# What do we cover in section C? Unit

What do we cover in section C? Unit 4 research methods The scientific method Explain the key features of scientific investigation and discuss whether psychology can be defined as a science. Empiricism Objectivity

Subjectivity Replicability Inductive reasoning Deductive reasoning Theory construction Falsifiability Paradigm Write these key words down

in your book Learning outcomes Explain the distinction between inductive and deductive reasoning Explain what is meant by the scientific method Explain how theory is constructed in Psychology, including the views of Kuhn & Popper Describe the arguments for/against psychology as a

science Explain what the researcher must consider when carrying out research (the main features of science) Questions on inferential statistical tests. You only need to be interpret not do any calculations You might be given an experiment / study and then a number of small questions about

research methods used in that study Given a study and write out a full study brief. Key words/ concepts for this lesson

Empiricism Objectivity Subjectivity

Replicability Inductive reasoning Deductive reasoning Theory construction Falsifiability Paradigm Explain the distinction between inductive and deductive reasoning

Read the section on page 274 on the scientific process. Write your own example of Induction and Deduction INDUCTION Mainly used pre-twentieth century Observing something that happens in the world and producing theories to help explain why they happen.

Example: Newtons laws DEDUCTION Starting with a theory and finding evidence to confirm this theory. Example: Darwins theory of evolution Induction

Observation Deduction Observation Testable Hypothesis Propose theory

Conduct a study to test the hypothesis Create Testable Hypothesis Draw conclusions

Conduct a study to test the hypothesis Propose theory Draw conclusions

Theory All swans are white. Is this true? How do you know? Falsification = The only way to prove a theory correct is to seek disproof. So how do you disprove all swans are white? Explain how theory is constructed in Psychology, including the views of Kuhn & Popper

Popper (1935) argues that theories and laws about the world should come before predictions and hypotheses are made. Popper argued that we can only find our theories to be true if our hypotheses can be falsified Poppers view: We can only be certain that we are correct in our hypothesis if we have proved that we

are not wrong instead of simply proving that we are right. The Null-Hypothesis This leads us to develop, not only an experimental hypothesis, but a null-hypothesis which states what the result might be due to. If we test and reject this we can be certain that our prediction was right

Task: Write an example of an experimental hypothesis and a null-hypothesis. Explain what is meant by the scientific method Develop your theory and your hypothesis You develop or refine an explanation of this phenomenon,

eg. They are getting more vitamins than those who do not do as well Observation You observe something that occurs eg. People who have a balanced diet do better at school What ever the

result, this is known as scientific knowledge If not, refine your theory From your results you can see whether your explanation was

Explain how theory is constructed in Psychology, including the views of Kuhn & Popper Kuhn (1962) argued that psychology could not be considered to be a science as it has not one paradigm He argued that psychology has several paradigms/ approaches: Cognitive, biological, behaviourist there are several simultaneous ways of explaining

any one phenomenon or behaviour Kuhn therefore argued that psychology is a prescience. Task: Use the section on p275 to come up with another two theories that help you answer this question: Can psychology claim to be a science? Scientific research Is desireable Psychology uses scientific methods. Miller (1983) Psychologists are dressing up It is just a

pseudoscience that claims to find facts. Lack of objectivity and control Humans are not just physical objects. They react to the researcher compromising validity. But this happens in hard sciences too. Heisenberg (1927) argues even studying a subatomic particle alters its behaviour doing the measurement. Explain what the researcher must consider

when carrying out research Scientific knowledge must be based on Empirical data The researcher and the research must be objective The investigations must be replicable In order to draw valid conclusions scientists must control the experimental conditions Facts and observations must be used to construct

theories Consolidation Answer the learning question: Explain the key features of scientific investigation and discuss whether psychology can be defined as a science. Idiographic and Nomothetic

Idiographic approach - Each participant is treated as an individual and generalisations aren't made. Nomothetic - Looks to make generalisations about people and find similarities. Apply your knowledge question Harriets mother is always telling her that blondes have more fun. Harriet is studying Psychology and

explains to her mother that something isnt true just because you believe it to be so. Outline how Harriet could use her knowledge of the features of science to explain what is wrong with her mothers argument (6 marks) Empiricism

Objectivity Subjectivity Replicability Inductive reasoning Deductive reasoning

Theory construction Falsifiability Paradigm Null Hypothesis

Experimental hypothesis Check you have understood all the learning outcomes: Explain the distinction between inductive and deductive reasoning Explain what is meant by the scientific method Explain how theory is constructed in Psychology, including the views of Kuhn & Popper Describe the arguments for/against psychology as a science

Explain what the researcher must consider when carrying out research (the main features of science)

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