Mining Electronic Health Records in the Genomics Era
Mining Electronic Health Records in the Genomics Era Deepti Marimadaiah Agenda What to Learn in This Chapter ? What is EHR? Types of information available in Electronic Health Records (EHRs). Difference between unstructured and structured information EHR. Methods for developing accurate phenotype algorithms . Describe recent uses of EHR-derived phenotypes to study genome-phenome relationships. Advantages ,challenges to HER. Genetic Research studies :- Use purpose-built cohorts. Eg: Wellcome Trust and Framingham research cohorts. Way it is done - patient questionnaires and/or research staff are used to ascertain
phenotypic traits for a patient. Advantage- High Validity Disadvantage- Repetitive, expensive, limited results and time to accrue datasets. rare diseases takes Phenotype and Genotype A phenotype is the composite of an organisms observable characteristics or traits such as its morphology, development, biochemical or physiological properties, phenology, behavior and products of behavior (such as a bird's nest).
A phenotype results from the expression of an organism's genes as well as the influence of environmental factors and the interactions between the two. When two or more clearly different phenotypes exist in the same population of a species, the species is called polymorph. The genotype of an organism is the inherited instructions it carries within its genetic code. Not all organisms with the same genotype look or act the same way because appearance and behavior are modified by environmental and developmental conditions. Likewise, not all organisms that look alike necessarily have the same genotype. EHR- Electronic Health Record EHR- systematic collection of electronic health information about individual patient / population. oHow is data collected in EHR Model about patients ? The hospital collects DNA for research, and maintains a linkage between the DNA sample and the EHR data for that patient. Thus, EHR is primary source of phenotypic information. (the set of observable characteristics of an individual
resulting from the interaction of its genotype with the environment.) Advantages:Helps in being cost effective because it is byproduct of a clinical care and has the potential to reuse genetic information to investigate a broad range of additional phenotypes Classes of Data Available in EHRs. EHRs are designed primarily to support clinical care, billing, and, increasingly, other functions such as quality improvement initiatives aimed at improving the health of a population. The primary types of information available from EHRs are: Billing data. Laboratory results and vital signs. Documentation from reports and tests.
Medication records. Laboratory results. Clinical documentation. Test results (such as echocardiograms, radiology testing) Billing Data Billing data - consists of codes derived from the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) and Current Procedural Terminology (CPT). The International Classification of Diseases (ICD) Current Procedural Terminology (CPT).
Is a hierarchical terminology of diseases, signs, symptoms, and procedure codes maintained by the World Health Organization (WHO). CPT codes are created and maintained by the American Medical Association. They serve as the chief coding system providers use to bill for clinical services. Continued CPTs are paired with ICD codes. ICD codes - providing the reason for a clinical encounter or procedure. This satisfies the requirements of insurers, who require certain allowable diagnoses and symptoms to pay for a given procedure.
For example, insurance companies will pay for a brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan that is ordered for a number of complaints (such as known cancers or symptoms such as headache), but not for unrelated symptoms such as chest pain. CPT codes tend to have high specificity but low sensitivity. ICD9 codes have comparatively lower specificity but higher sensitivity. For instance, to establish the diagnosis of coronary artery disease, one could look for a CPT code for coronary artery bypass surgery or percutaneous coronary angioplasty disease, or for one of several ICD9 codes. If the CPT code is present, there is a high probability that the patient has corresponding diagnosis of coronary disease. Table 1 summarizes the types of data available in the EHR and their strengths and weaknesses. Shows results of study that compared the use of natural language processing (NLP) and CPT codes to detect patients who have received colorectal cancer screening, via a
colonoscopy within the last ten years, at one institution. Continued CPT codes, however, had a very high precision (i.e., positive predictive value; see Box 1), with only one false positive. Laboratory and Vital Signs Laboratory data and vital signs form a longitudinal record of mostly structured data in the medical record. Stored as name-value pair data, these fields and values can be encoded using
standard terminologies.The most common is Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINCH). Hospital laboratory systems or testing companies may change over time, resulting in different internal codes for the same test result. Continued Structured laboratory results are often a very important component of phenotype algorithms, and can represent targets for genomic investigation. An algorithm to identify type 2 diabetes (T2D) cases and controls, for instance, used laboratory values (e.g., hemoglobin A1c and glucose values) combined with billing codes and medication mentions. An algorithm to determine genomic determinants of normal cardiac conduction required normal electrolyte (potassium, calcium, and magnesium) values. Careful selection of the value to be investigated For instance, an analysis of determinants of uric acid or red blood cell indices would exclude patients treated with certain antineoplastic agents (which can increase uric acid or suppression
of erythrocyte production). Similarly, an analysis of white blood cell indices also excludes patients with active infections and certain edications at the time of the laboratory measurement. Provider Documentation Is required for nearly all billing of tests and clinical visits, and is frequently found in EHR systems. To be useful for phenotyping efforts, clinical documentation must be in the form of electronically available text. They can be created via computer-based documentation (CBD) systems or dictated and transcribed.
The most common form of computable text is in unstructured narrative text documents- can be processed by text queries or by NLP systems. Crucial documents available as handwritten documents- intelligent character recognition (ICR) software is used. Documentation from Reports and Tests Provider-generated reports and test results include radiology and pathology reports and some procedure results such as echocardiograms. They are often in the form of narrative text results.
Contain a mixture of structured and unstructured results. Examples - Electrocardiogram report -typically has structured interval durations and may contain a structured field indicating whether the test was abnormal or not. Electrocardiogram (ECG) reports also contain a narrative text impression representing the cardiologists interpretation of the result (e.g., consider anterolateral myocardial ischemia or Since last ECG, patient has developed atrial fibrillation). For ECGs, the structured content (e.g., the intervals measured on the ECG) are generated using automated algorithms and have varying accuracy.
Medication Records Used to increase the precision of case identification. Medications received by a patient serve as confirmation physician treating them believed the disease was present to a sufficient degree that they prescribed a treating medication. Medication Records help in finding presence or absence of medications highly specific or sensitive for the disease. For instance, a patient with diabetes will receive either oral or injectable hypoglycemic agents; these medications are both highly sensitive and specific.
Computerized provider order entry (CPOE) systems manage hospital stays, automated barcode medication administration records helps hospital staff record each individual drug administration for each inpatient. EHR systems have incorporated outpatient prescribing systems, which create structured medical records during generation of new prescriptions and refills. Outpatient medication records are often recorded via narrative text entries within clinical documentation, patient problem lists, or communications with patients through telephone calls or patient portals. Natural Language Processing The vast majority of computer based documentation (CBD) remains in natural language narrative formats which are processed through use of text-searching
(e.g., keyword searching)or NLP systems to be made available for Data Mining. NLP computer algorithms scan and parse unstructured free-text documents, applying syntactic and semantic rules to extract structured representations of the information content, such as concepts recognized from a controlled terminology. Earlier NLP efforts to extract medical concepts from clinical text documents focused on coding in the Systematic Nomenclature of Pathology or the ICD for financial and billing purposes . While recent efforts often use complete versions of the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) , SNOMED-CT , and/or domain-specific vocabularies such as RxNorm for medication extraction .
Continued NLP systems utilize varying approaches to understanding text, including rulebased and statistical approaches using syntactic and/or semantic information. Natural language processors can achieve classification rates similar to those of manual reviewers, and can be superior to keyword searches. Researchers have demonstrated the effectiveness of NLP aid in specific phenotype recognition like : -Melton and Hripcsak used MedLEE to recognize instances of adverse events in hospital discharge summaries . -Friedman & colleagues evaluated NLP for pharmacovigilance to discover adverse drug events from clinical records by using statistical methods that
associate extracted UMLS disease concepts with extracted medication names. Continued NLP systems or keyword searching Primary task: Filter out concepts (or keywords) that indicate statements other than the patient having the disease. Identifying family medical history context and negated terms (e.g., no cardiac disease. Specialized NLP systems such as SecTag , or more general-purpose NLP systems such as MedLEE or HITEX- Recognition of sections within documents using structured section labels.
NegEx algorithm- negation detection. Most general-purpose NLP systems will recognize medications by the medication ingredient -Sirohl and Peissig applied a commercial medication NLP . Xu et al. developed MedEx, which had recall and precision $0.90 for discharge summaries and clinic notes on Vanderbilt clinical documents. EHR-Associated Biobanks: Enabling EHR-Based Genomic Science DNA Bio banks associated with EHR systems can be composed of -all comers or a focused collection, and opt-in or an opt-out approach.
Two population-based models in the eMERGE network are : 1.The Personalized Medicine Research Population (PMRP) project of Marshfield Clinic (Marshfield, WI) - The PMRP project selected 20,000 individuals who receive care in the geographic region of the Marshfield Clinic. 2.Northwestern Universitys NUgene project (Chicago, IL).-The NUgene project has enrolled nearly 10,000 people through 2012. Kaiser- Another Permanente Bio bank, which has genotyped 100,000 individuals . Above , DNA biobanks have an opt-in approach
DNA Bio banks having an opt-out approach Vanderbilt Universitys BioVU, associates DNA with deidentified EHR data. The BioVU model requires DNA and associated EHR data be deidentified in order to comply with the policies of non-human subjects research. The full-text of the EHR undergoes a process of de-identification with software programs that remove Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) identifiers from all clinical documentation in the medical record. At the time of this writing, text de-identification for BioVU is performed using the commercial product DE-ID with additional pre- and post-processing steps. BioVU has over 150,000 subjects as of September 2012. The major disadvantage of opt-out approach - precludes re-contact of the patients since their identity has been removed. However, the Synthetic Derivative is continually updated as new information is added to the EHR, such that the amount of phenotypic information for included patients grows over time. Race and Ethnicity in EHR Derived Bio-banks
Accurate knowledge of genetic ancestry information is essential to allow for proper genetic study design and control of population stratification. Large amount of genetic data allows one to calculate the genetic ancestry of the subject using catalogs of SNPs known to vary between races. One can also adjust for genetic ancestry using tools such as EIGENSTRAT. EIGENSTRAT detects and corrects for population stratification in genome-wide association studies. Self-reported race/ethnicity data is often used in genetic studies.
Administrative staff record race/ethnicity via structured data collection tools in the EHR. Phenotype-Driven Discovery in EHRs Measure of Phenotype Selection Logic Performance. The evaluation of phenotype selection logic uses metrics like sensitivity (or recall), specificity, positive predictive value (PPV, also known as precision), and negative predictive value. Another useful metric -Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves.
ROC curves graph the sensitivity vs. false positive rate (or, 1-specificity) given a continuous measure of the outcome of the algorithm. -By calculating the area under the ROC curve (AUC), one has a single measure of the overall performance of an algorithm that can be used to compare two algorithms or selection logics. Creation of Phenotype Selection Logic Phenotype algorithms can be created multiple ways, depending of the rarity of the phenotype, the capabilities of the EHR system, and the desired sample size of the study. Generally, phenotype selection logics (algorithms) are composed of one or more of four elements: -billing code data, -other structured (coded) data such as laboratory values and
-demographic data, medication information, and -NLP-derived data. Structured data retrieved from EHR systems can be combined through simple Boolean logic or through machine learning methods such as logistic regression , to achieve a predefined specificity or positive predictive value. A drawback to the use of machine learning data (such as logistic regression models) is that it may not be as portable to other EHR systems as more simple Boolean logic, depending on how the models are constructed. Continued The application of many phenotype selection logics can be thought of partitioning individuals into four buckets 1.Definite cases (with sufficiently high PPV),
2.Possible cases (which can be manually reviewed if needed), 3.Controls (which do not have the disease with acceptable PPV), and 4.Individuals excluded from the analysis due to either potentially overlapping diagnoses or insufficient evidence. Continued Algorithms- Sensitivity (or recall) is not evaluated For many algorithms, sensitivity (or recall) is not necessarily evaluated, assuming there are an adequate number of cases. A possible concern in not evaluating recall (sensitivity) of a phenotype algorithm is that there may be a systematic bias in how patients were selected. For example, consider a hypothetical algorithm to find patients with T2D whose logic
was to select all patients that had at least one billing code for T2D and also required that cases receive an oral hypoglycemic medication. This algorithm may be highly specific for finding patients with T2D (instead of type 1 diabetes), but would miss those patients who had progressed in disease severity such that oral hypoglycemic agents no longer worked and who now require insulin treatment. Thus, this phenotype algorithm could miss the more severe cases of T2D. Continued Algorithms-with the temporal relationships being important For other algorithms, the temporal relationships of certain elements are very important. Consider an algorithm to determine whether a certain combination of medication adversely impacted a given lab, such as kidney function or glucose . Such an algorithm would need to take into account the temporal sequence and time between the particular
medications and laboratory tests. Examples of Genetic Discovery Using EHRs Rzhetsky et al. used billing codes from the EHRs of 1.5 million patients to analyze disease co-occurrence in 161 conditions as a proxy for possible genetic overlap . Chen et al. compared laboratory measurements and age with gene expression data to identify rates of change that correlated with genes known to be involved in aging. Geisinger Clinic evaluated SNPs in the 9p21 region that are known to be associated to cardiovascular disease and early myocardial infarction. They found these SNPs
were associated with heart disease and T2D using EHR derived data. Example of EDGR- EHR-driven genomic research 1. Replicating Known Genetic Associations for Five Diseases Performed in BioVU. The goal was to use only EHR data for phenotype information. The first 10,000 samples accrued in BioVU were genotyped at 21 SNPs that are known to be associated with these five diseases (atrial fibrillation, Crohns disease, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis and T2D). Automated phenotype identification algorithms were developed using NLP techniques (to identify key findings, medication names, and family history), billing
code queries, and structured data elements (such as laboratory results) to identify cases (n= 70698) and controls (n= 8083818). Continued Final algorithms achieved PPV of $97% for cases and 100% for controls on randomly selected cases and controls (Table 2). For each of the target diseases, the phenotype algorithms were developed iteratively, with a proposed selection logic applied to a set of EHR subjects, and random cases and controls evaluated for accuracy. The results of these reviews were used to refine the algorithms, which were then redeployed and reevaluated on a unique set of randomly selected records to provide final PPVs. Used alone, ICD9 codes had PPVs of 5689% compared to a gold standard represented by the final algorithm. Example of EDGR- EHR-driven genomic research 2.Demonstrating Multiethnic Associations with Rheumatoid Arthritis
Using a logistic regression algorithm operating on billing data, NLP-derived features, medication records, and laboratory data, Liao et al. developed an algorithm to accurately identify rheumatoid arthritis patients. Kurreeman et al. used this algorithm on EHR data to identify a population of 1,515 cases and 1,480 matched controls. These researchers genotyped 29 SNPs that had been associated with RA in at least one prior study. Sixteen of these SNPs achieved statistical significance, and 26/29 had odds ratios in the same direction and with similar effect sizes.
The authors also demonstrated that these portions of these risk alleles were associated with rheumatoid arthritis in East Asian, African, and Hispanic American populations. eMERGE Network The eMERGE network is composed of nine institutions as of 2012. Each site has a DNA biobank linked to robust, longitudinal EHR data. The initial goal of the eMERGE network was to study genome-wide association using EHR data as the primary source for phenotypic information.
Network sites have currently created and evaluated electronic phenotype algorithms for 14 different primary and secondary phenotypes, with nearly 30 more planned. The primary goals of an algorithm are to perform with high precision ($95%) and reasonable recall. Algorithms incorporate billing codes, laboratory and vital signs data, test and procedure results, and clinical documentation. NLP is used to both increase recall (find additional cases) and achieve greater precision (via improved specificity).
eMERGE network participants. Early Genome-Wide Association Studies(GWAS) from the eMERGE Network GWAS attempts to select among many genetic variants the few that are associated with a single, particular phenotype. These studies normally compare the DNA of two groups of participants: people with the disease (cases) and similar people without. As of 2012, the eMERGE Network has published GWAS on atrioventricular conduction , red blood cell and white blood cell traits, primary hypothyroidism, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate , with others ongoing.
Several studies in eMERGE have explicitly evaluated the portability of the electronic phenotype algorithms by reviewing algorithms at multiple sites. Continued STUDY 1 Hypothyroidism Evaluation of the hypothyroidism algorithm at the five eMERGE-I sites, for instance, noted an overall weighted PPV of 92.4% and 98.5% for cases and controls, respectively . STUDY 2 - Atrioventricular conduction The phenotype algorithm identified patients with normal ECGs who did not have evidence of prior heart disease, were not on medications that would interfere with
cardiac conduction, and had normal electrolytes. The phenotype algorithm used NLP and billing code queries to search for the presence of prior heart disease and medication use. Continued The Algorithm highlights the importance of using clinical note section tagging and negation to exclude only those patients with heart disease, as opposed to patients whose records contained negated heart disease concepts (e.g., no myocardial infarction) or heart disease concepts in related individuals (e.g., mother died of a heart attack). Use of NLP improved recall of cases by 129% compared with simple text searching, while maintaining a positive predictive value of 97% (Figure 4)
Phenome-Wide Association Studies (PheWAS) A phenome-wide association study (PheWAS) is, in a sense, a reverse GWAS. PheWAS attempts to select among many phenotypes (the phenome being the collection of all phenotypic characteristics of an individual) the few that are associated with a single, chosen gene. The first PheWAS studies were performed on 6,005 patients genotyped for five SNPs with seven previously known disease associations.
This PheWAS used ICD9 codes linked to a code translation table that mapped ICD9 codes to 776 disease phenotypes. In this study, PheWAS methods replicated four of seven previously known associations with p<0.011. Figure 5 shows one illustrative PheWAS plot of phenotype associations with an HLADRA SNP known to be associated with multiple sclerosis. Continued The PheWAS demonstrates a strong association between this SNP and multiple sclerosis.
Also highlights other possible associations, such as Type 1 diabetes and acquired hypothyroidism. PheWAS methods may be particularly useful for highlighting pleiotropy and clinically associated diseases. For example, an early GWAS for T2D identified, among others, FTO loci as an associated variant. o A later GWAS demonstrated this risk association was mediated through the effect of FTO on increasing body mass index, and thus increasing risk of T2D within those individuals. o Such effects may be identified through broad phenome scans made possible through PheWAS. Conclusion
EHRs have long been seen as a vehicle to improve healthcare quality, cost, and safety. Broad tool for research. Enterprise data warehouses and software to process unstructured information like NLP When linked to biological data such as DNA or tissue biorepositories, EHRs can become a powerful tool for genomic analysis. A key advantage of EHR-based genetic studies is that they allow for the collection of phenotype information as a byproduct of routine healthcare.
A key advantage of EHR-based genetic studies is that they allow for the collection of phenotype information as a byproduct of routine healthcare. Challenges A major challenge is derivation of accurate collections of cases and controls for a given disease of interest, usually achieved through creation and validation of phenotype selection logics. These algorithms take significant time and effort to develop and often require adjustment and a skilled team to deploy at a secondary site. Another challenge is the availability of phenotypic information. Many patients may be observed at a given healthcare facility only for certain types of care leading to fragmented knowledge of a patients medical history and medication exposures.
Finally, DNA biobanks require significant institutional investment and ongoing financial, ethical, and logistical support to run effectively. Thus, they are not ubiquitous. As genomics move beyond discovery into clinical practice, the future of personalized medicine is one in which our genetic information could be simply a click of the mouse away . In this future, DNA enabled EHR systems will assist in more accurate prescribing, risk stratification, and diagnosis. Genomic discovery in EHR systems provides a real-world test bed to validate and discover clinically meaningful genetic effects.
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