Electronics 101 Caitlyn Byrne FRC 3941 FRC3941 Absolute

Electronics 101 Caitlyn Byrne  FRC 3941 FRC3941  Absolute

Electronics 101 Caitlyn Byrne FRC 3941 FRC3941 Absolute Zero Electricity WARNING Some of diagrams in this presentation will have something wrong with it! Denoted by a devil face on the slide Sometimes it will be obvious The devil icon says look out for errors! And sometimes not! Just like on your robot, you need to apply some common sense to figure out what is wrong, why it is wrong, and how to correct it

This skill, called Troubleshooting, is extremely valuable in life Electronics 101 - MRA EdDay 2017 FRC3941 Absolute Zero Electricity 10/28/2017 2 First: What is Electricity? Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence of electric charge. Although initially considered a phenomenon separate from magnetism, since the development of Maxwell's equations, both are recognized as part of a single phenomenon: electromagnetism. TL/DR: Electricity is this Various common phenomena are related to electricity, including thing that we use to make lightning, static electricity, electric heating, electric discharges ourIn robots do things.

and many others. addition, electricity is at the heart of many And it could kill you. modern technologies. The presence ofSo an play electricby charge, can be either the which rules! positive or negative, produces an electric field. On the other hand, the movement of electric charges, which is known as electric current, produces a magnetic field. Source: Wikipedia Electronics 101 - MRA EdDay 2017 FRC3941 Absolute Zero Electricity 10/28/2017 3 Safety First Complete Circuits Electricity needs a complete circuit (a

source of electric potential connected to someplace that is at a lower potential) to flow Connected Circuit You can be part of that circuit if you are not careful A lot of things (wiring, equipment) in your house or workshop may connect to Ground which is at a very low potential! (so watch for accidental connections to ground) That circuit in your house called ground is exactly that the connection to the ground outside In electronics, we usually have a signal ground Electronics 101 - MRA EdDay 2017 FRC3941 Absolute Zero Electricity Open Circuit (But watch those exposed copper ends!) 10/28/2017 4

Safety First Voltage & Current Voltage: the difference in electric potential energy between two points per unit electric charge, measured in Volts (V) Current: the flow of electric charge, measured in Amps (A) An improper combination of Voltage and Current for a conductor is one way to violate the rules E.g., trying to run 12 volts at 100 amps through a telephone wire will cause the copper wire to heat and melt. (The wire heating and/or melting usually causes the insulation to catch on fire) E.g., running 75V at 0.1A through your heart (e.g., through both arms) could cause fibrillation and possibly death In general, *you* dont want to be part of the circuit! Electronics 101 - MRA EdDay 2017 FRC3941 Absolute Zero Electricity 10/28/2017 5 Safety First - Resistance

FRC batteries are 12V generally recognized as safe to handle Your skin has enough resistance to stop dangerous current flow Resistance: a measure of difficulty to pass an electrical current, measured in Ohms ()) Voltages >100V can be fatal if mishandled your skin does not have the enough resistance to stop dangerous current flow So, whenever you use wall powered tools you want to make sure that the cables are in good condition before plugging them in For our robots then, we worry less about electrical shock and more about fire and acid using the right size cable for the current to be carried will prevent any fire concerns, and avoiding battery damage will prevent any acid concerns Electronics 101 - MRA EdDay 2017 FRC3941 Absolute Zero Electricity 10/28/2017 6

Wire Basics Wire is measured in gauges Wire comes in either solid (which is only one piece of copper) or stranded (with many small pieces of copper) For applications like robots, you want to use stranded cable Its always acceptable to substitute a smaller gauge (bigger wire) Electronics 101 - MRA EdDay 2017 The American Wire Gauge (AWG) system is tricky when you first learn it! A smaller gauge number is actually a bigger wire, and can carry more current! The reverse is dangerous! FRC3941 Absolute Zero Electricity

10/28/2017 7 Wire Flexibility Both of these wires are 20AWG, so carry the same current rating By using more, smaller strands the wire at the bottom is able to withstand more repeated flexing and vibration Electronics 101 - MRA EdDay 2017 The wire at the top is composed of 21 strands The wire at the bottom is composed of 99 strands However, beware that the more strands your wire has, the more of a pain it can be to strip, crimp and/or solder the cable! And the more $$$ it is FRC3941 Absolute Zero Electricity

10/28/2017 8 Hand Tools of the Trade Anything remotely fun is easier with the right tools to help you Wire Cutters Wire Strippers Small Connector Crimpers Get some tiny side-cutters that are meant for wire Get a lot of them! (Also great for zip-ties) I prefer the kind that have fixed holes for each wire gauge does not nick the wire if done correctly, can perform very short strips Old school hand powered crimpers give the most control and best feel for the wire however, they are the easiest to mess up Electronics 101 - MRA EdDay 2017 FRC3941 Absolute Zero Electricity

10/28/2017 9 Battery Tools of the Trade Wire Cutters Wire Strippers Large Connector Crimpers Battery cables got you stumped? High leverage cutters to the rescue! Sorry no dedicated tool here. Very carefully use the wire cutters in a circular motion around the cable to strip large battery cables For 6AWG and up, I prefer the power of Hydraulics! Prices are extremely cheap now on a flood of clone hydraulic crimpers Electronics 101 - MRA EdDay 2017 FRC3941 Absolute Zero Electricity 10/28/2017 10

! Diagnostic Tool of the Trade A (good) multimeter is one of the more expensive tools your team will need. At minimum, search for one with these features: Auto-ranging Min/Max mode Easily swapped and easily obtained batteries True RMS (if testing AC) Electronics 101 - MRA EdDay 2017 The venerable Multimeter A must have tool to check for wiring faults and compliance with the rules Multimeter Functions for FRC Voltage AC Voltage DC Very small voltages AC / DC

Resistance Continuity (Are these things electrically connected) Diode Check / Capacitance Current AC Current DC FRC3941 Absolute Zero Electricity 10/28/2017 11 Stripping Know how much wire you need to expose Clamp down on the right gauge size for the wire (you did read the wires size from the wire, right?) Rotate the stripping tool around the wire ~90 degrees Pull the stripping tool (jaws still closed) away from the unstripped side 1 2 1 Red: Strip too long

Black: Strip OK Electronics 101 - MRA EdDay 2017 FRC3941 Absolute Zero Electricity 10/28/2017 12 Connectors of the Trade 20-16AWG 15A 14-12AWG 30A 10AWG 45A Anderson SB50 Anderson PowerPoles Molex SL FRC standard battery connector get RED kits with 6AWG connectors Polarized Three different sized contacts depending on wire gauge. The housings however are all the same. Can be zip-tied together, polarized

For signal wires, PWM, and everything 22AWG-24AWG Latching, polarized Electronics 101 - MRA EdDay 2017 FRC3941 Absolute Zero Electricity 10/28/2017 13 FRC KOP - Power Battery FRC uses a standard 12V, 18Ah Sealed Lead Acid battery Typically last ~2 years in competition and ~2 more years in practice bots Electronics 101 - MRA EdDay 2017 Main Breaker Rated at 42V and 120A, the main breaker serves as the robot on/off switch and prevents the battery from extremely excessive current draw Power Distribution Panel

Responsible for taking battery power and splitting it out safely to the many electrical loads on the robot Also has some smarts to measure current built in! FRC3941 Absolute Zero Electricity 10/28/2017 14 CBs vs Fuses Circuit breakers vs Trip Time Fuses Are not permanently Are permanently damaged by a rated damaged and rendered overload condition circuit unusable by a trip breakers can be reset Are typically more expensive Are typically cheaper Most circuit breakers and fuses have a trip curve (like the one above) that

specify how long it will take them to trip Means your 6 CIM drive train of awesomeness can pull much more than 120A from the battery and main breaker if only for a tiny amount of time The main breaker is a circuit breaker, and can be reset by hand Snap Action breakers are reset by removing power from the robot The two PDP fuses must be replaced if they ever trip Electronics 101 - MRA EdDay 2017 FRC3941 Absolute Zero Electricity 10/28/2017 15 FRC KOP Brainsss. The RoboRio, the brains of the robot

Contains a lot of programming mumbojumbo inside, and a lot of very expensive magic smoke (see rule #2) Simply put, if its not connected to the Rio in some way, its not likely to work Electricity Rule #1: Be Safe Rule #2: Always keep the magic smoke inside the components Electronics 101 - MRA EdDay 2017 FRC3941 Absolute Zero Electricity 10/28/2017 16 RoboRio Quickstart For talking to advanced motor controllers, PCMs, and the PDP For talking to advanced sensors and stuff You can turn these on and off, or read if something else is making them on or off Power goes

here Radio goes here Sensors and breakout boards, oh my! For talking to advanced sensors and stuff Pretty lights that tell you if something is wrong Standard motor controllers and servos go here The Robot is on light goes here Electronics 101 - MRA EdDay 2017 Certain sensors (e.g. potentiometers) go here FRC3941 Absolute Zero Electricity 10/28/2017 17

PWM Motor Controllers DMC-60 Spark Victor SP SD540B Cost $50 $45 $60 $50 Control PWM PWM PWM PWM Continuous Current 60A

60A 60A 60A Max Breaker 40A 40A 40A 40A Connection Bare Wire Screw Terminal Bare Wire Screw Terminal Other Features Brake / Coast configurable Limit Switch Inputs, Brake / Coast

configurable None Limit Switch Inputs, Brake / Coast configurable Electronics 101 - MRA EdDay 2017 FRC3941 Absolute Zero Electricity 10/28/2017 18 CAN Motor Controllers Talon SRX SD540C Cost $90 $50 Control CAN, PWM, Analog CAN

Continuous Current 60A 60A Max Breaker 40A 40A Connection Bare Wire Screw Terminal Other Features Limit Switch Inputs, Brake / Coast configurable, encoder support, IMU support Limit Switch Inputs, Brake / Coast configurable, encoder support Electronics 101 - MRA EdDay 2017 FRC3941 Absolute Zero Electricity 10/28/2017 19

Other Motor Controllers (legal, but) Victor 884 / 888 Talon / Talon SR Jaguar Cost End of Life End of Life End of Life Control PWM PWM PWM, CAN, RS232, Analog Continuous Current 40A 60A 40A Max Breaker 40A

40A 40A Connection Screw Terminal Screw Terminal Screw Terminal Other Features Brake / Coast configurable Brake / Coast configurable Brake / Coast configurable Electronics 101 - MRA EdDay 2017 FRC3941 Absolute Zero Electricity 10/28/2017 20 Radio, PCM, VRM Voltage Regulator Module (VRM)

When driving motors hard, the battery can struggle to maintain 12V The VRM ensures that the radio always has 12V available to it Electronics 101 - MRA EdDay 2017 OM5P-AN or OM5P-AC The main method of communication between the Robot and the driver station Loss of radio power (faulty cables) are a significant contributor to competition problems FRC3941 Absolute Zero Electricity Pneumatic Control Module (PCM) Controls the compressor and air solenoids for pneumatic components 10/28/2017 21 Wiring all the things Egads what are all these lines? Electronics 101 - MRA EdDay 2017

FRC3941 Absolute Zero Electricity 10/28/2017 22 Electronics 101 - MRA EdDay 2017 6AWG 6AWG Main Breaker + 6AW G FRC3941 Absolute Zero Electricity 10/28/2017 23 The PDP & Wire Gauges 16-24AWG 10-22AWG 6-12AWG 16-24AWG

10-22AWG 6-12AWG Fuse Rating Recommended Wire Guage 40A 10AWG 30A 10AWG 20A 16AWG 10A 16AWG 5A 16AWG Signal / PWM 22AWG / CAN / RSL Electronics 101 - MRA EdDay 2017

FRC3941 Absolute Zero Electricity 10/28/2017 24 Powering a Motor Motor controllers have a power input side, and a motor output side Electronics 101 - MRA EdDay 2017 Know YOUR motor controller to know what is where Most motor controllers do not have reverse polarity protection, so if you hook them up backwards, they let out magic smoke! FRC3941 Absolute Zero Electricity 10/28/2017

25 Powering the Radio The 2017 radios require 12V power from the 2A VRM output Its recommended that you dont use this VRM for any other 12V tasks To P P D Electronics 101 - MRA EdDay 2017 But you can use the 5V side for something FRC3941 Absolute Zero Electricity 10/28/2017 26

Powering the Rio / Radio / PCM The ports on the bottom of the PDP are only for the Rio, VRM #1, and PCM #1 The Rio must be plugged into the ports next to the red 10A fuse The VRM / PCM can be plugged into either of the remaining free slots The Radio must be plugged into the VRM connected in this manner Electronics 101 - MRA EdDay 2017 FRC3941 Absolute Zero Electricity 10/28/2017 27 PWM Pay attention to the labels on the RoboRio

S = Signal 6V = positive side Funky triangle bar thing = negative side (or signal ground) PWM goes straight from RoboRio to Servo or PWM Motor Controller Electronics 101 - MRA EdDay 2017 Color Scheme Signal 6V / + GND Futaba White Red Black JR Orange Red Brown FRC3941 Absolute Zero Electricity

10/28/2017 28 The CAN Loop If you are using CAN motor controllers or the CAN PCM, then things must be put in a Loop The Loop starts at the Rio and ends at the PDP All CAN stuff sits somewhere in the middle Electronics 101 - MRA EdDay 2017 FRC3941 Absolute Zero Electricity 10/28/2017 29 The CAN Loop Start End Electronics 101 - MRA EdDay 2017

FRC3941 Absolute Zero Electricity 10/28/2017 30 Radio and Rio Radio directly connected to RoboRio Power Radio Rio Programming (or other network stuff) Do not overly ziptie your Ethernet cables to the radio! You may have to make last minute swaps of the two ports on the field. Electronics 101 - MRA EdDay 2017 FRC3941 Absolute Zero Electricity 10/28/2017 31 Best Practices Pin 1

Pin 1 All Connectors (like the Molex SL) have some form of mark on them to denote pin 1. (Molex SLs use a small triangle) Use these marks to establish consistency in all your cables If you need to, establish a paradigm, like ground = pin 1 On any connector that has more than a red + and a black -, make a standard team pinout for that connector Electronics 101 - MRA EdDay 2017 FRC3941 Absolute Zero Electricity 10/28/2017 32 Best Practices Keep extensive documentation on what is connected to which port and if needed, which wire to which wire Minimize where possible

Not only do your programmers need this, but it also helps troubleshoot Wire Sizes (try to standardize on three or four sizes) Connector Types (try to standardize on three or four connector types) Wire Length (Keep a service loop: ~6-12 inches of extra wire, but cut off the rest) Dont tighten the zipties until the end! Run all the wires before tightening zip ties Zip ties are not constriction holds you do not need to bite into the wire Electronics 101 - MRA EdDay 2017 FRC3941 Absolute Zero Electricity 10/28/2017 33 Resources https://learn.sparkfun.com/tutorials/working-with-wire https://wpilib.screenstepslive.com/s/currentCS/m/cs_hardware https://learn.adafruit.com/category/circuit-playground-series https://learn.adafruit.com/collins-lab-soldering/ Youtube Your fellow FRC teams

Chief Delphi Electronics 101 - MRA EdDay 2017 FRC3941 Absolute Zero Electricity 10/28/2017 34 Where to buy things http://www.andymark.com/ (duh! all the FRC specific items, like the PDP, VRM, RoboRio, etc.) https://powerwerx.com/ - PowerPole connectors and supplies http://www.hansenhobbies.com/products/connectors/ pt1inlpconnectors/ - Molex SL connectors and supplies https://gregsmarinewiresupply.com/Marine-Primary-Wire - Red / Black wire (marine wire is higher quality than normal wire) Electronics 101 - MRA EdDay 2017 FRC3941 Absolute Zero Electricity 10/28/2017 35 What is wrong with those pictures!? Decoding the devil in the details Electronics 101 - MRA EdDay 2017

FRC3941 Absolute Zero Electricity 10/28/2017 36 Did you notice the reverse polarity on the top connector? Miswiring a battery connector like this just might cause your entire robot to fry. Not cool at all! Electronics 101 - MRA EdDay 2017 Ooh! The left battery is dead shorted (wired from one terminal to the other) This will cause sparks and then catch the battery on fire! FRC3941 Absolute Zero Electricity 10/28/2017 37 Eek! This PowerPole connector

was wired backwards! That motor controller is about to let out magic smoke! Electronics 101 - MRA EdDay 2017 Might be hard to see in the powering radio picture, but look at those messy input wires to the VRM! Short circuit here we come! Seeing copper like this is bad, no matter where on the robot! FRC3941 Absolute Zero Electricity 10/28/2017 38 Look at the CAN extension on the right its been wired backwards on both ends! However, no damage would be done to the robot, this would actually work and no one would be wiser Look closely at that middle CAN connector Did you see that the yellow wire does not line up in the connector?

That CAN loop wont work! Electronics 101 - MRA EdDay 2017 FRC3941 Absolute Zero Electricity 10/28/2017 39

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