TODAYS PLAN! AGENDA: Talk briefly about the test Go over the timeline Were moving on to bigger and better civilizations starting today! Were officially in the Classical Period from 600 BCE 600 CE HOMEWORK: Reading due by next class p.74-86
GO CHEER ON YOUR TROJAN FOOTBALL TEAM ON FRIDAY THE RISE OF PERSIA PERSIAN EMPIRE (A.K.A. ACHAEMENID EMPIRE) PERSIAN EMPIRE (BASIC TIMELINE) Beginnings Cyrus the Great conquers Mesopotamia and
eventually Egypt Golden Age Darius I expands the empire Decline Corruption among later leaders (Xerxes) Loss to Greece in the Greco-Persian Wars BEGINNINGS: CYRUS THE GREAT
Reign: 558-530 BCE Military strategist Established vast empire stretching from India to Mediterranean (conquered Mesopotamia, Egypt, and India) Looting and burning not allowed! Honored local traditions and customs
Viewed favorably in the Old Testament: allowed Jews in Babylon to return home When you think of Cyrus and Persia, think TOLERANCE. THE DOWNSIDE OF MONARCHY Sometimes you have an intolerable son
Cambyses II (530-522 BCE) Conquered Egypt in 525 BCE Looted, burned, pillages, destroyed temples, ridiculed Egyptian polytheism, ordered images of their gods to be burned Everyone hates Cambyses!
GOLDEN AGE: DARIUS I Reign: 521-486 BCE A young kinsman of Cyrus Built the largest empire in world history up until that point 2500 miles Turkey to the Indus Valley 10,000 Immortals true?
Ruled more than 70 ethnic groups Built new capital at Persepolis (in modern-day Iran), 520 B.C.E. THE PERSIAN EMPIRE UNDER DARIUS I Discuss with a partner You have just conquered the largest empire
the world has ever seen. What steps would you take to control and maintain such an empire? Be specific! Formulate at least 5 means of controlling a large, diverse area. Think of the US how do we do it here? How might they have done it more than 2000 years ago? HOW DID THE PERSIANS CONTROL THEIR
EMPIRE? Politics Satraps: governors to rule provinces for the central government Ruled over satrapies Represented emperor, maintained defense, collected taxes Checked on by Kings Eyes
and Ears Local people still made up local governance HOW DID THE PERSIANS CONTROL THEIR EMPIRE? Politics Standardized laws Communication systems! Royal Road
Created largest military in history (until the Romans came along) HOW DID THE PERSIANS CONTROL THEIR EMPIRE? Economics Formalized taxes instead of a tribute system
Standardized coins (first in the world) and laws Whats the benefit? Political stability encouraged the growth of trade HOW DID THE PERSIANS CONTROL THEIR EMPIRE?
Society Persian religion: Zoroastrianism Monotheistic If youre good, you go to Heaven; if youre bad, you go to hell Could be practiced alongside other
religions HOW DID THE PERSIANS CONTROL THEIR EMPIRE? Society Tolerance, tolerance, tolerance Conquered peoples allowed to practice their local customs and traditions HUGE melting pot
Spread and mix of art, religion, architecture, food, races, and ethnic groups The Persian Wars Why is it Eurocentric to call them this? GRECO-PERSIAN WARS: WHY DID THEY START? - Ethnic Greeks living in
Ionia (coast of Turkey) rebelled against the Persians, with the help of some city-states (especially Athens) - Persian rulers put down the rebellion and invaded Greece as punishment - Two major invasions 490BCE (Darius) and
480BCE (Xerxes) GRECO-PERSIAN WARS: MAJOR EVENTS Battle of Marathon 490 BCE Athenians defeat Dariuss troops 162 vs 6000 Huge win for the
Greeks! Democracy vs. despotism (autocracy/monarchy) GRECO-PERSIAN WARS: MAJOR EVENTS Battle of Thermopylae 480BCE (aka, the Hot Gates)
Xerxes invades and defeats Spartans (think: the movie 300) Offered peace a ton of times; Leonidas says no Ephialtes ruins everything; betrays homeland for money and power Come and take them
Herodotus lies a lot about this battle in his Histories GRECO-PERSIAN WARS: MAJOR EVENTS Phalanx GRECO-PERSIAN WARS: MAJOR EVENTS Battle of Salamis 480BCE
Athenian naval victory over Xerxess forces (decisive battle of the war) Arguably the most important battle in all of world history GRECO-PERSIAN WARS: WHAT WAS THE RESULT OF THE WARS? Greeks win and remain independent Persia does not collapse it just doesnt conquer Greece
Leads to the Golden Age of Greece and the height of Athenian power (and then Alexander the Great conquers everyone, but well get there next time) Activity In groups, you will receive a one-page narrative of one part of the Persian Wars and practice highlighting and reading for the main idea(s). First, all of these excerpts are from The Histories,
a book written by Herodotus. He was a Greek who lived during the Persian Wars and he is considered the first Western historian and the Father of History. Why is this information important? Step One: Individual Practice Read the first paragraph silently and highlight the one sentence or phrase that you think is the main idea of that paragraph.
Circle or underline any details that you think are necessary to understand the main idea. Step Two: Compare In your group, have everyone share the sentence they highlighted and why they thought that was the main idea. If there are differences, discuss and try to come up with a single answer as a group.
Step Three: Read as a Group Read the second paragraph as a group (one person reads aloud or you popcorn read). Afterwards, decide as a group which sentence or phrase should be highlighted as the main idea. Also as a group, decide which details should be circled/underlined as necessary to understanding the main idea.
Step Four: Individual Practice Read the last paragraph on your own again and highlight the main idea and circle/underline the important details. After youre done, GIST your three-paragraph reading and compare your GIST with the rest of your group. Herodotus also said he saw giant ants that mined gold. FATHER. OF. LIES.
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