Software Quality Assurance Software engineering processes Systems vs.

Software Quality Assurance Software engineering processes  Systems vs.

Software Quality Assurance Software engineering processes Systems vs. Software Terms often used interchangeably Engineering Processes Quality Quality Systems Capability/Maturity Models CS351 - Software Engineering (AY2004) 2 System: definitions System: a combination of related elements organized into a complex whole set of principles

way of proceeding assembly of components It is possible to see how software fits these definitions CS351 - Software Engineering (AY2004) 3 Systems engineering Design of complex systems Not just a bit of hardware, software, or some bricks The whole solution: hardware, software, packaging, warranties, instruction manuals, emergency evacuation procedures CS351 - Software Engineering (AY2004)

4 Systems engineering A way of proceeding Requirements Analysis System Analysis . Iter Synthesis ate .

Evaluation & Decision Description of Elements CS351 - Software Engineering (AY2004) 5 Engineering processes Process: A series of actions to bring about an aim In any technical or scientific discipline, the intent of processes is to generate output from given inputs CS351 - Software Engineering (AY2004)

6 Engineering processes E.g. a Requirements Analysis process is aimed at formalising and assessing the completeness and consistency of a set of user requirements User Requirements Concept of Operations Analysis Use Case Scenarios Notes, surveys etc. CS351 - Software Engineering (AY2004) Functional

Requirements or Specification 7 Quality: definition Quality distinguishing characteristic essential property standard excellence CS351 - Software Engineering (AY2004) 8 Quality: origins Early 20th Century notion

Origins in manufacturing: Repeatable result Little or no deviation between instances Aimed at reducing costs because variations require additional activity CS351 - Software Engineering (AY2004) 9 Quality Todays use of Quality focuses on repeatability of results a quality product may not just be of a high standard, but consistently so Consistency is the key CS351 - Software Engineering (AY2004)

10 Quality Systems Quality + System Set of principles, or a way of proceeding, in order to achieve consistency E.g. ISO 9001:2000 Companies get the 5 ticks But what does it actually mean? CS351 - Software Engineering (AY2004) 11 ISO 9001:2000 ISO 9001 is a Quality Standard It contains a number of requirements that must be met

by a companys procedures Highly tailorable The fundamental philosophy is: Plan what you do & Do what you plan CS351 - Software Engineering (AY2004) 12 ISO 9001:2000 A business is then audited regularly to ensure that: (a) Their procedures continue to meet the requirements of ISO 9001 (b) Activities are actually carried out in accordance with the set procedures CS351 - Software Engineering (AY2004)

13 ISO 9001:2000 What does this mean for a builder? What does this mean for a company? What does this mean for customers? CS351 - Software Engineering (AY2004) 14 Builders

Planning Customer Focus Responsibility and Authority Reviews Documentation Purchase Handling Subcontractor Management CS351 - Software Engineering (AY2004) 15 Contractor

Planning Customer Focus Responsibility and Authority Reviews Documentation Purchase Handling Subcontractor Management CS351 - Software Engineering (AY2004) 16

Customers There is a general feeling that you pay for quality as a customer The impact is not intended to be simply a higher bottom line, but less risk in that bottom line and a better chance of success if a repeat performance of a previous result is required CS351 - Software Engineering (AY2004) 17 Other Quality Standards NATA (ISO 17025) ISO 9000 Series Definitions Guidelines for Improvement Etc.

ISO 16949 ISO 10013 CS351 - Software Engineering (AY2004) 18 Quality Systems and Processes Process Standards exist for many Disciplines Systems/Software Engineering Civil Engineering Accounting Systems and Software: IEEE 2167A MIL-STD-498 EIA-632 CS351 - Software Engineering (AY2004)

19 MIL-STD-498 For example, MIL-STD-498 describes Software Development Planning Establishing a development environment Requirements analysis Implementation Testing Integration etc. CS351 - Software Engineering (AY2004) 20 MIL-STD-498

MIL-STD-498 is: Prescriptive I.e. it dictates the process, gives specific templates and DIDs (Data Item Descriptions) Rigid There are guidelines for interpretation and tailoring but the result looks very similar to the original CS351 - Software Engineering (AY2004) 21 MIL-STD-498 What is the intent? The intent is to have a process that establishes good practices that minimise risks and errors whilst maximising control and visibility

What does it have to do with Quality and ISO 9001? ISO 9001s intent is to describe the characteristics of a good set of processes CS351 - Software Engineering (AY2004) 22 ISO 9001 MIL-STD-498 In practice, the relationship is measured through compliance E.g. A software business may establish its internal processes using MIL-STD-498 as a basis A quality manual indicates the objectives of the processes with respect to ISO 9001 The business may be accredited as ISO 9001 compliant

CS351 - Software Engineering (AY2004) 23 Trends Started out as prescriptive Have tended to become intent based IEEE2167A MIL-STD-498 ISO 12207 ? ISO 9001 ISO 15504 CS351 - Software Engineering (AY2004) 24

Trends! CS351 - Software Engineering (AY2004) 25 Where does this lead? Good Practice is the intent We have learned a lot since 1900 We have learned a lot since 1990! Modern businesses need to be organic (dynamic and flexible)

It is desirable to understand capability and maturity rather than strict adherence to dogma. CS351 - Software Engineering (AY2004) 26 Capability maturity models CMM (c. 1990) Predominantly software-centric CMMI (c. 2000) From common best engineering practices Two models: Staged (focus on Maturity) Continuous (focus on Capability) CS351 - Software Engineering (AY2004)

27 Capability/maturity approach Structured as: Process Areas (PA) Specific Goals (SG) of each PA Generic Goals (GG) common to all PAs Goals comprise Practices the kinds of things you should do Intent-based Rate a companys practices on the extent to which SGs and GGs met CS351 - Software Engineering (AY2004) 28 Example

Respective capability or maturity level Met IPM OPD OPF DAR Val Ver PI

TS RD RM RSKM OT 5 4 3 2 1 Almost (!) CS351 - Software Engineering (AY2004)

29 Capability/maturity Level 5 Optimise Level 4 Quantitatively Manage Level 3 Institutionalise Level 2 Manage

Level 1 Perform Level 0 Do not perform CS351 - Software Engineering (AY2004) 30 Rating Method All practices need to be performed to satisfy a goal All SGs need to be met before a capability measure can be established The GGs identify the different capability levels in each

PA e.g. if all SGs are satisfied for PM, and GG1 is satisfied, then the organisation is said to have a capability level 1 in PM CS351 - Software Engineering (AY2004) 31 Rating Method PA SG1 SP1.1 SG2

SP2.1 Specific to this PA SP2.2 GG1 GP1.1 GP1.2 GG2 Common to all PAs GP2.2 etc.

CS351 - Software Engineering (AY2004) 32 Rating Process PP CAPABILITY PROFILE Goal/P CL3/GG3 GG3-GP2 GG3-GP1 CL2/GG2 GG2-GP10 GG2-GP9 GG2-GP8 GG2-GP7 GG2-GP6

GG2-GP5 GG2-GP4 GG2-GP3 GG2-GP2 GG2-GP1 CL1/GG1 GG1-GP2 GG1-GP1 SG4 SG3 SG2 SG1 PAs=> IPM G Practice Inst Type Inst OU OU Preliminary Finding Goal Goal Level Findings o

ABC rating Rating Rating al S SP 1.1-1 P1 AC FI FI If there is a good result, this U(P) Projects establish G P2 AC FI might contain a statement estimates of scope, 1 P3 AC FI such as "Comprehensive effort and cost of the SP 1.2-1 P1 AC PI PI There would be some words project, but do not here indicating the fact that define project

this specific goal could not attributes (eg. size & be justifiably deemed as LI complexity) nor or FI. completely define and P2 AC PI describe the project life cycle model. Project Management PPlan PMC SAM P3 AC

NI SP 1.3-1 P1 AC FI P2 AC PI P3 AC SP 1.4-1 P1 AC FI FI LI

More words - rolled up summary of the different analyses or investigations carried out. FI Comprehensive estimates of project effort and cost are established and maintained. RiskM Satisfied Partially Satisfied Not Satisfied CS351 - Software Engineering (AY2004)

33 Summary Provides an analysis of practices Helps identify specific areas of improvement (if desired!) Strengths/weaknesses Flexibility is maintained Business behaviour is still organic Not intended to be a process policing activity! CS351 - Software Engineering (AY2004) 34

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