Through the Bytes Darkly Through the Bytes Darkly,

Through the Bytes Darkly Through the Bytes Darkly,

Through the Bytes Darkly Through the Bytes Darkly, Management Information and the Digital Library Information Technology Interest Group ACRL, New England Chapter May 17, 2002 Joe Zucca Assessment, Planning and Publications Librarian University of Pennsylvania Library Through the Bytes Darkly Four Sections of This Presentation: 1. Environmental Audit: Key Factors That Influence Our Ability to Measure Digital Information Use 2. From Low Resolution to High Resolution Data: Mining the Server Logs 3. The Data Farm Experiment: Tools That Serve Access Can Also Serve Measurement 4. Why the Data Are Important Through the Bytes Darkly Measuring Electronic Use at Penn: Environmental Influences 1. Organization and Culture Strategic Focus Base planning, goal setting/assessment on empirical evidence. From 1996an element of Penns Strategic Plan Operational Imperatives 1) Make evaluation and measurement a component of each program and project 2) Construct relays that feed data to people who need quantitative information to strategize and manage Experimental Attitude Leverage the data you have; usually theyre good enough to validate organizational experience and knowledge Through the Bytes Darkly Measuring Electronic Use at Penn: Environmental Influences 2. Proliferation of Electronic Resources Article indexes, e-journals and other full-text resources 7000 6875 6000 Number of Titles 5000 4932 4000 3000 2438

2000 1394 1000 0 3 1991 9 1993 86 1996 1999 2000 2001 2002 Through the Bytes Darkly Measuring Electronic Use at Penn: Environmental Influences 2.1. Growth of Expenditures for Electronic Resources Annual Growth of Expenditures for Electronic Information Based on 1991 1000% 900% PCT Increase in Expenditure 800% 700% 600% 500% 400% 300% 200% 100% 0% 1991 1993 1996 1999 2000 2001 E-Resources as a percent of acquisitions budget 1991 3.7% 1993 3.2% 1996 5.5% 1999 13.2%

2000 13.9% 2001 15.7% Through the Bytes Darkly Measuring Electronic Use at Penn: Environmental Influences 3. Technologys Hostility to Measurement Volatile metrics (The new system doesnt count that way!) Ever-changing data elements (sets are out searches are in) No common metrics (log-ins, sessions, searches, browses, page hits) No measurement standards (Whats a search?, Whats a Web session?) Non existent or inaccessible data (the vendor problem) Approximate & hard to obtain statistics (lots of data, no information) Fleeting benchmarks Through the Bytes Darkly From Low Resolution to High Resolution Data: Mining the Server Logs for Descriptive Statistics dial-123-130.dial. indiana.edu - - [04/ Feb/2001 :00:18:02 -0500] "GET /special/ photos/ theater/504.html HTTP/1.0" 200 3247 "http://www.library.upenn. edu /special/photos/ theater /503.html" "Mozilla/4.7 C-CCK MCD {C-UDP; EBM-APPLE} (Macintosh; I; PPC) dialin1085. upenn.edu--[04/Feb/ 2001:00:18: 04 -0500]"GET/facilities/count_ use.html? resource =China%20Economic%20 Review& method= ejs& url= http://www.sciencedirect.com/ science/journal/ 1043951XHT TP/1.0" 200 2027 "http:// www.library.upenn.edu/webbin 5/ resources/ejspubl ic5.cgi? homepage=http:// www. library.upenn.edu/lipp incott/&community= Business" "Mozilla/ 4.0 (compatible; MSIE 5.0; Windows 98; DigExt; SPIKE 5) 203.197. 226.240 - - [04/Feb/2001:00:18:07 -0500] "GET /etext/sasia/aiis/ architecture/khajuraho/ 010a.jpg HTTP/1.0" 200 89117 "http://www.library.upenn.edu/etext/sasia/ aiis/arch itecture/khajuraho/010.html" "Mozilla/4.7 [en] (Win95; I) Through the Bytes Darkly Low Resolution Inputs Records in locally-managed databases (including the OPAC)26,332,138 Number of journal article indexes & full-text files (e.g. Academic Index)....267 Number of e-journals (from publishers such as Elsevier and free sources)....6,608 Number of digital books (locally created, aggregated and licensed)....110,000 Number of locally digitized and accessible images (e.g. fine art slides, ms facsimiles)..82,356 Number of records in the OPAC ........2,879,696 Number of pages, forms and directories constituting the library web site.32,000 Through the Bytes Darkly Low Resolution The Load on Our Machines Web Pages Served 1995-2001 from www.library.upenn.edu. 3-month moving average 2,000,000 1,800,000 Total pages requested: FY 96 2,481,146 FY 97 5,316,283 one-year increase................114.3% FY 98 7,038,872

...................32.4% FY 99 11,807,289 ...................67.7% FY00 12,540,531 .....................6.2% FY01 14,461,712 ....................15.3% 1,600,000 1,200,000 1,000,000 800,000 600,000 400,000 200,000 Apr-01 Jan-01 Oct-00 Jul-00 Apr-00 Jan-00 Oct-99 Jul-99 Apr-99 Jan-99 Oct-98 Jul-98 Apr-98 Jan-98 Oct-97 Jul-97 Apr-97 Jan-97 Oct-96 Jul-96 Apr-96 Jan-96 Oct-95

0 Jul-95 Web Pages Requested per Month 1,400,000 Through the Bytes Darkly Low Resolution Changing Machine Demand BlackBoard Pages Served by the Main Library Web Server + OPAC Server 25,000,000 OPAC Web 20,000,000 15,000,000 10,000,000 5,000,000 0 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 Projected Through the Bytes Darkly Low Resolution Search Activity Over Time Annual Searches in Licensed Databases (e.g., MEDLINE), FY97-01 3,500,000 3,000,000 searches 2,500,000 2,000,000 1,500,000 1,000,000 500,000 0 fy97 fy99

fy00 fy01 Through the Bytes Darkly Correlation Matrix of Use Metrics Available for Ovid Files Pearson r for Sessions, Connect Time, Sets, Documents Viewed 99 cases Sessions Sets Sessions 1.00 Time .980 1.00 Sets .905 .971 1.00 Documents Viewed .844 .932 .983 5000 sets 4000 3000 2000 Docs.Viewed 1.00 80000 80000 70000 70000 60000 60000 50000 50000

sets 6000 time Time 40000 30000 40000 30000 20000 20000 1000 10000 10000 0 0 0 4000 s e s s ions 8000 12000 0 0 1000 2000 3000 tim e 4000 5000 0 4000 8000 s e s s ions 12000 Through the Bytes Darkly Correlation Matrix of Use Metrics Available for SilverPlatter Files Pearson r for Sessions, Connect Time, Searches, Documents Viewed Sessions

Time Searches Sessions 1.00 Time .975 1.00 Searches .899 .901 1.00 Abstracts Viewed .840 .870 .855 Abs. Viewed 1.00 94 cases 1800 1600 1400 120 Searches Time 100 80 60 40 1200 1000 800 600 Searches 140 400 200 0 20 0 0

100 200 300 Se s s ions 400 500 0 20 40 60 80 Tim e 100 120 140 1800 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 100 200 300 Se s s ions 400 500 Through the Bytes Darkly High Resolution Data + User Input + Good Program Liaison and Knowledge Support Resource Management, and Inform Basic Questions, e.g.: Are we choosing the right information sources for our audiences? optimizing the delivery of electronic information?

making access as easy and seamless as possible? spending our dollars wisely? able to detect and respond to change in the patterns of resource use? Through the Bytes Darkly Using the Architecture of the Web to Increase Data Resolution www.library.upenn.edu/facilities/count_use.html Through the Bytes Darkly Beginning with a stream of unprocessed log data... dial-123-130.dial. indiana.edu - - [04/Feb/2001:00:17:38-0500] "GET/special/photos /theater/505.html HTTP/1.0" 200 3086 "http://www.library. upenn.edu/special/photos/theater/504.html" "Mozilla/4.7C-CCK-MCD {C-UDP; EBM-APPLE} (Macintosh; I; PPC) recrawler 1.bos2.fastsearch.net - -[04/Feb/2001:00: 18:21- 0500] "GET /etext/ sasia/skt-mss/1549 /15a.html HTTP/ 1.0" 200 2736 "-" "FAST -WebCrawler/2.2-pre27 ([email protected] fast.no; http://www .fast.no/faq/ faqfastweb 130.91.196.245.in-addr.arpa--[04/Feb/2001:00 :17:40 0500] "GET /facilities/count_use.html?resource =ABI/Inform %20 %20Ovid &method= Ovid&url=http:// www.abi-ovid.library.upenn.edu/ovid web/ovidweb.cgi? T=JS& PAGE =main&MODE=ovid& D=infoz HTTP/1.1" 200 2039 "http://www.library.upenn.edu/webbin5/resources/ databases.cgi? business" "Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; MSIE 5.5; Windows NT 4.0) 203.197.226.240 - search/faqfastwebcrawler.html)" [04/Feb/2001:00:17:41 -0500] "GET /etext/sasia/aiis/architecture /khajuraho/010.html HTTP/1.0" 200 4427 "http://www. library.upenn.edu/etext/ sasia/ aiis/architecture/ khajur aho/" "Mozilla/4.7 [en] (Win95; I) 203.197.226. 240- -[04/Feb/200 1:00:17:44 -0500] "GET /images/banner. gifHTTP/1.0" 404 2814 "http://www.library. upenn. edu/etext/sasi a/aiis/architecture /khajuraho/010.html" "Mozilla /4.7 [en] (Win95; I)"pub237.lib.upenn.edu - - [04/Feb/ 2001:00:17:48 -0500] "GET / HTTP/1.0" 200 8070 "-" "WebTrends Alert dial-123-130.dial. indiana.edu - - [04/ Feb/2001 :00:18:02 -0500] "GET /special/ photos/ theater/504.html HTTP/1.0" 200 3247 "http://www.library.upenn. edu /special/photos/ theater /503.html" "Mozilla/4.7 C-CCK MCD {C-UDP; EBM-APPLE} (Macintosh; I; PPC) dialin1085. upenn.edu--[04/Feb/ 2001:00:18: 04 -0500]"GET/facilities/count_use.html?resource=China%20Economic%20 Review& method= ejs& url= http://www.sciencedirect.com/ science/journal/ 1043951XHT TP/1.0" 200 2027 "http:// www.library.upenn.edu/webbin 5/ resources/ejspubl ic5.cgi?homepage=http:// www. library.upenn.edu/lipp incott/&community= Business" "Mozilla/ 4.0 (compatible; MSIE 5.0; Windows 98; DigExt; SPIKE 5) 203.197. 226.240 - - [04/Feb/2001:00:18:07 -0500] "GET /etext/sasia/aiis/ architecture/khajuraho/ 010a.jpg HTTP/1.0" 200 89117 "http://www.library.upenn.edu/etext/sasia/ aiis/arch itecture/khajuraho/010.html" "Mozilla/4.7 [en] (Win95; I) Through the Bytes Darkly and information culled from databases that generate our Web pages... |http://www.uqtr.uquebec.ca/AE/index.html|World||||History of Art|F-T| No|07-16-1999 : 11:11|10-25-2000 : 11:30|| ABA Bank Compliance |http://proquest.umi.com/pqdlink?Ver=1&Exp=07-012003&REQ=3&PUB=14954&Cert=0CEccdp7 aMS6kuCDmdhPNL %2bQ2tTOLTrDEHAz%2bYmHN172RUqZPCJ2SvATX %2bFGA7htIYkVlFVWSyawE0NvKlpBZ%2bO%2f %2bLEWBnchnwLT9%2b %2fdGGHSlx0PO3dxUQd3g2S9QP2FghKaQ2ncl5EdDKBum2vykhvxsyR QutjuMGKfxAKHOA4-|Penn|ABI/Inform|||Business,Finance|F-TPI| No|0313-2001: 00:01|03-14-2001 : 11:31|mw| ABA Journal |http://proquest.umi.com/pqdlink?Ver=1&Exp=07012003&REQ=3&PUB=27585&Cert=PfySiFXf1 0i6kuCDmdhPNL %2bQ2tTOLTrDEHAz%2bYmHN172RUqZPCJ2SvATX %2bFGA7ht1pGvDP%2bFxrGwE0NvKlpBZ%2bO%2f %2bLEWBnchnwLT9%2b %2fdGGHSlx0PO3dxUQd3g2S9QP2FghKaQ2ncl5EdDKBum2vykhvxsyR QutjuAyIsegc4Y7Y-|Penn|ABI/Inform|||Finance|F-TPI|No|03-13-2001: 00:01||mw| ABI/Inform |http://www.umi.com/pqdauto| Penn||||Biomedical Research,Management,Business,Clinical

Medicine,Clinical Medicine,Nursing, Econo mics, Health Care Policy & Management| F-TSDb|No|07-16-1999 :11:11|02-09-2001 12:14|| Through the Bytes Darkly to extracting, parsing, storing, and mining for significant content. hrn1117.resnet-student.upenn.edu 4-Feb-01 17:25:31 Music Index Online | | | dhcp004.lib.upenn.edu 4-Feb-01 17:26:54 LEXIS/NEXIS Academic Universe | | | node.uphs.upenn.edu 4-Feb-01 17:27:13 Internet Grateful Med | | | biomed07.med.upenn.edu 4-Feb-01 17:27:44 MEDLINE | | | janus.siast.sk.ca 4-Feb-01 17:30:18 Design Studies |ScienceDirect |05,24,40,68 |F-TPI lrsm228pc2.lrsm.upenn.edu 4-Feb-01 17:30:29 Physical Review B

| |10,55 |F-TPI sub200141.colstate.edu 4-Feb-01 17:32:15 Representations |JSTOR |05,14,25,29,31,36,38,64 |F-TPI ref124.lib.upenn.edu 4-Feb-01 17:36:05 British Journal of Aesthetics |Oxford |54 client-151-200-195-5.silvmul.com 4-Feb-01 17:37:20 Dow Jones Interactive | |08,09,13,20,27,32,37,51,56 |F-TSDb janet.sas.upenn.edu 17:39:28 MEDLINE | | |Ovid |08,44,09,13,20,27,32,3 |F-TSDb 17:41:48 MEDLINE | | ip-20-12-201.philly-t.navipath.net 4-Feb-01 17:44:52 Dow Jones Interactive | |08,09,13,20,27,32,37,51,56 |F-TSDb t13pc.seas.upenn.edu

4-Feb-01 17:48:10 MEDLINE | | dialin1085.upenn.edu 4-Feb-01 18:04:05 China Economic Review |ScienceDirect |09 | dhcp066.lib.upenn.edu 4-Feb-01 18:07:12 Anthropological Literature | | | hil-235-113.resnet.upenn.edu4-Feb-01 18:09:08 Journal of Sociolinguistics |ECO |02,43,64 |F-TPI dhcp082.lib.upenn.edu 4-Feb-01 20:11:30 Art Index | | | gvdf.med.upenn.edu 4-Feb-01 21:07:12 Biochemistry |ACS |10 |F-TPI lsw-103-197.greeknet-student.upenn.edu 4-Feb-01 22:07:12 LEXIS/NEXIS Academic Universe

| | | nic-21-95.resnet.upenn.edu 4-Feb-01 | | | 130.91.196.245 198.84.16.26 4-Feb-01 4-Feb-01 17:40:43 ABI/Inform 4-Feb-01 23:07:12 ERIC |F-TPI | | | Through the Bytes Darkly Use of Licensed Resources What Databases Do Our Clients Use at What Cost? 15 Most Frequently Used Index/Abstract/Full-text Databases in FY 2001 Database MEDLINE Log-ins Pct Total Cost Per Login 205,150 22.9% $ 0.10 LEXIS/NEXIS 63,817 7.1% $ 0.42 Academic Index

52,407 5.9% $ 0.58 Dow Jones 39,828 4.5% $ 0.68 ISI Citation Indexes 39,753 4.4% $ 2.75 ABI/Inform 36,190 4.0% $ 1.09 PsycINFO Investext 27,636 17,695 3.1% 2.0% $ $ 0.89 0.68 Business & Industry 16,797 1.9% $ 0.55 CINAHL/Nursing 16,232 1.8%

$ 0.36 PubMed 15,610 1.7% $ - MLA International 13,359 1.5% $ 0.41 Multex 12,196 1.4% $ 0.10 ERIC 10,852 1.2% $ 0.54 EconLit 8,940 1.0% $ 0.80 Hoovers Online 8,905 1.0% $ 0.22 Inter Bibliog Soc Science 8,152

0.9% $ 0.38 Sociological Abstracts 7,703 0.9% $ 1.58 S&P Industry Surveys 7,346 0.8% $ 0.63 D&B Million $ Database 6,376 0.7% $ 1.74 894,416 100.0% All others Through the Bytes Darkly Use of Licensed Resources What Are the High Use E-Journals, Data for FY2001 Title Log-ins Pct Total Log-ins Log-ins On Campus Off Campus Science 4,232 1.5% 3,114 1,057

Nature 4,081 1.4% 2,880 1,173 Journal of Biological Chemistry 2,408 0.8% 1,883 519 Journal of the American Chemical Society 2,405 0.8% 2,153 247 New England Journal of Medicine 1,994 0.7% 1,359 620 Angewandte Chemie (international edition) 1,836 0.6% 1,665 167 Journal of Organic Chemistry 1,660 0.6% 1,504 150 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 1,608 0.6% 1,246

360 Tetrahedron Letters 1,361 0.5% 1,218 143 Organic Letters 1,308 0.5% 1,208 99 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S. 1,285 0.5% 1,017 266 Journal of Molecular Biology 1,060 0.4% 850 210 JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association 1,023 0.4% 650 352 Journal of Chemical Physics 992 0.3% 819 172 Journal of Finance 887 0.3%

423 378 Lancet 867 0.3% 637 227 American Journal of Sociology 860 0.3% 384 373 Medicine 849 0.3% 580 263 Applied Physics Letters 834 0.3% 751 83 Physical Review B 826 0.3% 727 98 Through the Bytes Darkly Use of Licensed Resources How Much Bang Do We Get on the Dollar For E-Journals? E-Journal Subscription Costs Per Log-In, FY2002 (July-April) Publisher Log-ins Pct of Total Cost Per Login

ScienceDirect 139,727 27.1% $0.63 ECO 70,730 13.7% $0.09 JSTOR 48,668 9.4% $0.35 Wiley 38,255 7.4% $0.09 ACS 31,865 6.2% $0.12 Ideal 30,568 5.9% $5.51 Blackwell/Munksgaard 28,940 5.6% $0.27 [email protected] 26,982 5.2% n/a Oxford 14,819

2.9% $0.20 SpringerLINK 13,507 2.6% n/a ABI/Inform 12,785 2.5% $3.08 Project Muse 11,438 2.2% $1.22 AIP 7,873 1.5% $5.01 Cambridge 7,835 1.5% n/a Annual Reviews 7,215 1.4% $0.08 IEEE 7,132 1.4% $6.73 RSC 5,661 1.1% n/a

Others 11,451 2.2% 515,451 100% Total 11 publishers Through the Bytes Darkly Use of Licensed Resources How Does Use Scatter Across Databases Use Measured in Log-ins for FY 2001 100% 90% 80% PCT of Use 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% PCT of Titles 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Through the Bytes Darkly Database Use by Penns Schools & Centers Use of Licensed Resources School How Does Database Use Distribute By Communities? Per Capita Use of Databases by Penns Schools and Centers, FY

2001 Medicine 23.2% Arts & Sci 20.4% In-Library 12.8% Wharton 12.3% 55 Admin 4.8% 50 Enginrng 4.4% Nursing 3.5% Veterinary 2.5% 40 Education 1.4% 35 Social Wrk 1.8% Commnctn 1.3% Fine Arts 1.0% 25 Dental 0.9% 20 Law

0.5% Dorms 9.3% 45 Log-ins Per Capita Pct of Log-ins 30 15 10 5 School and Center Domains Does not include resources licensed by the Law Library for Law school affiliates LA W D EN TA L SF A G SE G SA S SE AS AD M VE T W H R T N U R M ED SS W AS C 0

Through the Bytes Darkly Use of Licensed Resources Database & E-Journal Log-ins by Subject (based on log samples from FY2001) Subject focus Network Domain Human. Life Science Social Science Business Physical Science Total Administration Wharton Annenberg Medical Dental Veterinary Dialin Education Fine Arts Law Library Nursing Student Residences Arts and Sciences Engineering 0 Social Work Unresolved 21.1% 02.9% 15.2% 02.3% 01.8% 01.7% 08.5% 24.6% 29.0% 13.0% 21.3% 15.9% 18.9% 08.2% 1.5% 20.6% 18.9% 36.5% 74.3% 32.1% 86.0% 87.7% 96.0% 63.2% 13.1%

18.5% 26.6% 54.8% 73.1% 57.0% 26.3% 29.5% 29.1% 44.7% 13.9% 03.2% 42.3% 01.9% 08.9% 00.6% 09.9% 61.5% 45.7% 20.9% 09.1% 07.8% 12.6% 5.7% 2.3% 41.6% 17.8% 07.0% 19.2% 08.9% 01.0% 00.2% 00.4% 15.4% 00.8% 5.6% 37.0% 08.5% 03.2% 09.0% 09.9% 01.2% 06.1% 10.0% 21.6% 00.5% 01.5% 08.8% 01.4% 01.3% 02.9% 00.0% 01.2% 02.4% 06.3% 00.0% 02.5% 49.9% 65.6% 02.7% 08.6% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%

100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% Total 14.7% 50.7% 11.9% 8.6% 14.1% 100.0% Through the Bytes Darkly Use of Licensed Resources Where Do Our Clients Access Information? Database Log-ins by Domain, FY2001 Campus Residences 10% Off-Campus 15% In-Library 25% On-Campus Depts 50% Through the Bytes Darkly Use of Licensed Resources Where Do Communities of Clients Work? On Campus Off-Campus Database Log-ins from Off Campus as a Percent of Total Log-ins, FY2001 100.0% 90.0% 70.0% 60.0% 50.0% 40.0% 30.0% 20.0% 10.0% School or Center T

VE M AD LA W M ED C AS AS SE A G SF S TL D EN SA S R N U T R W H G SE W 0.0% SS Pct. of Log-ins 80.0% Through the Bytes Darkly Use of Licensed Resources When Are They Working? Database Use by Time of Day, FY2001 25000 In-Library Student Houses Schools Campus Modem Pool

15000 10000 5000 11-12 PM 10-11 PM 9-10 PM 8-9 PM 7-8 PM 6-7 PM 5-6 PM 4-5 PM 3-4 PM 2-3 PM 1-2 PM 12-1 PM 11-12 AM 10-11 AM 9-10 AM 8-9 AM 7-8 AM 6-7 AM 5-6 AM 4-5 AM 3-4 AM 2-3 AM 1-2 AM 0 12-1AM Attempted Logons 20000 Through the Bytes Darkly Use of Licensed Resources How Does Audience Composition Change Through the Day? Database Use by hour, FY2001 60.0%

Network Domains: In-L ibrary Student Houses Campus M odem Pool All Other (non-Penn domains) The points on this line total 100% of logons for the hour 5-6 AM . In this example, "All Other Domains" accounted for 46.6% of attempted log-ons during the given hour. 50.0% 40.0% 30.0% 20.0% 10.0% 11-12 PM 10-11 PM 9-10 PM 8-9 PM 7-8 PM 6-7 PM 5-6 PM 4-5 PM 3-4 PM 2-3 PM 1-2 PM 12-1 PM 11-12 AM 10-11 AM 9-10 AM 8-9 AM 7-8 AM 6-7 AM 5-6 AM 4-5 AM 3-4 AM 2-3 AM

1-2 AM 0.0% 12-1AM Percent of Total Logons for Each Hour Schools Through the Bytes Darkly The Data Farm Experiment: Tools That Serve Information Access Can Also Serve Measurement Through the Bytes Darkly Schematic of the Data Farm As of May 2002 Through the Bytes Darkly Why Are the Data Important? If you dont know where youre going, youll probably end up somewhere else - Casey Stengel To Demonstrate Accountability: Is the library spending the Schools money effectively? (Pressures of Penns responsibility center budget environment) To Understand and Describe the Transfer of Technology: Is the academic information universe a digital universe (as some at Penn believe)? Is the digital universe more cost efficient than the paper one (as some at Penn believe)? To Guide the Improvement of Existing and the Development of New Services To Ensure the Successful Fulfillment of Our Mission Through the Bytes Darkly Through the Bytes Darkly, Management Information and the Digital Library Joe Zucca University of Pennsylvania Library [email protected]

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