Health and the justice system : European and

Health and the justice system : European and

Health and the justice system : European and national issues Seamus Watson, National Programme Manager, Public Health England WHO (European Region) Collaborating Centre - Health in Prisons Programme Prisoners are the community. They come from the community, they return to it. Protection of prisoners is protection of our communities. Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) Statement on HIV/AIDS in Prisons

The Health in Prisons Programme (HIPP) Responsibility for prison health in Europe? Currently, either the Justice Ministry or the Interior Ministry is responsible for prison health in the vast majority of Member States of the WHO European Region In recent years several Member States have transferred the responsibility for prison health to their Health Ministries - Norway, Sweden, France, UK and Italy Some Swiss cantons and 2 autonomous regions of Spain have implemented a similar reform Source :UNODC-WHO Europe The Health in Prisons Programme (HIPP)

Source :WHO Europe Prisoners in Europe About 2 million in WHO European Member States 6 million people are incarcerated during a given year in Europe Isolated from public health Large number of prisoners with drug-related or mental health problem Source for spread of communicable diseases The Health in Prisons Programme (HIPP) Prison populations

(ICPS 2015) The Health in Prisons Programme (HIPP) Prison population rate Number of prisoners per 100,000 (ICPS 2015) The Health in Prisons Programme (HIPP) WHO Health In Prisons Programme WHO established the HIPP in 1995 to: Support Member States in

improving public health by addressing health and health care in prisons; As part of HIPP, WHO/Europe established a network of national counterparts and international partner organizations to liaise between WHO/Europe and Member States. Facilitate the links between prison health and public health systems at both national and international levels.

The network currently includes 44 national counterparts, and meets once a year to discuss specific topics. Gives technical advice to Member States on the development of prison health and their links with public health systems and on technical issues related to communicable diseases (esp. TB, HIV and Blood Borne Viruses),substance misuse and mental health. The last meeting was in Portlaoise, Ireland in October

2014 The UK provides the Collaborating Centre function to WHO HIPP through Public Health England. The Health in Prisons Programme (HIPP) The Aims of WHO HIPP The Health in Prisons Programme (HIPP) Identifying poor practice in Europe

Prison populations are usually not specifically identified in national health statistics; In absence of such data, assessment of performance of Member States judged by: the growing body of case law concerning prison health of the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) the reports of the European Committee for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment The Health in Prisons Programme (HIPP)

European Court of Human Rights ECHR judges individual complaints brought by prisoners or by their legal representatives mainly on the basis of Article 2 (Right to Life) and Article 3 (Prohibition of Torture) of the European Convention on Human Rights Even though the ECHR always deals with individual complaints, many of its judgements reflect on the overall health conditions in a given prison or prison system The Health in Prisons Programme (HIPP) Findings from reviews

Evidence of continual & widespread failings and disregard of the legal & medical standards, including Lack of access to appropriate healthcare facilities in prisons Custodial staff inappropriately undertaking certain clinical tasks Custodial staff gate keeping access to healthcare facilities Lack of training and professional qualifications among some healthcare staff in prisons Failure to adequately protect confidential medical information Failure to meet clinical care needs of people living with HIV and/or TB Involvement of doctors and other health personnel in the punishment of prisoners, such as solitary confinement Failure by doctors and other health personnel to record and report cases of ill-treatment to competent authorities

The Health in Prisons Programme (HIPP) Data in the WHO European Region There is no official data collection on imprisonment that covers all 53 Member States in the WHO European Region An official database only exists for the 47 Member States that are also members of the Council of Europe In 2012, ~ two million men, women and children were imprisoned on any given day throughout the WHO European Member States; an estimated six million people are incarcerated per year In most member states, the prison population has increased during

the past decade The Health in Prisons Programme (HIPP) Public health paradigm for disease in prisons Population Environment Prevalence of illhealth/disease The Health in Prisons Programme (HIPP) Infectious Diseases : TB

In Europe, prison populations are almost never specifically identified in population level reports on prevalence of ill-health / disease; Specific prevalence studies identify high rates of Tuberculosis (TB): Data from 2002 shows prevalence of disease among prisoners in Europe was 84 times higher than in the general population;

In 2010, three WHO European Member States reported TB cases in prisons exceeding 10% of the countrywide total of new cases, and the TB relative risk in prisons was up to 145 times higher than in the general population; The Health in Prisons Programme (HIPP) Prisons - and for blood-borne diseases Many prison populations have high prevalence of infection with blood-borne

viruses (BBVs) (Hepatitis B & C) and HIV due to large numbers of injecting drug users among incarcerated populations; Some evidence of onward transmission of infection in some European states due to injecting of drugs, tattooing and unprotected sexual activity - although definitive data is difficult to find. The Health in Prisons Programme (HIPP) Drugs and drug use Drug use and risk behaviour often continue inside prison high risk of infectious diseases

Drugs services in prisons are sometimes poorly developed Overdose deaths is a general problem in most countries, especially where there is no substitution treatment available in prisons The Health in Prisons Programme (HIPP) HIV prevalence (%) in selected countries 16% 14% HIV prevalence rates

12% HIV Prevalence prison HIV prev pop 15-49 10% 8% 6% 4% 2% 0% The Health in Prisons Programme (HIPP)

Mental health and justice system Mental health a state of wellbeing in which every individual realises his or her own potential, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully, and is able to make a contribution to her or his community Promotion of mental health Prevention of mental illhealth and suicide

Improving the lives of people living with mental illness Key challenges - England mental health needs are often complex, with comorbidity the norm 72% of men and 71% of women suffered from two or more mental

disorders (including personality disorder, psychosis, neurosis, alcohol misuse and drug dependence), and 20% suffered from four Concurrent mental health and substance misuse problems can lead to difficulties in accessing support from both health and social care

In a study of offenders on probation, 72% of those with a mental illness also had a substance misuse problem Strategy to address challenge work to reduce premature mortality from preventable or treatable illnesses - mental health - excessive alcohol consumption - smoking - sexually transmitted disease and other communicable diseases continue to improve the therapeutic management and treatment of problematic and dependent drug and

alcohol users in prisons Strategy - continued work to reduce reoffending and create safer communities, which will have health benefits for the wider population support partnership working advocate a public health approach to violent crime prevention drawing on the economic and social costs of violence provide information that supports initiatives to address the wider determinants of health targeted initiatives that improve the health and wellbeing of offenders in the community and prisons

Strategy . continued collaborate with NHS England and other commissioners to improve commissioning and health outcomes strengthening pathways between custody and the community, in particular improving substance misuse / detoxification provision collecting evidence / knowledge / data case studies Suicide Suicide rates are higher in prison populations than among peers in the

community. WHO data shows a suicide rate which ranges from 0 (0.0%) to almost 300 (0.3%) per 100,000 prisoners, with an average of about 60 (0.06%) per 100,000 in the 47 WHO European Member States that belong to the Council of Europe. Data from the UK is shown as an example. The Health in Prisons Programme (HIPP) Harris review Self inflicted deaths in custody of 18 24 year olds

Environments bleak and demoralising Damaging to developing young adults Time spent in a constructive and valuable way Need to address physical and mental health needs A new statement on the purpose of prison Parity of health services The Health in Prisons Programme (HIPP) Things happening Prisoner volunteer programme Liaison and diversion

The Health in Prisons Programme (HIPP) Irish Red Cross - Prisoner Volunteer Programme Theme of prisoner empowerment Ireland is the first country in the world to introduce Community Based Health and First Aid in Action through groups of special status : Irish Red Cross Volunteer Inmates in a prison setting It first began at Wheatfield Prison in 2009 and following the success of this pilot it was extended to ten prisons by 2013 and

to all fourteen prisons in Ireland in 2014 The programme, which has recruited 577 Irish Red Cross volunteer inmates since 2009, benefits over 4,000 prisoners directly every day and 12,000 indirectly including staff and the families of the prisoners The Health in Prisons Programme (HIPP) Prisoner Volunteer Programme achievements: Personal, in-cell and prison hygiene awareness HIV & AIDS Awareness and Anti Stigma Campaigns with voluntary HIV Rapid Testing taking place in

four Prisons Weapons Amnesty Project at Wheatfield - The results have shown a 94% reduction in assaults with a weapon and 50% reduction in assaults. Harm Reduction drug awareness highlighting the dangers of over-dosage when taking drugs after leaving the prison. Volunteers facilitate Smoking Cessation Courses Contributed to TB awareness in all

prisons and in Mountjoy encouraged Mass Chest X-ray (MXU) screening with over 400 prisoners screened Increased local awareness about Seasonal Flu and norovirus outbreaks Hepatitis vaccinations awareness programmes Promotion of Mens Health Awareness; The Health in Prisons Programme (HIPP) Liaison and diversion partnership working between justice, health and social care

early, pre - sentencing assessment of mental health alternatives to custodial services facilitated access to mental health and social support The Health in Prisons Programme (HIPP) Prison & community - a health opportunity The Health in Prisons Programme (HIPP) Conclusions Public health challenges associated with detention settings and community justice are significant and increasing Prisons & other places of detention represent an opportunity to

address health inequalities The challenge is to ensure that work commenced in prisons and other detention settings is appropriately continued on return to the community HIPP proposes a model of working in Health & Justice, where prisons are an important setting on a complex care pathway, recognising that most offenders return to their communities Health and Justice organisations internationally must work in co-production mode to ensure effective design & delivery of services in prisons and beyond the prison walls. The Health in Prisons Programme (HIPP) Thank you

Questions, answers and discussion The Health in Prisons Programme (HIPP)

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