Empowering Adolescent Project in Seven Districts of Uttar

Empowering Adolescent Project in Seven Districts of Uttar

Empowering Adolescent Project in Seven Districts of Uttar Pradesh Baseline Assessment Contents About the Study Our Understanding of Adolescent Empowerment Approach Project Locations Field Process Marriage Gender Based Violence Negotiating Life Choices Household Chores and Leisure Time Mobility Communication Attitude Towards Girls Health Education About The Study Supported by IKEA foundation Implemented by Breakthrough To engage and empower 400,000 adolescents in Uttar Pradesh

Impact: Empowerment of adolescent girls and boys aged 11-19 years so that they demand and access gender equity in Health and Education in their homes and community for self and others. Empowering Adolescents Project 2016-2020 Being implemented in 7 districts and 18 blocks within these districts: Lucknow, Varanasi, Ghazipur, Jaunpur, Gorakhpur, Maharajganj, Siddharthanagar Key Interventions in the form of Trainings as well as the use of Media and Communication. Our Understanding of Adolescent Empowerment Empowering youth means to: Expand peoples ability to make strategic life choices in a context where this ability was previously denied to them. Thus empowerment encompasses the context in which the person lives, the agency or ability to take decisions (process) and the achievement, which is the outcome of choices. Approach Indicators Mix-method Small change Valid at project level

Increase in average age at marriage Increase in average years at school Large change Reduction in witnessing any kind of violence against females Reduction in experiencing any kind of violence Sampling Comparable group (within Gender & within Age) Quantitative (household & individual level) Qualitative (FGDs & KIs) Simple random sampling All projects districts (6) & blocks (18) and 60 villages covered 1200 individual & 5990 HH level interviews completed Project Locations Map source: mapsofindia

Field Process Pilot of tools Field training Data collection Marriage Marriage Individual level Lack of legal awareness Lack of say in decision making Adherence to Social Norms Areas of exploration Prevalence of early marriage and the beliefs and norms associated with it. Attitudes and reasons given for early marriage Impeding factors to early marriage Family level No legal proof of age Economic and social pressures Physical safety and health of girls Caste and cultural practices Community Level Emerging trends Transforming practices Focus on education Key findings

Total Sample: 11579 Every 17th adolescent amongst the sample was found to be married Trend: In the last 2 years, the average age of marriage has been increasing Married Population amongst total sample: 6% The issue of early marriage Adolescents were of the opinion that the legal age of marriage should be pushed further than 18. It was felt that 21 years was more suitable to get married so that basic education can be (giggles)hum hee pehle se shaadi ke completed It is considered socially inappropriate for adolescents to speak about their marriage Low participation of adolescents regarding the decision of marriage

baare mein baat karenge toh woh sochenge ki humein hee jaldi parhi haisirf badhe hee bol sakte hai waise bhi. While many adolescents abide by the social norm that elders know best and hence should be the only ones making decisions, there are also those who do not speak due to the fear of being ridiculed/punished. Early marriage from the lens of surrounding structures Unregistered births Social desirability bias whereby age of marriage was reported as being the same as the legal age of marriage Early marriage is often linked to economic strains, whereby delaying marriages results in an increased dowry. Adolescents having a say in the choice of partner/marriage related matters was seen as shameful and attached with the fear of stigma. There exists societal pressure on the family to find a suitable groom for their daughter Marriage is viewed as a better alternative to sitting idle. Bigad jaati hai ladkiya

agar jaldi shaadi na hui toh. Overall findings on the issue of marriage It was found that though early marriages do take place, it has greatly reduced in recent times as there is a focus on education and there is a larger awareness regarding the legal age of marriage. Positive attitudinal change Lack of trust on adolescents leads to justifying early marriage on grounds of safety and morality. Majority of the stakeholders believed that marriages SHOULD take place after the age of 18 (Legal Awareness) Awareness regarding negative effects of early marriage on the health of girls

Growing focus on Education Delaying marriages elicits community pressure on the family. Drivers of early marriage: Fears Developing body of an adolescent seen as a liability Results in preemptive marriages Factors that may aid negotiation regarding delaying marriages or act as Entry points Increasing awareness regarding actual age (with focus on birth registrations) Education and economic independence: most accepted reasons for delaying marriages Gender Based Violence Types of Violence Verbal

Violence Physical Violence Sexual Violence Out of those who witnessed or experienced verbal violence: A higher percentage witnessed or experienced it outside the household More boys, especially aged 11-14, reported witnessing or experiencing it Out of those who witnessed or experienced physical violence: Most reported being slapped A higher percentage of respondents witnessed or experienced it within the household More boys reported witnessing or experiencing physical violence Out of those (15-19years old) who witnessed or experienced sexual harassment: A higher percentage witnessed or experienced it outside household The percentage of those who reported experiencing it is insignificant Norms of Obedience Reasons of Violence Doing Doing Domestic Domestic Chores Chores Studying Not doing household chores, a reason given by respondents for experiencing violence

(physical-46% and verbal- 51%) Higher within household Sexual Violence Revenge Revenge on on past past matter matter (within (within householdhousehold- 40%, 40%, outsideoutside20%) 20%) Victim Victim under under the the influence influence of of alcohol/drug alcohol/drug (within (within householdhousehold- 29.5%, 29.5%, outsideoutsideRespondents stated that they Going Going out out to to 17.1%) 17.1%) experienced violence for going play/with play/with Ditched Ditched or

or duped duped in in an an affair affair or or out to play/with friends friends friends only only relationship relationship (24.1% (24.1% outside) outside) (physical-33.7% and verbalwith with Highest Highest percentage percentage of of girls girls 29.3%) Higher within permission permission reported reported this this as as aa reason reason household Bullying Bullying (within (within householdhousehold20.5%, 20.5%, outsideoutside- 18%) 18%) Studying considered to be a purposeful

activity, an irregularity in which resulted in Considerable Considerable difference difference between between respondents experiencing violence the the percentages percentages of of girls girls and and boys boys (physical- 38.7%, verbal- 34%) Violence who who witnessed witnessed any any kind kind of of sexual sexual faced both within and outside household violence violence Perpetrators of Violence Perpetrator Verbal (experienced) Physical (experienced) Sexual (witnessed) Girls

Boys Girls Boys Girls Boys Within the Household Mothers 53.4% 43.6% 66.2% 38.2% 40.9% 40.6% Fathers 15.5% 72.3% 22.5% 70.7%

31.8% 75.3% Brothers 22.4% 37.2% 19% 28% 27.3% 24% Outside the Household Teachers 9.3% 16.2% 30% 37.7% - - Unknown person

18.6% 39.3% 11.3% 31.1% 44.6% 59.1% Friends 14% 27.4% 11.3% 22.6% 20.8% 24.4% Girls and Boys Experiencing Violence and Trying to Seek Help 61% 60% 51% 50% 40%

56% 39% 33% 46% 36% 30% 20% 10% 0% Experienced any kind of violence: The highest percentage of respondents found to be that of boys aged 11-14 years The lowest percentage of respondents found to be that of 15-19 years old girls Overall, a higher percentage of boys reported facing any kind of violence Tried to seek help Experienced any kind of violence 70% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10%

0% 76% 68% 57% 71% 71% 64% 67% Tried to seek help: The highest percentage of respondents found to be that of girls aged 15-19 years, closely followed by 15-19 years old boys A marked difference observed, wherein the percentage of 11-14 years old boys trying to seek help, found to be much lower Acceptable Reasons for Inflicting Violence on Girls Not doing Household Chores 60.7% girls 53.55% boys Not Studying 67% girls 57.45% boys Not Obeying Elders 69.25% girls 59.75% boys Talking on Mobile Phone without Permission 54.2% girls 52.1% boys

Acceptable Reasons for Inflicting Violence on Boys Percentage of Respondents who find it Acceptable Percentage of Respondents who find it Acceptable Acceptance of Physical Violence Not Studying 60.8% boys 62% girls Not Obeying Elders 62.3% boys 68.15% girls Fighting With Siblings 58% boys 56.7% girls Not Showing Masculinity When Required 41.8% boys (15-19 years) 52.1% girls (15-19 years) Attitude of the community towards Gender Based Violence Honour Honour of of aa girl/woman, girl/woman, aa microcosm microcosm Violence Violence against against girls/women girls/women shrouded shrouded in in collective

collective behavioural behavioural silence silence to to protect protect honour honour Honour Honour of of the the Community Community Cases Cases of of violence violence within within villages villages reported reported to to Panchayat Panchayat and and attempts attempts made made to to arrive arrive at at aa compromise compromise Family Family Honour

Honour Cases Cases of of violence violence reported reported to to the the police police only only when when the the act act of of violence violence is is grave grave Individual Individual Honour Honour Domestic Domestic violence violence not not considered considered as as violence violence Socio-economic Socio-economic vulnerability vulnerability and

and dependency dependency of of girls girls and and women women on on the the male male members members of of the the family family aa reason reason for for silence, silence, along along with with internalisation internalisation Voices from the Field Voices from the field substantiate the quantitative findings and the inferences drawn Kabhi Kabhi aisa aisa lagta lagta hai hai ki ki sahi sahi se se rahe rahe taaki taaki ghar ghar pe

pe maar maar na na pare. pare. Fir Fir lagta lagta hai hai ki ki ghar ghar ke ke bado bado ka ka rawaiyya rawaiyya aur aur nazar nazar badalna badalna chahiye chahiye -Adolescent -Adolescent girls, girls, Ghazipur Ghazipur Agar Agar ghar ghar pe pe baat baat nahi nahi maante, maante, zyada zyada der der tak tak bahar

bahar ghoomte ghoomte hai hai ya ya galat galat sangat sangat mein mein par par jaate jaate hai hai toh toh daant daant aur aur maar maar padti padti hai hai -Adolescent -Adolescent boys, boys, Lucknow Lucknow Biwi Biwi ke ke saath saath jhagda jhagda tab tab hota hota hai hai jab jab who who ghar ghar ka

ka kaam kaam theek theek se se nahi nahi karti karti -- Fathers, Fathers, Maharajganj Maharajganj Kabhi Kabhi kabhi kabhi agar agar ladkiyan ladkiyan ghar ghar ka ka kaam kaam nahi nahi karti karti tab tab unhe unhe maarte maarte hai hai -Mothers, -Mothers, Maharajganj Maharajganj Auratein Auratein gharelu gharelu hinsa hinsa ke ke

baare baare mein mein chup chup rehti rehti hai. hai. Koi Koi agar agar madad madad karne karne ki ki koshish koshish kare kare toh toh apne apne pati pati ki ki galti galti par par parda parda dalte dalte hai. hai. -- Frontline Frontline Health Health Worker Worker Negotiating Life Choices Life Choices LIFE CHOICES refer to: The ability of adolescents to

negotiate on aspects of education, health, marriage, mobility, communication and Leisure Time. It also Throws light on their ability to reassert their needs on these aspects. The adolescents were asked if they discuss various important decisions of life with their parents/other family members. The next slide summarizes the findings from the survey. The responses can clearly be segregated into three distinct categories: issues that are almost never discussed between parents and children. issues are discussed by a few children. others that are discussed by about half the adolescents. The age at which they want to get Married: 11-19 year old girls-8% 11-19 year old boys-9% Overall-8% To get more Food than what is usually discussed: 11-19 year old girls-22% 11-19 year old boys-28%

Overall-25% To use mobile phone 11-19 year old girls-26% 11-19 year old boys-37% Overall-31% To have more Leisure time: 11-19 year old girls-30% 11-19 year old boys-29% Overall-29% Most Discussed Choice of Groom/bride: 11-19 year old girls-6% 11-19 year old boys-6% Overall-6% Somewhat Discussed Least Discussed

The Class till which they want to study: 11-19 year old girls-53% 11-19 year old boys-47% Overall-50% Going out of the house: 11-19 year old girls- 58% 11-19 year old boys-61% Overall-59% Reassertion of Needs Marriage: Even of those few who do have discussions at home on age of marriage, only a very small percentage are able to reassert their views on the age of marriage, and of these the proportion of 15-19 year old boys is higher in comparison to girls in the same age group. Field Discussions suggested that boys express their opinion openly to parents about marriage only when they are financially independent. Despite the freedom in expression, eventual decision is taken by parents. Girls dont have the freedom of expression in marriage as there is an expectation from them to obey their parents wishes. Mobile Phone Usage: Boys do reassert their needs regarding mobile phone usage as compared to adolescents in other age groups. Adolescent girls prefer to keep silent either due to financial constraints or because they themselves find the usage of a mobile to be a distraction. Leisure Time: Since majority of the adolescent girls and boys do not discuss with their parents about having more leisure time, majority (about 65 % on an average) also do not reassert their needs about getting more leisure time than they usually get. The maximum no. of adolescents who reported their need to get more leisure time incidentally fell in the category of 15-19 year

old boys. Some of the adolescents reported that they do not require to reassert their needs out of which 15-19 year old girls were the ones who reported this the most (27%) Education Maximum no. of 15-19 year old girls reported that they reassert their opinions on the class till which they want to study as compared to the adolescents from other age groups. More than 40% of adolescent girls and boys below the age of 15 do not reassert their opinions on education with their parents. The reasons of differences between girls and boys can be attributed to the fact that girls see education as a means to delay their marriage and boys are always in a hurry to drop out of school in order to earn money. Mobility While majority of the adolescent girls and boys reported that they dont reassert their needs regarding going out of the house alone or with friends, there were also significant proportion of adolescents (15% on an average) who reported that they didnt need to reassert their needs with their parents. It was also found that Adolescent boys are more assertive in expressing their needs than the girls regarding mobility. Household Chores and Leisure Time Household Chores and Leisure Time Summary of Baseline Findings Individual Level Around 85 % 15-19 year old adolescent girls reported conducting household chores on a daily basis in comparison to 15-19 year old boys (around 55 %). It was also found that the average time spent on household chores by both girls and boys was almost the same. Both boys and girls in the age group of 15-19 year olds reported spending an average of 2.5 hours on household chores. Family Level All fathers who were interviewed during field visits displayed a negative attitude towards girls getting more leisure time Few mothers in comparison, showed a positive attitude. Both mothers and fathers agreed to the fact a girl must do household chores as she needs to learn that before going to her

in-laws place. Even though the majority of parents thought that boys do not have to help with household chores, there were a few parents who disagreed. More than 40% mothers felt that boys should also help in household work. Community Level Frontline Workers like AWW/ASHA were quite progressive in their views due to their exposure to the cities. Some of the Community Institution Members displayed a more positive attitude towards equality in leisure time and sharing of household chores between girls and boys as compared to parents. However, the general perception of the community that emerged, pointed to the justification of adhering to fixed gender roles. Attitudes and Perceptions of Parents and Community 4. Boys get more leisure time than girls. Even in leisure time they have freedom in being more mobile than girls. 1. Girls must do Household Chores as it is expected out of them. Stereotypical Gender roles and household division of labor 3. The attitude and perception of fathers towards girls preforming HH chores

gives more freedom and flexibility to boys. 2. Girls must learn to do HH chores before getting married as this would be expected out of them from in-laws. Perceptions and Attitudes across regions Maharajganj Perceptions around household chores and leisure time vary across regions. The underlying reasons behind these perceptions are either based on normative beliefs, exposure to greater opportunities or the idea that free time should be used in productive ways. Mothers were of the opinion that girls should not be given much free time and must be kept occupied so that their mind does not wander. Siddarthnagar In districts like Siddharthnagar, mothers stated that girls want to learn

skills and practice their hobbies but have nowhere to go. Their perception is based on the fact that by engaging in activities like stitching etc, girls would be doing something productive in their leisure time. Luknow and Jaunpur In Lucknow, some of the adolescent girls stated that they get a lot of free time since their parents are supportive of educating them and sharing their household burden. Districts like Jaunpur and Lucknow were found to be more progressive in terms of granting free time to adolescent girls. Voices from the Field ladko ko zyada khaali samay milta hai. Unko koi kuch nahin kehta kyunki woh mata pita ko pyaare hote hain -a girl in Paharpur village, Lucknow Khelne jaate hain, tahalne jaate hain, TV dekhte hain, gaane sunte hain mobile par, Padhai, khel kood ho jaata hai khali time main

-a girl from Varanasi. Sabko aaraam chahiye hota hai chahey woh ladki hi kyun na ho -AWW in Varanasi Mera khud ka ladka ghar ke kaam kaaj karta hai -a ASHA worker, Lucknow Mobility Mobility Summary of Baseline Findings Mobility freedom for female adolescents Going out of the house for fulfilling strategic needs Alone or with peer females By walking or using any vehicle Gender based differences in mobility were evident both from the places that were visited by adolescents and in the mode of transport used to

get there. Some places were visited mainly by boys and others by girls. In this context, some places were gendered. Boys had greater access to all the places than girls in the same age group, with the difference being more for markets, fairs, banks, post office and for places outside the village. Layered Mobility: Further there was an invisible boundary for both girls and boys in terms of the places they can visit and the time of visit for these places. For example-for girls, the accessibility to visit places was most within the community and the village. Places outside the village were least accessible. Even within the village and community, it was found that there were certain places that were not accessed by girls in comparison to others like a village fair was more visited than the AWC. Findings from the Survey Places of visit by alone/with any other person Girls Boys Overall 100.0% 90.0% 80.0% 70.0% 60.0% 50.0% 40.0% 30.0% 20.0% 10.0% 0.0%

Based on our analysis, we divided the data into three different categories of adolescents depending upon the place and the person accompanying in the visit. These are: 1. Places where girls are largely accompanied by mothers, boys go alone or with fathers. This category includes markets, health centres and relatives houses. 2. There is another category of girls who are escorted by family members but boys can go alone or with friends. Theses places include village fairs and AWCs. 3. The third category of adolescents includes girls who are escorted by family members but boys can go alone or with friends such as village fairs or AWW centre. Safe spaces and invisible boundary for girls Least Accessed Places Most Accessed Places Friends Place Perceptions and Attitudes Limited exposure and opportunities for girls due to lack of freedom in movement. Distance and lack of schools near villages makes lesser no. of girls attend schools as compared to boys. Individual

Level Family Level Issues around Mobility Lack of leisure time for girls due to established gender roles and expectations Community Level Safety Concerns and Community Disapproval. This gives rise to gendered spaces in terms of the places boys can access more frequently than the girls like the market, places outside the village, banks etc . Parents expect adolescents to adhere to the image of a good girl/ boy. Girls are expected to do HH chores and help their mothers while for boys no such constraints are prevalent. Time and purpose are two other parameters that decide mobility for adolescent girls and boys as explained in the next slide. While community institution members like AWW/ASHA workers believed that mobility is desirable especially for girls, it is not feasible since it invites judgements from people in the village. Voices from the Field ek baar baat karke dekhna chahiye, unko samjhana chahiye, leken woh jo kahinge hum uske khilaf kabhi kuch nahin karte -A girl in Lucknow jug kharab hai, kisi pe

bharosa nahin hai. Apne bachiyon ko samabhal ke rakha hai. -FGD in Chhapwa Village, Maharajganj Kabhi kabhi gaon ke bahar ghoom sakte hain. Raat ko jaane se mana karte hain par aur din mein bhi zyaada samay ki anumati nahi hai. Aas paas paidal ya cycle se chale jaate hain. - Boys FGD, Siddharthnagar Ek sayaani ladki aise zyaada door nahi jaa sakti Ladkiyan rishtedaaro ke ghar akele jaa sakti hai agar unka ghar gaon mein ho toh Ladkiyan akele nahi jaa sakti bazaar ya mele mein. Saheliyon ke saath jaana chahiye ya koi bada saath mein hona chahiye -a father in Seswa Bujurg village Individual Level Agar ladikyan bahar jaengi toh ghar ke kaam main haath kaun bataega -mother in Jaunpur Family Level

Agar ladki ki bahar naukri lagi ho toh kyun nahi jayegi, zaroor jayegi. -a father in Seswa Bujurg village Community Level Hum nahin chahate ki jo humare saath hua, who humari ladkiyon ke saath ho. Aajkal ladkiyan kum se kum padhai karke bahar toh jaati hain -AWW in Paharpur village Faiyda kya hai, ladki ko ghar pe hi rehna chahiye. Samaj hamesha taane marta hai agar ladki ko akele bahar jaane ki azaadi dein An ASHA worker in Gorakhpur Communication Communication Summary of Baseline Findings Only about 50% of the girls and 40% of the boys feel it is appropriate for boys and girls to sit together in class. Most feel that they should sit separately. Majority of adolescent boys (61 % or more) reported that they have a negative attitude towards the usage of a mobile phone by girls. However, a majority of adolescent girls (more than 50 %) reported having a positive attitude towards girls using a mobile phone. Unlike the adolescent boys, adolescent girls did not think that increased use of mobile phone increases the chances of girls getting spoilt. Inter-gender communication in schools was encouraged and considered positive by approximately 50% of both boys and girls despite there being a negative perception of mobile phone usage amongst girls.

However, the quantitative findings suggested that both 50 % boys and girls, on an average considered interactions outside the school to be negative. Perceptions on Inter-Gender Communication Adolescents have a positive attitude towards intergender interaction but it does not get reflected in their actions Parents, especially fathers displayed a negative attitude towards interaction between girls and boys outside class. Boys and girls dont sit together in class. Government school teachers are strict upholders of social norms. Seating arrangements are segregated. Fear of judgement from others that accuse her of being characterless. Fear of elopement amongst parents and

community members Social Norms around the Usage of Mobile Phones by girls. Increased usage of mobile phones leads to her getting spoilt. Less Access of mobile phones for girls as compared to boys. Limited usage of mobile phones for girls is regulated under the control of parents. Voices from the Field Ladki se baat bhi kar li toh anpadh maa baap galat matlab nikaalte hain aur daant dete hain. - Boys FGD, Rampur Behera Humme mobile phone chahiye hi nahin, acha hai ki na mile. Padhai nahi ho pati -Girls FGD, Paharpur Village, Lucknow Zamaana kharaab hai, bina sambandh ke koi baat nahi karta, ladka ladki agar aapas main baat karenge toh unke beech pyaar ho jata hai -Mothers in Gorakhpur Jaankaari lena padta hai. Ladki se poochte hain kahaan se phone aaya, kiska phone aaya. -A father in Siddharthnagar Teacher bolte hain ki baat karni hai toh bahar nikal jao. Sarkari school mein ladka-ladki ka baat cheet karna galat samajhte hain toh

mana karte hain, pitai bhi ho jaati hai ladkon ki aur ladki ko daant denge.. Samaaj wale saath mein dekh le toh bohot pooch-taach karne lagte hain, galat samajhte hain. - A boy in Varanasi Attitude Towards Girls Attitude towards girls A girl must do household chores as she needs to learn that before going to in-law's place 82.4% Girls Agree A girl cannot say when she wants to get married because the elders know best 67.4% Girls Agree A boy does not need to help in domestic chores like cleaning, washing utensils, cooking etc. because it is a girl's job/duty 63.4% Girls Agree

72.9% Boys Agree 65.1% Boys Agree 57.4% Boys Agree 57.1% Boys Agree 62.4% Boys Agree 42.4% Boys Agree 51.1% Girls Agree A girl may not be allowed to go alone/ with peers outside as it is inappropriate for a girl to go alone/ peers in our community

50.1% Girls Agree A girl may not be allowed to use mobile phones as it increases the chances of her getting spoilt 45.0% Girls Agree A girl doesn't need as much leisure time as boys do Summary of Attitudinal Findings There exists a largely accepted gendered division of labour, whereby household chores are seen as a girls duty. Adolescents seem to have internalized the social norm that elders know best and therefore are often not able to negotiate their own life choices. There is a largely divided opinion regarding the mobility of girls. Some adhere to the societys beliefs and justifications but many want to break away from such restrictions. Majority of adolescents, both boys and girls, did not believe that marriage ensures safety for girls. However, more than 50% of adolescents displayed a negative attitude towards a girls mobility. Voices from the field Girls: Ladkiya mazboot hoti hai lekin unko dabaa diya jaata hai. Boys: "Baat cheet karne mein achhi ho. Seedhe tarah baat karti ho bina dare." Talented, padhne mein tez, behavior acha ho, bolne ka dhang, bade chotte ka lihaaz karti ho, kaam karne mein theek ho. Padhne likhne mein tez, kaam karne mein aage ho, rahan sahan acha ho. Sidhanagar Mothers: Agar ek ladki ghar ke saare bojh utha pae tabhi who mazboot hai. A strong girl must work hard and help their mothers with all their chores. Fathers: Jo ghar ke kaam achhe se kare, padhai likhai zyaada ho, ghar aur samaj ki izzat aur maryada karti ho.

Parivar ka palan kare, bade chotto ka khayal rakhe, padhi likhi ho, baat cheet kar sake. Uske paas himmat honi chahiye, mehnat ka kaam karti ho, apna bachaw khud kar sakti ho, galat kaam ka virodh kar sake. Community members: Bol-chaal, tez ho jawab dene mein, ashikshit bhi saksham ho sakti hain, kaam kaaj mein, doosro ko sahi rasta dikhayegi, mata pita ko bhi saksham bana rahi hai" What they say makes a strong girl The Idea of a Strong Girl Participants Perspectives on what needs to be done Girls need to be given support and freedom from their parents so that they are able to receive education as well as exposure. Parents should provide positive examples and role models rather than referring to negative examples and distrusting their own daughters and fearing negative outcomes, thereby restricting their mobility Girls should be protected and encouraged Should be provided education Should be kept in discipline and made to understand social norms Girls should be given same opportunities and facilities as boys Should not be suppressed Must educate the girls Must teach them social and practical skills along with academic education Observations and Inferences Girls believed that the society they lived in was not conducive for them to be empowered. Self confidence of the girls was weak

and hence, they found the idea of a strong girl unattainable. There are conflicting imageries between an ideal girl and a strong girl, whereby both traits are expected to exist simultaneously in a girl, even if it may be contrary to one another. Eg: A strong girl should be independent, capable of decision making and yet be obedient and adhere to social norms. Health Access to Healthcare Visit to any type of health facility in last 6 months: 52.5% of 11-14 years old boys as compared to 34.7% girls 51.3% of 15-19 years old boys as compared to 37.6% girls 40% girls reported receiving treatment at home Preference of private clinics over public health centres Unclear whether the private clinics visited have certified medical practitioners Lack of awareness about health issues specific to adolescents: Only 8.9% of 15-19 years girls and 5.7% of 11-14 years old girls reported visiting healthcare facilities for menstrual health issues On the contrary, menstrual health issues

stated to be common during FGDs Absence of Anganwadi Centres Focus of AWW, ASHA and ANM workers only on pregnant women Unavailability of IFA tablets for adolescent girls Healthcare Services and Schemes Reasons for not Availing Healthcare Services Respondents Who Received Any Benefit or Service in last 1 Year 25.0% 21.7% 20.0% Did not Need 34% girls 59% boys Did not Know 32% girls 22% boys Services not Provided 39% girls 24% boys 18.5% 18.1% 15.4%

15.0% 16.9% 15.3% 12.5% 10.0% 5.0% 0.0% 11-14 Girls 11-14 Boys 15-19 Girls 15-19 Boys 11-19 Girls 11-19 Boys Overall Frontline Frontline health health workers workers lack lack aa holistic holistic understanding understanding of of adolescent adolescent health health issues issues and and related related schemes schemes Few Few girls girls received received IFA IFA tablets

tablets in in last last 11 year, year, and and out out of of those, those, most most were were unaware unaware of of the the reasons reasons for for getting them them Availability Availability of of sanitary sanitary napkins napkins sporadic sporadic and and their their quality, quality, poor poor The The Social Social Norm Norm of of Impurity Impurity

Menstrual Health and Hygiene Visiting Temples Hair Washing Prejudices and Prohibitions surrounding Menstruation Sleeping on a mattress Entering the kitchen Aajkal Aajkal zamana zamana badal badal gaya gaya hai. hai. Ladkiyon Ladkiyon ko ko masik masik kam kam umar umar mein mein ho ho jata jata hai hai aur aur who who sayani

sayani jaldi jaldi ho ho jaati jaati hai hai -Mothers -Mothers Ladkiyan Ladkiyan humein humein bata bata deti deti hai hai jab jab unka unka maasik maasik shuru shuru hoya hoya hai hai taaki taaki unse unse koi koi galti galti na na ho ho jaye jaye -Mothers -Mothers

Ladkiyan Ladkiyan toh toh in in sab sab cheezo cheezo ke ke baare baare mein mein apni apni ma ma se se hi hi baat baat karti karti hai hai -Fathers -Fathers Discussions about menstruation strictly with female members of the family Informing about menstruation and related problems serves dual purpose of discussing issues as well as ensuring imposition of prohibitions Menarche understood as an indication of onset of adulthood and leads to imposition of new gendered social norms Physical changes viewed as a step into adulthood and the period of adolescence largely ignored Anaemia Ye toh pata hai ki

garbhavati mahilao ko iron ki goliyan milti hai. Par avivahat ladkiyon ko iron ki goli ki zaroorat nahi - Adolescent Girls Lack of awareness among both parents and adolescents about anaemia as a health issue for adolescent girls Prejudices surrounding the use of IFA tablets: Only pregnant women expected to consume them Symptoms of anaemia remain unrecognised, and the lack of apparent physical effects lead to the thinking that adolescent girls are absolutely healthy The side effects of IFA tablets also a reason for not consuming them Some frontline health workers stated that PHCs do not provide enough IFA tablets, either for pregnant women or adolescent girls Ladkiyon ko IFA goliyan di thi par use unhe gas ho jata tha, isliye lena chor diya -Frontline Health Worker HIV/AIDS AIDS ke baare mein suna hai par ghar pe kabhi baat nahi ki. TV mein dekha tha. Aur janne ki ichcha hai -Adolescent boys Partial awareness about HIV/AIDS through media and campaigns Desire amongst adolescents to know more about it Absolute silence surrounding matters of sexual and

reproductive health Awareness campaigns about HIV/AIDS can be an entry point for initiating discussions on sexual and reproductive health HIV/AIDS looked at by adults, primarily as a sexually transmitted disease Absence of conversations regarding the disease, especially between adolescents and their parents Parents do not consider HIV/AIDS as a matter of discussion with unmarried adolescents Suna hai AIDS ke baare mein. Bas itna pata hai ki zyada logo ke saath sharirik sambandh rakhne se hota hai. Bachche is baare mein baat kyu karenge? -Mothers Education Education Enrolled Waiting for admission More than 90% of girls and boys aged between 11-14 yrs are enrolled in schools. 17% 1% 9% 72%

As age increases, there is a significant dip in the enrollment rate. 45% 3% 20% 32% 48% 4% 16% 31% 20% 2% 12% High drop out rate after the age of 14 yrs (class 8th). 66% A significant gap between the ideal and current educational level of boys and girls was found. 23% 1% 0%

Not enrolled Drop out 12% 64% 59% of girls 4% 3% 0% 0% 93% 4% 3% 92% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60%

70% 80% 90% 100% and boys are enrolled in Private Schools Preference of Government schools over private schools Attitude Towards Education Opinions Why should a girl study? In order to gain knowledge and so that she knows how to read and write Why should a boy study? Boys

For livelihood purposes Summary of the Attitude Towards Education Though there exists a positive attitude towards education, various practical issues determine whether adolescents opt for higher education. The data shows a high enrolment rate, with no difference amongst girls and boys, yet dropout rate after the age of 16 remains high. Factors that determine whether adolescents are encouraged to study further or pursue higher education familys financial capacity childs aptitude possibility of future financial contribution towards family expenses Parents prefer private school education over government school education as the quality of education, infrastructure and discipline is considered better in private schools. Some community institutions and frontline workers pointed out that higher education for girls resulted in some challenges such as higher dowry and difficulty in finding a suitable match or equally qualified groom. Voices from the field Agar unke paas paisa hee na ho, toh humare poochne se bhi kya hoga? Girls Kai baar mata pita kehte hai ki khud kamao aur padho, lekin kai baar yeh dikkat ho jati hai ki ya toh padhe ya kamaedono ek saath mushkil ho jaata hai. Boys Kya faayda ladki ko zyaada padhake?...zyaada nuksaan hee hota haiuse jaana toh

hai hee ek din Parents Thank You Graphs to support findings (Marriage) 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Q7 Caste of Family Gender Mean Un-Married SC Married Figure 3.1: Marital status of adolescents (N=11759) The graph demonstrates that the overall marital status of adolescents. The table (right) shows the increase in average age of marriage in

the last 2 years. ST OBC Male Age at Age at marriage marriage Age at (in last 2 (before 2 marriage years) years) 17.08 18.76 15.23 Female 15.92 17.29 14.41 Total 16.29 17.76 14.67

Male 18.00 18.67 17.00 Female 17.64 18.00 17.29 Total 17.74 18.20 17.22 Male 17.06 18.42 14.69 Female 16.04

17.31 13.98 Total 16.38 17.68 14.21 Graphs to support findings on Education 18 16 14 Class 12 10 8 6 5 6 7 8 9 10

11 12 13 14 15 16 the ideal can be clearly seen in the Figure. As was observed during the baseline, the reason for this gap may be attributed to the fact that kids often join school late or attend school 4 intermittently, which disrupts their education, 2 0 A gap between the current educational level and 11 12 13 14 15

16 17 18 19 20 Age Boys Girls 21 22 causing them to take more than a year to pass a class. Ideal education level Figure 11.2: Mean years of education This gap further widens at the age of 16 onwards owing to the increasing dropout rate. Graphs to support findings (Education) 100% 90% 80% 70%

60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 11-14 Girls 11-14 boys For more knowledge To know what is right/wrong 15-19 girls 15-19 boys To enhance skills Boy should study as equivalent to girls 11-19 Girls For livelihood/job/work Other 11-19 Boys One should be able to read/ write Figure: Respondents opinion about reasons why boys should study Overall

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