Refraction, Lenses, & Sight Refraction The change in

Refraction, Lenses, & Sight Refraction  The change in

Refraction, Lenses, & Sight Refraction The change in direction of a wave as is crosses the boundary between two media in which the wave travels at different speeds.

Index of Refraction speed of light in vacuum n

speed of light in material Snells Law n1 sin 1 n2 sin 2

Index of Refraction Material Vacuum Air

Ice Water Ethyl Alcohol Plexiglas Crown Glass

Light Flint Glass Dense Flint Glass Zircon Diamond Rutile

Gallium phosphide Index of Refraction 1.0000 1.0003

1.3100 1.3330 1.3600 1.5100 1.5200 1.5800

1.6600 1.9230 2.4170 2.9070 3.5000

Dispersion The separation of light into colors arranged according to their frequency, by interaction with a prism or diffraction grating.

Rainbows White light separates into different colors (wavelengths) on entering the raindrop because red light is refracted by a lesser angle than blue

light. On leaving the raindrop, the red rays have turned through a smaller angle than the blue rays, producing a rainbow. Lenses

Converging Lens Rules For Converging Lenses 1) Any incident ray traveling parallel to the

principal axis of a converging lens will refract through the lens and travel through the focal point on the opposite side of the lens. 2) Any incident ray traveling through the focal point on the way to the lens will refract through

the lens and travel parallel to the principal axis. 3) An incident ray which passes through the center of the lens will in effect continue in the same direction that it had when it entered the lens. Image Formation by Converging Lens

Diverging Lens Rules For Diverging Lenses 1) Any incident ray traveling parallel to the

principal axis of a diverging lens will refract through the lens and travel in line with the focal point (i.e., in a direction such that its extension will pass through the focal point). 2) Any incident ray traveling towards the focal

point on the way to the lens will refract through the lens and travel parallel to the principal axis. 3) An incident ray which passes through the center of the lens will in effect continue in the same direction that it had when it entered the lens.

Diverging Lens Image Formation Always Virtual, Smaller, and Right-Side Up

The Human Eye The Human Eye Normal Eye Focus

Near-Sighted (Myopia) Far-Sighted (Hypermetropia)

Astigmatism Cornea is oval shaped instead of spherical. This causes light to focus on two or more spots. LASIK

Laser-assisted In Situ Keratomileusis

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