Bangladesh Climate-Resilient Ecosystem Curriculum (BACUM) Module 2: REDD+ in Climate Change Context Module 2: REDD+ in Climate Change Context SECTION I: ENABLING ENVIRONMENT OF REDD+ 1.3. Stakeholder Engagement REDD+ in Climate Change Context (REDD+) I. ENABLING ENVIRONMENT OF REDD+
1.1. Forests, Forest Carbon and Climate Change 1.2. Fundamentals of REDD+ and the UNFCCC 1.3. Stakeholder Engagement II. ASSESSING CURRENT CONDITIONS OF REDD+ 2.1. Drivers of Deforestation and Forest Degradation 2.2. Fundamentals of Forest (Emission) Reference Levels 2.3. National Forest Monitoring Systems (NFMS) for REDD+ III. ANALYZING FUTURE OPTIONS FOR REDD+ 3.1. Policies and Measures for REDD+ Implementation 3.2. REDD+ Safeguards under the UNFCCC
3.3. The Costs and Benefits of REDD+ IV. DEVELOPING REDD+ STRATEGIES AND ACTION PLANS 4.1. Negotiation in REDD+ 4.2. National Strategies and Action Plans 4.3. Approaches for Incentive Allocation System V. MONITORING, EVALUATION AND ADAPTATION 5.1. Establish M&E Framework for REDD+ Action Plan 5.2. Monitor and Measure Implementation Progress 5.3. Evaluate, Report and Adapt
Acknowledgements EXPERT CONTRIBUTORS Prof. (Dr.) Manzoor Rashid UNIVERSITIES Bangladesh Agricultural University University of Chittagong Dhaka University Independent University, Bangladesh Khulna University Noakhali University of Science and Technology Shahjalal University of Science and Technology Sher-e-Bangla Agriculture University
North South University Prof. (Dr.) Md. Danesh Miah Prof. (Dr.) Md. Jakariya SPECIFIC INPUTS Curriculum Development for all topics REDD+, Forest Carbon Community NR Management, Climate Change, Natural Resources Management
CREL STAFF CREL STAFF John A Dorr Utpal Dutta Abu Mostafa Kamal Uddin Ruhul Mohaiman Chowdhury
Kevin T. Kamp Rahima Khatun Paul Thompson Sultana Razia Zummi Abdul Wahab Shams Uddin
Shahzia Mohsin Khan DESIGN, LAYOUT AND CONTENT DEVELOPMENT: Ms. Chi Pham, Curriculum Development Expert, Bangkok, Thailand Learning Objectives At the end of this session, students will be able to: Associate processes that help to identify all stakeholders that need to be involved in the planning process or impacted (+ and 1) by the plan. Identify vulnerable groups at risk from the implementation of a plan and possible mitigation strategies to avoid.
What is a Stakeholder? A Stakeholder is : An individual, group or institution that has an interest in a particular forest resource (RECOFTC 2002) groups/individuals that are affected by the outcome of a conflict, as well as those who influence the outcome (FAO 2005)
Stakeholders Primary Stakeholders: are those most affected by and are dependent on the resources Secondary Stakeholders : are those who are more indirectly or less affected or dependant on the resources (FAO 2005) Stakeholders Who's livelihoods are less dependent on the resources and INdirectly affected by?
Who's livelihoods are most dependent on the resource and directly affected by? Core issue of policy Primary Stakeholders Secondary stakeholders Rationale for Stakeholder Analysis Identify who needs to participate (primary & secondary) Assess how stakeholders be affected or might affect in REDD+ (+ve/-ve) Identify the multiple interests and objectives of stakeholders in relation to the particular REDD+ management
Understand the actual resources, influence, authority or power that stakeholders can have on particular REDD+ initiatives Assess the most appropriate means for them to participate Assess the capacity of stakeholders to participate in the planning process Begin to understand potential conflicts that could arise in REDD+ Who could be a stakeholder in REDD+? Increased production What are our boundaries?
resource claims Increased consumption Who are we working with? More Growing food
demand Growing population More competition What are we trying to achieve? What are the rules to achieve this? Climate
change What Is At Stake? A stake can be: particular forest product particular forest service particular interests Land tenure Who Are Stakeholders?
Govt. agencies and ministries Indigenous Peoples and Communities Civil Society Organizations Private Sectors Development Partners: National and International
Academia and Research Institutions Media: (electronic and print) Beneficiaries of goods and services derived from the implementation of the plan Why do a Stakeholder Analysis? Exercise Why encourage stakeholder participation in REDD+? A Stakeholder Analysis allows you To identify and define key stakeholders
To identify who needs to participate in the project To assess how they might affect or be affected by REDD+ interventions (positively or negatively) A Stakeholder Analysis allows you To identify the multiple interests and objectives of stakeholders in relation to the particular REDD+ project To understand the actual resources, influence, authority or power that stakeholders can bring to bear on particular REDD+ initiatives A Stakeholder Analysis allows you To assess the most appropriate means for them to participate
To assess the capacity of stakeholders to participate in the planning process To begin to understand potential stakeholder conflicts that could arise in REDD Steps in Stakeholder Analysis Steps in Stakeholder Analysis 1. Identify Issues and clarify objective Possible Questions & Tools -What problem that need to address? -The objective & intended outputs of project
Tools: problem tree and objective tree (seen in SES) 2. Identify stakeholders -Who are primary, secondary, and has interest in the issue? -Tool: Stakeholder rings (as above) 3. Investigate characteristics of stakeholder -What are the interest, 4 RS (Rights, Responsibilities, Returns, and Relationship) -Tools: Stakeholder interests, and 4R matrix, Venn-Diagram , and
Matrix of conflict & trade-off 4. Identify power and influence of stakeholders -What are the power and influence of each stakeholder - Tools: Graph of stakeholders importance and influence 4R Stakeholder Analysis Matrix WHAT IS THE 4R
STAKEHOLDER ANALYSIS MATRIX? RIGHTS RESPONSIBILITIES RETURNS (OR BENEFITS) RELATIONSHIPS 4R Stakeholder Analysis Matrix Rights Access to and use of resources (statutory and customary) Ownership of resources (statutory and customary)
Decision-making over resource use and management (e.g. setting by-laws, enforcement/fines, zoning/exclusion, licensing/income, etc.) 4R Stakeholder Analysis Matrix Responsibilities Forest/resource management (planning, monitoring, measurement, etc.) Implementing decisions in rules, regulations, procedures, etc. Abiding by rules & regulations 4R Stakeholder Analysis Matrix
Returns (or benefits) Direct benefits arising from forest resources accessed Direct benefits derived from employment related to the resource/area Indirect benefits such as those accruing to entire community from resource management agreements 4R Stakeholder Analysis Matrix Relationships Inter-relationships among stakeholders within the community or outside of the community Conflict among stakeholders
Group Activity Read the Case study on a REDD+ project in Kalimantan, Indonesia (KFCP) and watch the video at http://vimeo.com/16239538 Break out in small groups and using the 4R Stakeholder Analysis Matrix , fill up the template on the 4Rs(rights, responsibilities, relationships, returns ) Exercise: The 4R Stakeholder Analysis Matrix Stakeholders
Stakeholder A Stakeholder B Stakeholder C Rights Responsibility Relationship
Returns Stakeholder Analysis Matrix- interests / influences Interests Medium Low Influences High
Low Medium GoB: MoPlanning, MoLand, MoLaw, IPs and Communities: Maleya F. Civil Society: BAPA, Private Sectors: Tobacco company Dev. Partners: CEGIS Academia: BARC, SRDI Media: BTV, Observer, Community Radio
High GoB: MoEF, FD, MoCHTA, Dist.Admin, 3HDCs IPs and Communities: BIPNetCBD, Civil Society: IUCN, BCAS, AF, BELA Private Sectors: Timber Merchant Association Dev. Partners: CNRS, BRAC, UNDP, USAID, FAO, WB Academia: BCAS, CEGIS Media: Daily Star, Channel-I,
Influence is the ability (empowered by law/mandate or through social hierarchy or access to powerful actors) to shape REDD+ processes; Interest is willingness/motivation (as institutional mandate or as civic responsibility) to be engaged in the REDD+ process. What is Power? The ability to get what one wants This can occur through: Force (sometimes referred to as power over) Cooperation (referred to as power with or exchange power)
Sources of Power Importance Power and Influence Influence Power and Influence Identifying and Analysing Stakeholders Key Points
It is an iterative process and not a one-off as new stakeholders come into the Can be done in an participatory manner Requires building trust and fostering communication and collaboration Legitimate stakeholders? Class Exercise Can there be illegitimated stakeholders? Illegal Foresters
Poachers Corrupt Government Officials Stakeholder Participation Discuss with a partner what your understanding of PARTICIPATION is in the context of low emission land use planning. The Participation Continuum
Stakeholder Participation Key Points Different level of participation requires different approaches Certain attributes encourage participation in REDD+ Level of participation is influenced by certain factors Core Values for Participatory Process under pin stakeholder participation at all levels of engagement TAKE HOME MESSAGES Common Challenges: Ignoring or simply forgetting about stakeholders. Broad and vague analysis of stakeholders commonly masks
important differences. As REDD+ is new, many stakeholders may not have the capacity or knowledge to genuinely contribute to the process. TAKE HOME MESSAGES Emerging Opportunities: There is tremendous interest in low emission planning, climate change mitigation options and adaptation opportunities. This interest and desire to learn should help facilitate a broad and inclusive process. References:
USAID. 2015. USAID LEAFs Climate Change Curriculum. USAID Lowering Emissions in Asia Forests Program (USAID LEAF). Winrock International and US Forest Service. Bangkok, Thailand. FAO. 2005. Negotiation and Mediation in Natural Resource Management. By by Antonia Engel and Benedikt Korf. Rome, Italy. Link: http://peacemaker.un.org/sites/peacemaker.un.org/files/NegotiationandMediationTechniquesforNaturalResourceManagement_FAO2005.pdf RECOFTC. 2002. The Art of Facilitation Capacities : A Training Manual. By Lydia Braakman and Karen Edwards. Bangkok, Thailand TEBTEBBA. 2010. Climate Change, REDD+ + Indigenous Peoples : Training Course for Indigenous People. Tebtebba Foundation. Baguio City, Philippines. Link: http://redd.unfccc.int/uploads/63_10_redd_20110523_tebtebba_training-course.pdf Multi-Stakeholder Processes Knowledge Co-Creation Portal (hosted by Wageningen University) and the publication Tools for Analysing Power in Multi-stakeholder Processes - A Menu. Useful tools in this publication include: Importance against Influence Matrix, Stakeholder Characteristics and Roles Matrix, Spider Web Network Diagram and Net-Map. Power Tools: For Policy Influence in Natural Resource Management (produced by IIED). Useful tools include: Stakeholder Influence Mapping, Stakeholder Power Analysis and The Four Rs.
Gendered roles and responsibilities in a land use planning process are also essential considerations that will have important and long-term impacts in the equitable and sustainable implementation of any agreed plan. The LEAF project has published its Gender Mainstreaming Strategy and Checklist that provides useful guidance on this issue. References and Resources The curriculum of USAIDs Climate-Resilient Ecosystems and Livelihoods (CREL) in Bangladesh is a free resource of teaching materials for university professors, teachers and climate change training experts. Reproduction of CRELs curriculum materials for educational or other non-commercial purposes is authorized without prior written permission from the copyright holder, provided the source is fully acknowledged. Suggested citation: Winrock International. 2016. USAIDs Climate-Resilient Ecosystems and Livelihoods
(CREL). Winrock International. Dhaka, Bangladesh. Disclaimer: The CRELs curriculum is made possible by the support of the American People through the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). The contents of the curriculum do not necessarily reflect the views of USAID or the US Government. USAID's Climate-Resilient Ecosystems and Livelihoods (CREL) Project Winrock International Headquarters 2101 Riverfront Drive, Little Rock Arkansas 72202-1748 USA Tel: 1-501-280-3000 Web: www.winrock.org
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