substances, mixtures, and all chemicals where a trade secret is claimed: Chemical name
Common name and synonyms For mixtures, the chemical name and concentration (i.e., exact percentage) of all ingredients which are classified as health hazards Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) number and other unique identifiers. Section 4 First Aid Measures Describes the initial care that should be given by untrained responders to an individual who has been exposed to the chemical:
Necessary first-aid instructions by relevant routes of exposure (inhalation, skin and eye contact, and ingestion). Description of the most important symptoms or effects, and any symptoms that are acute or delayed. Recommendations for immediate medical care and special treatment needed, when necessary. Section 5 Fire Fighting Measures Provides recommendations for fighting a fire caused by
the chemical: Recommendations of suitable extinguishing equipment, and information about extinguishing equipment that is not appropriate for a particular situation. Advice on specific hazards that develop from the chemical during the fire, such as any hazardous combustion products created when the chemical burns. Recommendations on special protective equipment or precautions for firefighters.
Section 6 Accidental Release Measures Provides recommendations on the appropriate response to spills, leaks, or releases, including containment and cleanup practices to prevent or minimize exposure to
people, properties, or the environment: Use of personal precautions and protective equipment Emergency procedures, and appropriate protective clothing Methods and materials used for containment Cleanup procedures (e.g., appropriate techniques for neutralization, decontamination, cleaning or vacuuming; adsorbent materials; and/or equipment required for containment/clean up) Section 7 Handling & Storage
Provides guidance on the safe handling practices and conditions for safe storage of chemicals: Precautions for safe handling, including recommendations for handling incompatible chemicals, minimizing the release of the chemical into the environment, and providing advice on general hygiene practices (e.g., eating, drinking, and smoking in work areas is prohibited) Recommendations on the conditions for safe storage, including any incompatibilities
Section 8 Exposure Controls/Personal Protection Indicates the exposure limits, engineering controls, and personal protective measures that can be used to
minimize worker exposure: OSHA Permissible Exposure Limits (PELs), American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Values (TLVs), and any other exposure limit used or recommended by the chemical manufacturer Appropriate engineering controls Recommendations for personal protective measures to prevent illness or injury from exposure to chemicals Any special requirements for PPE, protective clothing or respirators
Section 9 Physical & Chemical Properties
Identifies physical and chemical properties associated with the substance or mixture including but not limited to the following: Appearance (physical state, color, etc.) Upper/lower flammability or explosive limits Odor Vapor pressure Vapor density pH Flash point
Section 10 Stability & Reactivity Describes the reactivity hazards of the chemical and the chemical stability information: Description of the specific test data for the chemical(s) Indication of whether the chemical is stable or unstable under normal ambient temperature and conditions while in storage and being handled List of all conditions that should be avoided and all classes of incompatible materials with which the chemical could react to produce a hazardous situation.
Section 11 Toxicological Information Identifies toxicological and health effects information or indicates that such data are not available: Information on the likely routes of exposure Description of the delayed, immediate, or chronic effects
from short- and long-term exposure The numerical measures of toxicity (e.g., acute toxicity estimates such as the LD50 (median lethal dose)) Description of the symptoms Indication of whether the chemical is listed in the National Toxicology Program (NTP), International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Monographs or found to be a potential carcinogen by OSHA Section 12 Ecological Information
Provides information to evaluate the environmental impact of the chemical(s) if it were released to the environment: Data from toxicity tests performed on aquatic organisms
Whether there is a potential for the chemical to persist and degrade in the environment Results of tests of bioaccumulation potential The potential for a substance to move from the soil to the groundwater Other adverse effects Section 13 Disposal Considerations
Provides guidance on proper disposal practices, recycling or reclamation of the chemical(s) or its container, and safe handling practices: Description of appropriate disposal containers to use. Recommendations of appropriate disposal methods to employ. Description of the physical and chemical properties
that may affect disposal activities. Language discouraging sewage disposal. Any special precautions for landfills or incineration activities Section 14 Transport Information
Provides guidance on classification information for shipping and transporting of hazardous chemical(s) by road, air, rail, or sea: UN number UN proper shipping name Transport hazard class(es) Packing group number Any special precautions which an employee should be aware of or needs to comply with, in connection with
transport or conveyance either within or outside their premises Section 15 Regulatory information Identifies the safety, health, and environmental regulations specific for the product that is not indicated anywhere else on the SDS Any national and/or regional regulatory information of the chemical or mixtures (including any OSHA, Department of Transportation, Environmental Protection Agency, or Consumer
Product Safety Commission regulations) Section 16 - Other information Indicates when the SDS was prepared or when the last known revision was made. Other useful information also may be included here
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