Power Electronics Dr John Fletcher [email protected] Rm 131

Power Electronics Dr John Fletcher John.fletcher@unsw.edu.au Rm 131

Power Electronics Dr John Fletcher [email protected] Rm 131 Power electronics

Devices Losses and cooling AC-DC converters: Rectifiers 1-phase and 3-phase DC-DC converters (switched-mode power supplies) DC-AC switched-mode inverters

Diodes Basic Structure

A pn junction Conducts in one direction when forward biased. Blocks in the other direction (reverse baised). Provides unidirectional current flow. Depletion Layer

When reverse biased, all mobile carriers are swept away from the junction forming a depletion layer (a region that has no charge carriers therefore is non-conducting) Turn-on and turn-off waveforms Reverse recovery is the process by which the diode transits from being

forward biased to reverse biased. In essence, the diode will conduct current in the reverse direction. The charge represented by the integral of reverse current with time is known as the recovery

charge. Big problem in power electronics Diode flavours Rectifier diodes for mains and low frequency applications.

Fast and ultrafast recovery diodes for high-frequency switching circuits (e.g. switched-mode power supplies)

Schottky diodes excellent reverse recovery and low forward voltage drops, but restricted voltage and current ratings and high reverse leakage current Diode losses

MOSFETs MOSFET Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor A voltage-controlled switch with three terminals Gate, Drain and Source. Turn-on by applying a voltage (~15V) between Gate and Source. Turn-off by removing this voltage.

MOSFET Structure Gate-source characteristics high-input impedance, low power requirement. Body diode reverse bias voltage will force diode to conduct. Sometimes used as a freewheel diode. The Field Effect

As Vgs is progressively increased the gate charge forms a depletion layer. As Vgs is increased further it attracts free electrons to the underside of the oxide. When enough free electrons have accumulated we have

an inversion layer. The inversion layer is a conducting channel and allows current to flow from drain to source. Turn-on waveforms Turn-off waveforms

MOSFET MOSFETs are easy to drive, have fast switching times and low losses. Application Areas: Switched-mode power supplies Low voltage motor drives (AC and DC) typically below a few hundred volts. Synchronous rectification.

IGBTs IGBT Insulated-Gate Bipolar Transistor Structure look similar to MOSFET but has some of the performance attributes of the BJT. Equivalent circuit sometimes drawn as

IGBT Structure Gate-source characteristics similar to MOSFET high-input impedance, low power requirement. No body diode must avoid excessive reverse bias voltage as this will destroy the device. Turn-on waveforms

At turn-on, MOSFET characteristics dominate. MOSFET current turns on internal PNP BJT section and the two sections share the current.

During initial transient, MOSFET section carries all current. Turn-off waveforms During turn-off, the MOSFET section

turns-off quickly, but the BJT section turns off slower causing a current tail. The tail current contributes a significant lass as it conducts with offstate voltage across

diode. IGBT Advantages over MOSFETS Higher voltage ratings Higher current ratings Disadvantages Slow turn-off due to tail current Higher turn-off losses

Lower switching frequencies Application Areas Motor drive traction drives (dc and ac), 400 3000V Utility interfaces AC-DC, UPS, VAr compensation Unity power factor converters Use Above 600 V use IGBT Below 200 V use MOSFET Between 200 and 600V consider both options.

Thyristors Thyristor Characteristics Can block voltages of both polarities Conducts a current from anode to cathode if a gate current is. injected when Vak is positive. Conduction will continue as long as anode current exceeds latching current.

Conduction continues if positive-biased and anode current exceeds holding current. Once turned on, thyristor will continue to conduct until current falls below latching current or holding current. (You cant turn it off). VI Characteristics Basic Structure

Gate-turn off thyristor (GTO) Like a thyristor but has the ability to turn-off if a sufficiently large gate current applied. Typically gate current for turn-off is 0.2 to 0.3 of the anode current. In a 1kA application this is a lot of current.

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