Agenda 12/6 Evolution of Immunity Lecture Immune Click
Agenda 12/6 Evolution of Immunity Lecture Immune Click and Learn Warm up: Write about a time you were sick Homework: 1. Chp 43 reading and notes (due tomorrow) 2. Innate immunity video and notes 1
Warm Up In your notes, write a short paragraph about a time you were sick. Predict what your immune system did and what medicine did (if needed) http://www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/malariahuman-host 2 Immune System Part I: The Evolution of the Immune System
Immune System and Innate Immunity The human body has over 100 trillion bacteria living on it or within it. An immune system protects an organism from pathogens and other foreign material. The innate immune system provides the first line of defense by activating a small variety of immune cells to produce molecules that stop the invading pathogens and its resulting
disease providing physical barriers to stop a pathogen Adaptive Immune System The innate immune system is immediate and utilized by many multicellular organisms. In contrast, an adaptive immune system produces antibodies specific to a pathogen or foreign particle after
the pathogen activates B- and Tlymphocytes. The adaptive immune response is slower than the innate immune response and it may take days to become effective. Present only in jawed vertebrates Homeostasis and the Immune System Pathogens invade organisms because they are seeking: - a source of food or water
- protection - a place for reproduction Defense mechanisms evolved to rid the organism of pathogens and return the organism back to its original state. Evolution of the Immune System Ancestral amoebas performed phagocytosis to obtain food.
It would be advantageous for these ancestral amoeba to be able to distinguish between self and non-self when ingesting other cells. The interaction between receptors and signature molecules could provide this distinction mechanism. Self vs. Non-Self- Major theme in this unit
Turn to your elbow partner and predict how your bodys cells can determine what is supposed to be in your body and what is foreign 8 Cell Communication and Immune System Example of receptors and various signature molecules or PAMPs.
(Pathogen-associated molecular patterns) Explain how this part of the immune system is an example of cell communication. Identify three proteins and their role 9
Cell Communication and Immune System Example of receptors and various signature molecules or PAMPs. (Pathogen-associated molecular patterns) TLR4 receptor for a lipopolysaccharide found in gram-negative bacteria TLR5 receptor for protein flagellin found in bacteria
TLR3 receptor DS RNA found in certain RNA viruses TLR9 receptor for unmethylated DNA found in DNA viruses and bacteria 10 Evolution and Immunity Toll-like receptor (TLR)
pathways comparison for plants, invertebrates and vertebrates 1. Compare and contrast the three pathways 2. If this pathway was once in an ancestral cell, explain why the differences exist between the three organisms. What you need to know
1.There are receptors, and these receptors attach to a PAMP (signature molecules found on the pathogen and not the host). 2.Once the PAMP is attached it activates some sort of transduction pathway. 3.The response of the transduction pathway is associated with aiding an immune response. 4.This is considered to be an ancient pathway that has been conserved and passed down through time. 5.Differences exist due to the accumulation of various mutations. Accumulated mutations somehow enhanced the function of the proteins. Mutations that were detrimental were probably not
passed on. *You do not need to know the actual names or pathways of an individual type of cell. 12 Plant Defenses Plants, like animals, must defend against pathogens and herbivores with: physical barriers
secondary metabolites immune responses Plants Physical Defenses Pathogens can invade plants. Plantsphysical defenses include: - hairs that insects cannot penetrate - thorns or spines that large herbivores avoid - waxy cuticles that bacteria and
fungi cannot penetrate - Others??? Plant Defenses Against Herbivory Herbivores harm plants by eating them. Defenses against herbivory include production of secondary metabolites. They Can: -Act on the nervous system of insects and
mollusks or mammals -Mimic the natural hormones of insects so that the larvae do not develop correctly. -Damage the digestive tracts of herbivores -Some are fungicides. Plant Defenses Against Herbivory Plant Defenses Against Herbivory Coevolution of Herbivores and Plants
Certain herbivores and plants have coevolved with one another. *This butterfly can breakdown the secondary metabolite produced by the passion vine and use a nitrogen byproduct in protein metabolism. Induced Defense Response Certain pathogens will produce molecules that produce the hypersensitive response (HR).
This results in localized death of plant cells very quickly. Systemic Acquired Resistance Methyl salicylate from the HR is spread to rest of the plant. Once converted to salicylic acid, a transduction pathway is
activated causing systemic acquired resistance (SAR) for the entire plant that lasts for several days. Immunity and Invertebrates -- Physical Barriers Examples of innate immunity in Drosophila: First line of defense is the exoskeleton made of chitin (pronounced KY-tin). Chitin also lines the digestive tract.
The enzyme lysozyme found in the gut breaks down the cell walls of bacteria. Evidence These flies were engineered so that the immune cells expressed a green fluorescent protein when the innate immune system was activated. The top fly was inoculated with bacteria and the one below was stabbed with a sterile needle (no injection
of bacteria). The top flys immune system was activated while the bottom flys was not.
You would look for two places with identical policies, similar education, wealth, etc. but separated by a cultural border "German" and "Latin" language regions in Switzerland. Votes in Swiss Referenda on Social Security. Eugster et al. 2011.
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