Nervous System Taylor, Kyra, Ryan, and Brennan Function

Nervous System Taylor, Kyra, Ryan, and Brennan Function

Nervous System Taylor, Kyra, Ryan, and Brennan Function of Central and Peripheral Systems integrating sensory information and responding accordingly The spinal cord serves as a conduit for signals between the brain and the rest of the body cells that detect information like smell and vision, exclusively motor cells, like

the eyeballs and hearing connect the central nervous system to the organs, limbs, and skin to allow for complex movements and behaviors Cell type Neurons: transmit nerve pulses (signals) Glial cells, multiple types Satellite cells: physical support for neurons in peripheral system Oligodendroglia: provides myelin (insulation) for neurons Microglia: digest parts of dead neurons

Astrocytes: regulate the external chemical environment Maintaining Homeostasis The nervous system maintains homeostasis by sending electrochemical signals throughout the body, coordinating and executing both the voluntary and involuntary processes that maintain homeostasis

Working with Other Systems Skeletal system: calcium from your bones helps the nervous system function Digestive system: ends messages to the muscles for eating and elimination of waste food Cardiovascular system: regulates the heart rate using baroreceptors Alzheimers Brain disease that causes a slow decline in memory, thinking, and

reasoning skills. Caused by genetic, lifestyle, and environmental factors that affect the brain over time. Attacks the brains nerve cells, or neurons, resulting in memory loss, thinking and language skills, and behavioral changes. Parkinsons Most experience one or more of the

four most common motor symptoms. Many of the symptoms are due to a loss of neurons that produce a chemical in your brain called dopamine. Dopamine sends signals to the part of your brain that controls movement. If neurons that produce dopamine are lost, it can affect the way that the body moves.

Central Nervous System Consists of the brain and spinal cord Brain is the major functional unit and is composed of the brainstem, cerebellum and the cerebrum Brainstem contains tracts from the spinal cord to the brain Cerebellum handles sensory stimuli, motor information and balance Cerebrum handles emotion, memory perception and motor functions

Spinal cord relays info to the brain through tracts in the brainstem Peripheral Nervous System Divided into the somatic, sensory and autonomic nervous systems Somatic nervous system is voluntary and transmits signals from the brain to end organs (ex: muscles) Sensory nervous system transmits signals from senses to the CNS

Autonomic nervous system is mostly involuntary and influences involuntary functions (ex: digestive system) Nerve Pulses A nerve impulse is an electrical signal that travels along an axon. When the nerve is activated, there is a sudden change in the voltage across the wall of the axon, caused by the movement of ions in and out of the neuron The speed of nerve impulses varies enormously in different types of neuron. The fastest travel at about 250 mph Neurons that need to transmit electrical signals quickly are sheathed by a fatty substance called

myelin Nerve impulses are a way of coding information. Receptor Types Channel- Linked receptors: are cell membrane bound receptors. They act through synaptic signaling on electrically excitable cells Enzyme-linked receptors: is a transmembrane receptor, where the binding of an extracellular ligand causes enzymatic activity on the intracellular side. Intracellular receptors: are receptors located

inside the cell rather than on its cell membrane. Classic hormones that use intracellular receptors include thyroid and steroid hormones. N

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