J.L Peyraud INRA Perspective of Livestock production 2050

J.L Peyraud INRA Perspective of Livestock production 2050

J.L Peyraud INRA Perspective of Livestock production 2050 Food Meat: +70% (465 Mt) Milk: +60% (1045 Mt) Eggs: +60% (110 Mt) Societal Challenges Livestock Production: ATF vision Resource Efficiency Healthy livestock and People Responsible Livestock Production ATF vision: Livestock, the key in a Circular bio-economy Public goods Plant production (annual crop,

grassland) Soil Public goods Bio refinery Animal production Soybean meal Manures Feed Agro industry By products Food Mineral fertilizer

By products Manures Animal by products Bio energy Bio based products Enzymes,. Cosmetics Livestock provides food of high nutritional value Digestible Indispensable Amino Acid Score (FAO, 2007) Content, Proportion and profile of IAA, Digestiblity Importance of children (brain functions) Seniors (sarcopeny ) Other micro nutrients

DIAAS index Milk 139 Beef 131 Soya 102 Wheat 65 Peas 82 Iron (heminic) : 17% of young women (18-29 years old) have iron

deficiency (France) Ca, Vit B12 Fatty acids : rumenic acid, omega-3 Livestock contributes to food security Too simplistic evaluation of livestock efficiency Confusion between human edible and non edible protein utilisation Ruminant are inefficient or efficient ? Total P Edible P Pig Poultry Bovine int- ext Dairy 3 2,2 5-9 3,2

2,6 2,1 3-1 0,7 Adapted from Wilkinson (2011) Animal efficiency should be (re)evaluated Kg ed Prot /ha, Adapted from De Vries et de Boer (2010) Wheat, peas Efficiency per kg of edible Prot and per ha LCA analysis allocations Use of alternative feeds, innovative processed by-products (cascading approach) More efficient and robust livestock Kg plant ed Prot /kg Livestock ed Prot Livestock contributes to a more efficient agriculture

Using of marginal land not able to produce plant products for human Grasslands and rangelands : 73 millions ha (40% European AA) Productivity vs provision of services Livestock production is required for an efficient use of land What are the responses curves in various territories/countries ? Improving synergies considering local contexts Livestock regulates the ecological cycles Reduction of the use of mineral fertilizers 1.8 Mt N vs 2.1 Mt for mineral fertilizers and 310 kt P vs 286 t for mineral fertilizers Reduction/ utilisation of gas losses DSS for improving use of liquid manure Role of manure on soil fertility Soil physical properties and soil microbitoa

(specific and functional biodiversity) Speciation C/N/P to favour soil C sequestration Dissemination of antibiotic resistance Innovative organisations (actors) Multi-functionnality of straw Role of legumes and grassland Regulation of N, P, C flow Protein and N autonomy Livestock contributes to GHG mitigation Perspective : 30 - 40% reduction GHG mitigation options Feeds Genotyping low methane production for selection

Animal health, husbandry and feed quality Energy Manure management Fertilizers Improving C sequestration soils (4 p 1000) Grazing Precision livestock farming Balance between meat and milk production Building Ruminal fermentations Cooperation between FACCE and HDHL is promising to enable a Climate Smart and Sustainable Nutrition Security approach Livestock provides non-provisionning ecosystem services besides provision of food Maintenance of grassland and its services Grassland lifespan and management : C storage, specific and functional biodiversity

Concept of bundles of services Composition of the bundle of services: variation Rural Vitality according to local contexts Comprehensive framework and methods to assess the sustainability of livestock system Synergies and trade off between services (+ and -) Environment Levers that can improve delivery of services Scenario of evolution : farm to food chain and territory Production Heritage Too simplistic evaluation of C and feed vs food competition Summing up LCAs single products in a Linear Model The C footprint of food (kg CO2 eq/kg)

The cconsumption of protein / kg animal food wheat Egg Chicken Pig Milk Red meat 0 2 4

6 8 10 Does not account for integration in a global Agro-Ecosystem Ignore the use of non edible protein and marginal land Does not envisage optimal land use for edible protein production Does not consider C storage and others services Ignores the effects of the production system Ignores the Feed for Food Footprint Do not quantify the multiples effects induced by the reduction in livestock production Resource efficiency Research gaps Contribution of livestock to food security

Multi dimensional evaluation of our diets, effect of the proportion of animal product and of the livestock production system Nutritional quality of animal products : Comprehension of the role of nutrients and the matrix effect Improving the roles of livestock and the coupling between livestock and crops Efficient and safe feed chains : cascading approach, maximal use of biomass (food then feed), optimal use of land, alternative feeds/forages, protein self sufficiency Robust and efficient animals and herds: genetic resources, identification of appropriate phenotypes, new breeding techniques and programs Ecological cycles : mitigations of emission, maximisation of C storage, livestock and soil fertility Biorefinery of animal by products, Societal Challenges Livestock Production: ATF vision Resource Efficiency Healthy livestock and People Responsible Livestock Production

Healthy Livestock and people Research gaps Antimicrobial resistance in the concept of one health Mechanism of dissemination: reservoir of resistance, transfer within food chains, Prevention : early detection (PLF), robustness, acquisition and stimulation of immunity, role and installation of microbiota, feeding and husbandry practices, local organisation, Alternatives therapies: use of viruses (phages), vaccines development, Disease prevention and control New diagnostic tools, Prediction of pathologic emergences and risk assessment , conditions of pathogens transmission, Host-pathogen dialog and reciprocal adaptation : pathogen biology, host defences (inflammatory and immune responses) and interaction, mechanism of infection, Animal Welfare Animal based indicators : improved management and traability for consumers

Emotional processes Societal Challenges Livestock Production: ATF vision Resource Efficiency Healthy livestock and People Responsible Livestock Production Research gaps Responsible Livestock production Responsible farming systems Adaptive capacity of farming system: trade-off between efficiency and resilience Impact of innovations on workload and work complexity, Employment Acceptability of livestock production systems and livestock food chain Integration of farm systems into sectors and territories

The territorial scale of farming systems: evaluation (framework, methods) of services, trade-offs and synergies between services, Benefits and risks of the co-existence of a diversity of systems/ food systems, Role of livestock for a sustainable rural growth : collective organisation, chairing the risks, adaptive capacities of certified quality systems Tools to favour innovation Incentives public policies for encouraging more balanced performances, Tools and methods for efficient advising of farmers

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