Modality of Self and Suicide Prevention Timothy Takemoto

Modality of Self and Suicide Prevention Timothy Takemoto

Modality of Self and Suicide Prevention Timothy Takemoto Yamaguchi University The Common View: Humans think in Language To solve problems To make decisions To make plans When reviewing behavior When thinking about what to say

When being self critical When self-encouraging When managing oneself As if there is a homunculus (a little person) inside our Self Talk Scale STS) (Shi, Brinthaupt, & McCree, 2015) Correlates with emotional intelligence (Depape, Hakim-Larson, Voelker, Page, & Jackson, 2006) STS correlates with presentation skills

However, loneliness correlates with Self Talk (Reichl, Schneider, & Spinath, 2013) Mental health has a NEGATIVE correlation with Self Talk Scale (Reichl, Schneider, & Spinath, 2013) Takemoto & Brinthaupt, in preparation The Centre of Self Logocentric Specular Westerners Japanese

The hero of the Face self narrative Medium of positive self expression Linguistic self Visual Self Medium of negative self expression Visual self

Linguistic Self Absent self-observer Viewer Listener Intra-Psychic Other Medium of self expression

Listener Linguistic Viewer Visual Self Imagining Scale (based upon Self Talk Scale STS) (Takemoto & Brinthaupt, 2017) Do you imagine things in STS situations? The Self Talk Scale was developed to assess self talk so

If Japanese imagine things in the same situations it suggests that Japanese have a tendency to imagine 3.8 Japanese IMAGINE more than SELF-TALK SIS STS 3.6

3.4 3.2 3 2.8 2.6 2.4 2.2 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 101112131415161718192021222324 The fundamental assumption of Western psychoanalysis and counselling is

that linguist self-expression is curative "Freud's Last Session," Pittsfield, Credit: Kevin Sprague But, Visual Self Awareness makes Westerners Suicidal! v Suicide is a way of avoiding self-awareness viewing mirrors makes Westerners suicidal Suicide ideation increased in mirror

condition, especially when thinking so I am sad and stressed because.. (Butler, Lee, & Gross, 2009) Traumatic Video

The effect of linguistic self expression on blood pressure after viewing a traumatic video Butler, 2007, 2009, 2012) mm Hg Talk INCREASES Asian blood

pressure (stress)! Low Expression High Expression This Research: Self Expression Modality and Affect Subjects viewed documentary about young terminal cancer patient, and then 3 Conditions Solitary thoughts

Writing thoughts Drawing a Picture Independent Variable Affect Resilience Only 90 seconds Resilience Reduction

4.9 4.8 4.7 4.6 4.5 4.4 Think Write

Draw Negative Affect 4.134 4.132 4.130 4.128 4.126 4.124 4.122

4.120 Think Write Draw Overall Negativity

<.09 9.1 9.0 8.9 8.8 8.7 8.6 8.5

Think Write Draw Japanese Linguistic (written) selfexpression was negative Oh, the poor thing I dont like this kind of traumatic sentimental video.

In future experiment participants should be made to speak e.g. into a voice recorder. Japanese Visual expressions was positive A suicide prevention method in a Japan train station A suicide prevention

method on the Golden Gate Bridge, USA Suicide Prevention Western (and recently Japanese and Guamanian suicide prevention) Linguistic Counselling & Telephone to the Samaritans is Killing Asian People? Urgent need for change? Thank you for listening

Bibliography Burton, C. M., & King, L. A. (2008). Effects of (very) brief writing on health: The two-minute miracle. British Journal of Health Psychology, 13(1), 914. Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1348/135910707X250910/full Butler, E. A. (2012). Emotion Regulation in Cultural Context: Implications for Wellness and Illness. In S. Barnow & N. Balkir (Eds.), Cultural Variations in Psychopathology: From Research to Practice. Hogrefe & Huber Pub. Retrieved from http://www.hogrefe.com/program/media/flyingbooks/600434/files/assets/basic-html/page17.html Butler, E. A., Lee, T. L., & Gross, J. J. (2009). Does Expressing Your Emotions Raise or Lower Your Blood Pressure?: The Answer Depends on Cultural Context. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 40(3), 510517. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022109332845 Frattaroli, J. (2006). Experimental disclosure and its moderators: a meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 132(6), 823. Retrieved from http://psycnet.apa.org/journals/bul/132/6/823/ Heine, S. J., Takemoto, T., Moskalenko, S., Lasaleta, J., & Henrich, J. (2008). Mirrors in the head: Cultural variation in objective self-awareness.

Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 34(7), 879887. Retrieved from http://www2.psych.ubc.ca/~heine/docs/2008Mirrors.pdf Lacan, J. (2007). Ecrits: The First Complete Edition in English. (B. Fink, Trans.) (1st ed.). W W Norton & Co Inc. (Original work published 1966) Ng, L. C. (2008). The Link between the Expression of Negative Emotion and Future Well-Being: The Role of Disclosure Modality in an East Asian American Population (Master of Arts (Psychology)). Faculty of the Graduate School. College of Letters, Arts and Sciences. University of Southern California. Retrieved from http://digitallibrary.usc.edu/cdm/ref/collection/p15799coll127/id/128346 Selimbegovi, L., & Chatard, A. (2013). The Mirror Effect: Self-Awareness Alone Increases Suicide Thought Accessibility. Consciousness and Cognition, 22(3), 756764. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1053810013000573 Takemoto, T. R., & Brinthaupt, T. M. (In Preparation). We Imagine Therefore We Think: The Modality of Self and Thought in Japan and America. = Yamaguchi Journal of Economics, Business Administrations & Laws, 65(7 8).

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