Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by

Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by

Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning 1 The environment for HR 2 Finding & placing qualified workers 3 Assessing & developing qualified workers

4 Labour relations 5 Emerging HR practices Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning PART 1 The environment for HR Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning

1 The environment for HR Finding & placing qualified workers CHAPTER 1: Foundation & challenges for HR CHAPTER 2: Assessing & developing qualified workers Labour relations Information technology for HR CHAPTER 3:

Managing diversity & regulatory challenges Emerging HR practices Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Chapter 1 The foundation and challenges of Human Resource Management Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Chapter outcomes

Evaluate the development of human resource management (HRM) Distinguish the strategic approach to human resources from the traditional approach to HRM Summarise the key HRM functions Explain the roles of the HR Department Identify eight challenges/issues facing HR today Explain the trends relevant to the growing importance for HRM Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Human resources: Past & present Scientific management Human relations The HR approach

Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Strategic HR Strategic management making those decisions that define the overall mission & objectives of the organisation, determining the most effective utilisation of its resources and crafting and executing the strategy in ways that produce the intended results Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Strategic HR (continued)

Business strategy managements game plan SHRM address a wide variety of people issues relevant to business strategy Process is led & coordinated by top management Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Strategic vs traditional HRM Dimensions Strategic HRM Traditional HRM

Planning and strategy formulation Participates in formulating overall organisational strategic plan and aligning HR functions with company strategy Authority

Has high status and authority for top HR officer (e.g. vice president for HR) Has medium status and authority (e.g. HR director) Scope Is concerned with all managers and employees Is concerned primarily with hourly, operational and clerical employees

Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Is involved in operational planning only Strategic vs traditional HRM (continued) Dimensions Strategic HRM Traditional HRM

Decision making Is involved in making strategic decisions Makes operational decisions only Integration

Is fully integrated with other organisational functions e.g. marketing, finance, production Has moderate to small integration with other organisational functions Coordination Coordinates all HRM

activities Does not coordinate all HR functions Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning A model of strategic HRM External environment Competition, government regulation, technology, market trends, economic

Corporate strategy Employee separation Laws regulating employment Staffing Training HR strategy Business unit strategy

Culture, structure, politics, employee skills, past strategy HR planning, design of jobs & work systems, what workers do, what workers need, how jobs interface with others Internal environment Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7

2006 Thomson Learning Performance management HRIS Compensation Labour relations HR functions Assigned exclusively to HR:

Compensation and benefits issues AA & EE JA programmes Pre-employment testing Attitude surveys Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning HR activities (jointly with other departments) JA & JD Recruitment and selection Appraisal, training and development and career management Compensation and health Labour relations

HRIS & problem-solving Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning HR department roles Does the HR function affect the success of an organisation? HR policies Critical policy issues Employee influence Personnel flow Reward system

Work systems Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Communication Downward New employee orientation Bulletin boards Communication meetings Newsletters Employee handbooks Upward Suggestions programmes

Complaint procedures Electronic mail Attitude surveys Open-door meetings Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning HR department roles (continued) Advice & services Control functions Collection & analysis of hiring, selection, placement & promotion Analysis of performance appraisal records Analysis of statistics on absenteeism, grievances and accidents

Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning The structure of the HR department Clerical, professional, managerial staff Responsibilities for HR functions Does not only reside with HR All managers at all levels share in the responsibility Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Current issues &

challenges Worker productivity Quality improvement Downsizing, delayering & decruiting The changing workforce Global economy The impact of government Quality of working life Technology and training

Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Challenges facing HR managers in 21st century External macro environment Critical people issues External micro environment Internal

macro environment Internal micro environment Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning HR career opportunities Professionalisation of HRM Ethics and HRM Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Summary

Strategic HR activities address a broad range of issues relevant to the successful formulation and implementation of company plans. The management of people has seen three distinct approaches since the turn of the last century: scientific management, human relations and the HR approach. The trend has been toward the HR approach, whereby two complementary goals are sought: increased organisational effectiveness and the satisfaction of individual employee needs. HR policies and programmes strive to achieve both goals. A number of critical issues face HR managers and administrators in South Africa today. Improving worker productivity through HR programmes, policies and techniques remains a challenge. Increasing the quality of working life (QWL) is a goal of many organisations, and programmes such as the redesign of jobs have been implemented to enhance QWL. Hiring and motivating today's changing workforce is a major HR challenge. Innovative HR programmes must meet the

needs of a diverse labour force while enabling the company to compete successfully in a global economy. Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Summary Although the HR programmes of different organisations will vary, the HR departments of most organisations have these common responsibilities: job design and analysis; recruitment and selection; induction and internal staffing; appraisal, training and development; compensation; and labour relations. HR managers and administrators play a number of roles in achieving effective HR management. These include creating HR policies, offering advice to line managers, providing services (e.g. recruiting, training, and research), and controlling activities to ensure that employment legislation and

HR policies are being followed. Also, it is usually HR's responsibility to design and maintain effective communication flows. Jobs in the HR department include clerical (support), professional and managerial positions. Free trade and globalisation are putting most firms in fiercely competitive markets where success depends on the quality of HR management. Work itself will be redefined in the future; more high-order thinking, constantHuman learning and flexibility. Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Chapter 2 Information Technology for

Human Resources Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Chapter outcomes Describe the Internet and identify the two functional categories of information available on the Internet that are most useful to HR managers Define a human resource information system (HRIS) Discuss the structural design of an HRIS Distinguish between the different types of HRISs Discuss some of the modules of an HRIS database Discuss the steps to be followed in the development and implementation of an HRIS Discuss five critical standards that must be met if information provided by an HRIS is to be viewed as quality information

List several things HR can do to foster data security throughout the organisation Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning HR and the Internet Conversational resources Reference sources Intranets organisational network that operates over the Internet connecting people to people and people to knowledge and information Extranets an Internet-linked network that allows employees access to information provided by external entities Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7

2006 Thomson Learning Human Resource Information System (HRIS) Nature of an HRIS Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Benefits of an HRIS Reduces errors Strategic tool Provide valuable information to decision makers Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning

Components of an HRIS Hardware Software Data Procedures and users Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Functional components of an HRIS Input Employee information Transformation Software

Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Output Reports Structural design of HRISs Concentrated HRIS Distributed HRIS Independent HRIS Hybrid approach Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Types of HRISs EDP (electronic data processing)

automated processing of routine information MIS (management information system) integration and planning of the information systems function DSS (decision support system) decisions made at a higher level in the organisation Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Reasons for the slow introduction of computerbased systems in HR departments Lack of support by top management Satisfaction with the status quo

Defensiveness about revealing HR operations Lack of HRIS knowledge and skills by HR managers Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Fully developed HRIS database Training & Succession Career planning development development

& planning Affirmative action Skills inventory Personnel module Corporate, Biographical, Historical, Company/ HR policies DATABASE HR planning & forecasting Compensation administration Future use

Position control Benefits Health claims Health & safety Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Applicant tracking Applications of the HRIS database modules

Applicant-tracking module T&D module Position control module Wage & salary administration module HRP module Skills inventory module Succession planning module Basic personnel module Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning

Why do HRISs fail? Lack of management commitment & resources and inadequate numbers of personnel are made available Project team not assigned for the duration of the project Project is set up for failure (political intrigue, conflict & hidden agendas) Incorrect decisions are made poorly written needsanalysis reports Key personnel are not included in the project team Clients are not surveyed/interviewed to determine their needs Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Development, implementation &

maintenance of an HRIS database Phase I Needs analysis Phase II Design & development Phase III Implementation & maintenance Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Securing the integrity of HR data Biggest risk Keeping records unaltered Controlling access Security technology Information to be accessed

Type of access Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Summary Automation came late to the HR department. When it did, the system put in place resembled payroll more than personnel. The appearance of the personal computer (PC), perhaps more than any other single event, shifted information control away from the data processing/MIS department. The computer is becoming an integral part of the HR department. As a tool, it has moved beyond producing simple reports to helping HR managers make complex decisions. Human resource information systems (HRISs) are making this possible. As a whole, an HRIS creates more opportunities for the HR profession to influence the company. A typical HRIS is composed of a database, computer software

and hardware. Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Summary There has been an explosion of PC hardware improvements and software offerings that greatly expand the possibilities of HRISs. Small employers can now benefit by getting the same results on PCs and minicomputers that could only be obtained using mainframes a few years ago. The choice between mainframes, minicomputers and PCs is complicated by the blurring of distinctions between them. Technological improvements are levelling the playing field between competitive technologies, and a likely scenario is that a medium-sized to larger employer will employ a combination of networked computer systems. Improvements in computer technology allow more tasks to be accomplished than ever before. Very sophisticated

analyses can be performed on an ad hoc basis. Even PC programs allow complicated 'what if' questions to be answered. Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Summary Modern HRISs place HR professionals in a better position to play a more integral role in the strategic management of today's organisation. Computer technology, which first seemed to divide departments, now serves to bring them closer together as they share information, and more of it, to implement the business strategy. For an HRIS to be effective, users must be properly trained to use it, and it must be used by those whom it is intended to serve. HRIS concerns about he privacy of information that the database contains are very important. Proper care must be

taken to restrict access to the system to those individuals who have a legitimate need for its information. Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Chapter 3 Managing diversity and regulatory challenges Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Chapter outcomes Discuss the composition of the South African workforce

Define diversity management, and discuss why it is important Distinguish between the concepts affirmative action and diversity management Identify the primary principles of the South African Constitution and other related employment legislation regarding discrimination Discuss the two types of sexual harassment and how employers should respond to complaints Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning South Africas diverse population Ethnic groups Women Younger workers Disabilities

Sexual/affectional orientation Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning An organisational fitness model Refer to Figure 3.1 page 69 Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Managing diversity A planned systematic and comprehensive managerial process for developing an organisational environment in which all employees, with their similarities and

differences, can contribute to the strategic and competitive advantage of the organisation, and where noone is excluded on the basis of factors unrelated to productivity Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Managing diversity What is diversity? Recognition of the groups of people who share such common traits Primary dimensions Secondary dimensions Stereotypes & prejudices Stereotype a fixed, distorted generalisation about

the members of a group: it is not generalisation Prejudice processing our stereotypes in such a way to reinforce your own sense of superiority to members of that group Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Managing diversity (continued) Assimilation Valuing diversity Diversity programmes Diversity awareness training Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning

Managing diversity (continued) Problems with diversity training Language sensitivity The multicultural organisation How can an organisation truly become a multicultural organisation? Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Unfreezing Moving Refreezing

Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Response to diversity: Government legislation LRA 66 of 1995 The Constitution 108 of 1996 BCEA 75 of 1997 EEA 55 of 1998 Promotion of equality and prevention of unfair discrimination act 4 of 2000 Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Sexual harassment

Defining sexual harassment Quid pro quo harassment Hostile work environment harassment Measuring & researching sexual harassment Different forms of sexual harassment HRs responsibility Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Summary The rapid diversification of the South African workforce is

changing the way in which managers succeed in administrating organisations. They must be able to harness the energies, talents and differences of a more diversified workforce. This requires an ability to recognise value and to manage individuals from diverse cultures and perspectives. Diversityawareness training and diversity programmes strive to increase employees' recognition of the value of everyone in the workplace. Some programmes, however, have caused problems among certain employees. To achieve diversity, HR managers must: (1) hire a diverse workforce; (2) enforce policies and laws on discrimination; and (3) learn to value and manage employees' differences. Affirmative action programmes by employers seek to determine areas of under use of women and disadvantaged group members. Employers establish goals and timetables to increase recruitment and selection of women and other groups in underutilised job categories. Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e

by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Summary Government legislation has greatly affected the selection process. Employers must ensure that their recruitment practices are nondiscriminatory and that each applicant is given an equal opportunity. Sexual harassment has developed into a complex but critical HR issue. Both quid pro quo and hostile environment forms of harassment are clearly prohibited. Employers realise that developing complaint investigation procedures and training supervisors to respond must be done before a complaint is filed to provide objectivity. Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e

by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning 2 The environment for HR CHAPTER 4: Finding & placing qualified workers CHAPTER 5: Assessing & developing qualified workers CHAPTER 6:

HR planning, research & problem-solving Job design and job analysis Recruitment & selection CHAPTER 7: Labour relations Induction, motivation & retention CHAPTER 8: Emerging HR practices Internal staffing & career management

Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Chapter 4 HR planning, research and problem-solving Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Chapter outcomes Define strategic human resource planning (SHRP) Understand the importance of SHRP to the organisation Identify the steps in the SHRP process

Identify the methods by which an organisation can develop forecasts of anticipated personnel (supply and demand) List several common pitfalls in SHRP Recognise the importance of the HR research function and cite the individuals and institutions that conduct HR research Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Chapter outcomes (continued) Provide an overview of the major HR research methods Describe in detail the employee survey process - by far the most common form of HR research Recognise the importance of conducting - whenever possible - a cost-benefit analysis of HR activities

and to provide an example using employee absenteeism Cite some of the major personnel/HR problems absenteeism, turnover, job dissatisfaction and perceptions of unfairness Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Types of HR planning Input linkages Decision inclusion linkages Review and reaction linkages Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Planning horizon

Strategy-linked HRP Who is responsible for SHRP? Main responsibility lies with HR managers HR managers must liaise with line management Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Why is SHRP so important? Elements of SHRP Steps in the SHRP process Situation analysis HR demand analysis HR supply analysis Strategy development Common pitfalls in SHRP Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e

by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning HR research Types of research Basic/Pure Applied The researchers HR research publications Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Research techniques Surveys Job satisfaction survey Specific-use questionnaire

Survey administration Exit interviews Historical study Controlled experiments Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning HRIS Cost-benefit analysis Problem-solving and analysis Absenteeism Causes of absenteeism Measuring absenteeism Researching absenteeism Reducing absenteeism

Turnover Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Problem-solving and analysis (continued) Job dissatisfaction Causes of job dissatisfaction Measuring job dissatisfaction Reducing job dissatisfaction Perceptions of fairness Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Problem-solving and analysis

(continued) Perceptions of fairness Procedural & distributive justice Measuring perceptions of fairness Researching fairness Reducing unfairness Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Factors that affect turnover Employee turnover General economic trends

Demographic factors Local labour market Job security Personal mobility Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Summary SHRP is the process of getting the right number of qualified people into the right job at the right time.

To be effective, the SHR plan must be derived from the long-range plans of the organisation. Strategy-linked HRP is based on a close working relationship between HR staff and line managers. Various methods for forecasting HR needs exist. Sound HR research can significantly strengthen an organisations HR programmes. Some specific uses of research include measurement and evaluation of current personnel policies, programmes and activities, and appraisal of proposed policies, programmes and activities. Research is generally classified as basic or applied. Most HR research is applied research to solve a particular problem or evaluate a proposed HR programme or activity. Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning

Summary HR research is conducted by a variety of individuals and public and private organisations, including government departments, private organisations, personnel associations, universities and individual business firms. In a business firm, HR research is usually conducted by a member of the personnel staff. Results are available in a number of journals and other publications. Techniques that are frequently used in HR research include surveys, specific-use questionnaires, interviews and historical studies. The controlled experiment has only limited use because of the difficulties in applying this technique in an organisational setting. The primary uses of surveys, questionnaires and interviews are to gather employees feelings and perceptions about areas of job satisfaction and dissatisfaction and to evaluate present and proposed HR programmes and policies. An important requirement for HR research is a valid HRIS. Without relevant information, it will not only be difficult to

carry out meaningful research but the HR staffs day-to-day effectiveness will also be limited. Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Summary Whenever possible, HR professionals should analyse HR problems and evaluate their programmes using a costbenefit analysis. Some problems and activities that lend themselves to this form of analysis are turnover, absenteeism, attitudes and employee grievances. Although HR professionals and line managers must confront a wide array of people problems, a small, hardcore group of problems seem to permeate many organisations and consume an inordinate amount of the time of line and staff decision-makers. These problems typically include absenteeism, turnover, job dissatisfaction and unfairness. For problems such as these, decision-makers must, through the use of HR research, systematically analyse the extent of the

problem in their organisations, determine where the problems exist and develop strategies to overcome them. Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Chapter 5 Job design and job analysis Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Chapter outcomes Discuss workflow analysis and business process reengineering as approaches to organisational work. Understand how the design of a job affects employee motivation and performance. Show various methods of designing motivating

jobs. Understand how motivating jobs can be created by building work teams. Become aware of radically new organisational programmes such as TQM. Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Chapter outcomes (continued) Understand the basic elements of a job analysis programme. Describe the end products of job analysis. Identify the major methods of job analysis. Discuss the future use and updating of job analysis information. Cite techniques useful in writing job descriptions.

Recognise the major elements of job descriptions and job specifications. Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Dividing work into jobs Work effort directed towards producing and accomplishing results Job grouping of tasks, duties & responsibilities that constitute the total work assignment As organisations change, these tasks, duties & responsibilities may also change over time When all jobs are added together they should = the amount of work that is to be completed Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e

by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Dividing work into jobs (continued) Workflow analysis studies the way work moves through the organisation Starts with examination of desired & actual outputs (goods & services) into quantity & quality Activities (tasks & jobs) that lead to the outputs are evaluated to see if they can achieve the desired outputs Inputs (people, material, information, data, equipment etc) must be assessed to determine if these inputs make the outputs & activities more efficient Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e

by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Dividing work into jobs (continued) Re-engineering generates the needed changes in the business processes Purpose of business process reengineering improve such activities as product development, customer service & service delivery Require the use of work teams, training employees to do more than one job and reorganising operations, workflow and offices to simplify and speed up the work Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Designing jobs

Major HR concerns: Employee productivity Job satisfaction Job design (JD) determines how work is performed & greatly affects how an employee feels about a job, how much authority an employee has over the work, how much decisionmaking the employee performs on the job and how many tasks the employee should complete JD determines working relationship with employees & relationship among employees Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Designing jobs (continued) JD determines: The nature of social relationships that

exist on a job Relationships between the employee and the work Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning A framework for job design Job content Feedback Task variety, autonomy, complexity, difficulty, identity Task Accomplishment

Productivity Effectiveness Efficiency Job functions Responsibility, authority, information flow, work methods, co-ordination requirements Worker reaction Satisfaction Absenteeism Turnover Relationships Dealing with others, friendship opportunities, teamwork requirements

Feedback Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Major approaches to job design Specialisation-intensive jobs Job simplification (job specialisation) Motivation intensive jobs Job rotation Job enlargement

Job enrichment Work teams Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Advantages - Major approaches to job design Specialisation intensive Productivity of skilled workers Training time required Easy to replace workers Few mental work errors Greater manager control of operations Motivation intensive Productivity of

challenged workers Absenteeism Turnover Product quality More employee ideas Greater employee job satisfaction Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning New organisational approaches Total quality management (TQM) Focuses on the quality of all the processes that lead to the final product or service To be successful it requires support of top

management & the belief that quality is a key part of every employees job Customer focus in the process of designing and improving quality Proper implementation requires a clear vision & support of top management and a focus on results NOT the process Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning The office environment Work environment (space, workstations, light etc) affects employee morale, productivity and quality, absenteeism & turnover Creativity can happen anywhere Retain the services of an architect or

design consultant Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Robotics The use of robots to perform routine tasks Industrial robots: Anthropomorphic (approximate the appearance and functions of humans) Nonanthropomorphic (machine-like and have limited functions) First-generation robots performed simple jobs and had limited capabilities Second-generation robots built with senses, vision or touch, making them more adaptable New robots - perform most of the drilling, shaping

& bending tasks previously performed by robots Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Ergonomics Taking into account the human factor in designing the employees workstation Relationship between the employees and their workstations machines used, lighting, noise, chairs etc, these can affect productivity IBM Employee handbook identifies the following:

Posture Back Hand Environment Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Productivity measures Quantity or volume produced Accurate measure of productivity is vital to organisational improvement effort Gain competitive advantage Strategies to improve productivity & quality Depends on employee seeing a link between what they produce & what the company is attempting to achieve

What will work for one company may not for another Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Productivity measures (continued) Organisations must be careful not to measure the wrong things or overlook those that are critical to success Merely implementing quality techniques, including employee empowerment and benchmarking will not produce benefits Productivity is the relationship between what is put into a piece of work (input) and what is yielded (output) Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7

2006 Thomson Learning Three major components of productivity Effectiveness Doing the right things The production process Resource market Labour, materials and capital Conversion Inputs Goods

and services Outputs Utilisation & efficiency Doing things right Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Market needs Three major components of productivity Utilisation the extent to which we use resources Efficiency rate of conversion while resources are being used

Effectiveness measured in terms of doing the right things Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Other JD issues Work schedules Flexitime Compressed workweeks Alternative physical work locations Telecommuting Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning

The nature of job analysis (JA) Job analysis systematically investigate the tasks, duties and responsibilities of the jobs within the organisation Investigates: Levels of decision-making Skills employees need to do a job adequately Autonomy of the job Mental effort required to perform the job Machines operated, reports completed & special financial/other responsibilities Working conditions (levels of temperature,

light etc) Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning The importance of JA New realities: Organisational restructuring due to downsizing The need to motivate and reward people The impact of technology on jobs throughout the organisation Labour legislation pertaining to employment equity and general discriminatory practices The implementation of teams Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning

Components of a job To understand a specific job and to be able to make comparisons among or between jobs, it is important that anyone analysing a job should know that it can be broken down into several components and arranged into a hierarchy of work activities Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Hierarchy of work activities Job family

Occupation Job Position Duty Task Element Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Programme implementation 1. Committee review 2. Information collection General methods

Site observations Work sampling Interviews Diaries Questionnaires Specific methods

PAQ FJA CMQ WPS Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Programme implementation 3. Information review 4. Product completion Job description (JD) Uses of a JD:

Recruitment Interviewing Orientation Training Job evaluation Wage/salary surveys Performance appraisal Outplacement Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Programme implementation

4. Product completion (continued) Job description (JD) (continued) Elements of a JD: Job identification Job summary Job duties & responsibilities Job specification (JS)

Skills Knowledge Abilities 5. Future use & updating Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning JA problems Employee fear Need to update information regularly Job is held by only one or two employees Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7

2006 Thomson Learning Summary Understanding how people are motivated, that is, their needs and goals, is critical to modern job design. The task employees perform on the job and the variety, difficulty level and autonomy of the job greatly affect job satisfaction and productivity. Employees, individually or in work teams, are being asked to take on greater responsibility for the design and control of their jobs. Simple, repetitious tasks are eliminated whenever possible, generally resulting in jobs that are more motivating and challenging. At the same time, some degree of job specialisation is necessary so that new employees can learn their jobs quickly and make fewer errors. Programmes such as job enrichment, self-managed work groups, TQM and re-engineering have resulted in redesigned jobs that were previously highly specialised

and boring. There is also a trend toward multiskilling, whereby team members learn multiple tasks. Organisations are adopting work teams and giving them Human responsibilities. Resource Management in South Africa 3/e more freedom and by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Summary Total Quality Management (TQM) is one of the fastestgrowing productivity improvement programmes in the world. It is based on the principle of commitment to continuous improvement and meeting customers' needs. It is largely a bottom-up change effort. Re-engineering is more radical. It involves more than tweaking old procedures; it is the redesign of business processes to achieve major gains in cost, service or time. The process begins with the simple but powerful question: If we could start from scratch, how would we do this? It is

different from TQM because it comes from the top down. Technology plays an important role in modern job design. Robotics, ergonomics and the office environment can improve employee creativity, productivity and quality. Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Summary In addition to job design, organisations may choose to implement programmes that increase workplace flexibility. These programmes tend to adopt a scheduling mix between employees' needs and the organisation's staffing requirements in ways that are consistent with the company's culture. Compressed work weeks, flexitime programmes and telecommuting are the most common approaches. Employees who desire greater control over work hours, who would like easier commuting or want a different lifestyle will be attracted

to organisations that offer these types of programmes. A sound JA programme produces many benefits for an organisation. Information critical to employment and compensation is collected on a systematic basis. JDs, JSs and JEs can easily be produced from the JA data. Thus, critical HR practices such as hiring, wage determination and administrative record-keeping are assisted by job analysis. Information collection should always begin by conducting a background search. Internal sources can include previous job analyses, interviews with job incumbents and job supervisors, site observations by the analyst, questionnaires and diaries. Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e

by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Summary There is a variety of job analysis methods, with each having certain advantages, depending on the purpose, cost and time. The most popular method is the PAQ. A more complex method that demands computer analysis and that can handle thousands of jobs and people is the FJA. Job analysis is necessary to comply with the primary employment provisions. The process helps to determine essential functions and whether an individual can carry out the essential functions with or without reasonable accommodation. Job descriptions generally should contain a complete identification of the job and its location within the organisation. The section on duties and responsibilities should group all tasks into major functional categories, and each entry should begin with verbs. Job specifications should include all SKAs needed to perform the job, as well as other minimum qualifications.

Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Chapter 6 Recruitment & selection Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Chapter outcomes Identify different ways that labour markets can be identified and approached Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of internal versus external recruiting Identify internal and external methods of recruiting

List and discuss a number of hiring alternatives Explain the HR department's role in the selection process Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Chapter outcomes (continued) Diagram and discuss the sequence of a typical selection process Discuss several types of selection interviews and some key considerations when conducting these interviews Discuss the merits of references Describe the various decision strategies for selection Explain how legal concerns impact on both

recruitment and selection Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Definitions Recruitment the process of acquiring applicants who are available and qualified to fill positions in organisations Selection - the process of choosing from a group of applicants the individual best suited for a particular position Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning

Linking the role of recruitment and selection External labour market Recruitment activities Selection activities Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Organisations need for additional

labour The recruitment process Internal sources Specific requests Managers comments Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Internal methods

External sources External methods Satisfactory pool of recruits AA & EE JA info Job requirements Environment Job openings identified

HRP Recruitment strategies in a diverse workforce Non-traditional recruitment strategies: Disadvantaged training programmes Learnerships and mentoring programmes Career exhibitions Telerecruiting Diversity data banks Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7

2006 Thomson Learning Labour markets information Labour market sources Part-time employees Underemployed individuals Pirating Operation of the labour market Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Recruitment sources Internal sources (Also discuss employee relocation, glass ceiling)

External sources (also discuss Peter Principle) Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Advantages Internal recruitment Morale Knowledge of records Chain effect of promotion Need to hire at entry level Usually faster, less expensive

External recruitment Applicant pool is bigger New ideas, contact Internal infighting Minimises Peter Principle Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Disadvantages External recruitment Internal

recruitment Unhealthy competition Inbreeding Morale problem for those not promoted Strong management development programme needed Destroy incentive of employees to strive for promotion Individuals ability to fit in is unknown Increased adjustment problem Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e

by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Methods of recruitment Internal methods Job posting Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Methods of recruitment External methods

Direct applications Employee referrals University campus recruiting Private employment agencies Advertising Direct mail Radio, TV & the Internet Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Hiring alternatives Assigning overtime Temporary help Leasing employees Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e

by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Recruitment and the law LRA 66 of 1995 BCEA 75 of 1997 EEA 55 of 1998 Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Selection An HR responsibility Selection and the law Selection process Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7

2006 Thomson Learning Framework for selection Selection instruments Job specification Job success criterion Job design Organisational goals Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Steps in the selection process Comply?

Initial screening Yes/No Application blank Yes/No Pre-employment testing Yes/No Reject Interviews Yes/No

Reference checks Yes/No Medical examination Yes/No Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Job offer Initial screening (step 1) Removing obviously unqualified/undesired applicants Critical job specifications or

requirements of EEA CV red flags CV tracking system Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Application blank (step 2) Information obtained is compared to JS to determine if there is a potential match Weighted application blank CV method Uses of application blank Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning

Pre-employment testing (step 3) Reliability of a test refers to consistency of measurement, usually across time but also across different raters Validity is the extent to which scores on a test or interview correspond to actual job performance Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Pre-employment testing (continued) Employment Equity Act Section 8 of Chapter II Managerial selection devices

Assessment centres Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Interviews (step 4) Purpose of the interview: (1)Does the applicant have the ability to perform the job? (2)Will the applicant be motivated to be successful? (3)Will the applicant match the needs of the organisation? Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning

Interviews (continued) Reliability & validity of interviews Problems with interview Structured & objective process Effective interviewing:

Setting Documentation Standardisation Scoring Reviewing specifications Reviewing the application blank Training the interviewer Job-related questions Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Interviews (continued) Types of interviews One-on-One Panel Structured interview (directive/patterned)

Realistic job preview Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Reference checks (step 5) Methods (personal visits, telephonic, mail) Telephone advantages: Immediate clarification More information Relatively little expense

Additional areas A structured form Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Reference checks (continued) Personal references Verify data received on application blank Evaluate the quality of the personal recommendation Determine how well the person knows the applicant Previous employers Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7

2006 Thomson Learning Medical examination (step 6) After job offer has been made Contingent to passing the medical examination EEA Section 7(1) and (2) & Section 50(4) Can test if it can be justified Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning The selection decision Compensatory selection all applicants who pass the initial screening will be tested, interviewed

etc Multiple hurdles selection applicant needs to pass each hurdle (step) Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Record keeping EEA LRA Keep complete set of records of the recruitment and selection process Proof of non-discrimination Keep documents such as advertisements, contract with employment agencies etc Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7

2006 Thomson Learning Summary Recruitment requires the HR specialist to acquire a pool of available and qualified applicants. The recruiters can tap a variety of sources, including current employees, part-time workers, the unemployed and employees of other organisations who feel they are underemployed. Job-posting programmes are widely used to recruit applicants for positions. New voice-mail and electronicmail systems offer several advantages over traditional bulletin boards. Effective recruitment advertising has increased because of the use of common marketing research tools. The need for advertising has increased because of dualcareer couples and a general unwillingness to relocate on the part of professional and technical employees. Current employees are the most common source of applicants for higher-level positions. They offer the organisation several advantages over external applicants and give all employees the incentive of

knowing that they may be promoted as a reward for Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e hard work. by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Summary Overtime, temporary help and leasing are alternative sources of additional labour. Depending on the number of hours and skills needed, these recruitment sources may be more desirable than hiring permanent employees. University/school campus recruitment has become more competitive and employers more sophisticated in their methods. A poor economy should signal to students the need to sue innovative job leads. Pre-employment tests can be effective tools in the selection process. If carefully selected, validated and

monitored, they can help select applicants who will match the position's requirements. Reference checking has increased in use but has been subjected to legal challenges. Employers can legally provide factual and accurate information, but they should be able to verify any job-related information they release. Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Chapter 7 Induction, motivation and retention Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning

Chapter outcomes Identify different ways that labour markets can be identified and approached Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of internal versus external recruiting Identify internal and external methods of recruiting List and discuss a number of hiring alternatives Explain the HR department's role in the selection process Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Chapter outcomes (continued) Diagram and discuss the sequence of a typical

selection process Discuss several types of selection interviews and some key considerations when conducting these interviews Discuss the merits of references Describe the various decision strategies for selection Explain how legal concerns impact on both recruitment and selection Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Definition Induction/orientation/socialisation the process of integrating the new employee into the organisation and acquainting him/her with the details and requirements of the job

Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Objectives of induction Acquainting new employees with job procedures Establishing relationships with co-workers, including subordinates and supervisors Creating a sense of belonging among employees by showing them how their job fits into the overall organisation Acquainting new employees with the goals of the organisation Indicating to the employees the preferred means by which these goals should be attained Identifying the basic responsibilities of the job Indicating the required behaviour patterns for effective job performance

Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Model for induction Phase I Anticipatory socialisation Realism about the organisation Realism about the job Congruence of skills and abilities Congruence of needs and values Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning

Model for induction (continued) Phase II Encounter Management of outside-life conflicts Management of intergroup role conflicts Role definition Initiation to the task Initiation to the group Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning

Model for induction (continued) Phase III Change and acquisition Resolution of role demands Task mastery Adjustment to group norms and values Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Benefits of induction Job satisfaction Labour turnover Commitment to values and goals Performance as a result of faster learning times Costly and time-consuming mistakes

Absenteeism Customer service through heightened productivity Manager/subordinate relationships Understanding of company policies, goals and procedures Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Reasons for the lack of effective induction The supervisors responsible for the task either lack the time or ability to fulfil this obligation Organisations do not regard anxiety and stress, owing to insecurity and unfulfilled expectations, as a primary cause of labour turnover among new employees. They therefore consider induction to reduce anxiety and stress as unnecessary

Organisations regard effective recruitment, selection, training and development as substitutes for induction Where induction programmes are introduced, the key components are lacking Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Reasons for the lack of effective induction (continued) Induction is aimed at inducing new employees to adhere to organisational practices and procedures while little attention is paid to instilling loyalty and commitment to the organisation Employees who are transferred or promoted within the organisation are not subjected to induction programmes

Induction programmes are not followed up, i.e. the success of these programmes is not determined Induction programmes often concentrate on promoting the image of the organisation Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Responsibility for The supervisor induction - ensures that the employees in the section receive all the information necessary to enable them to function as efficiently and effectively as possible (introduction of new employees to co-workers, explaining job duties and responsibilities as well as policies, procedures, rules and regulations and also taking the employees on a familiarisation tour of the workplace)

The head of department - meets all new employees and briefly explains to them the role and responsibilities of the particular department within the organisation The human resources department - the employment contract, compensation, loan facilities, medical schemes, pension plans and the development and monitoring of the success of the induction programme Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Responsibility for induction (continued) A 'mentor' or 'buddy - responsible for assisting the new employee regarding how to operate basic equipment such as photocopiers, telephones and faxes and how to dispose of the mail. He/she may also demonstrate how to log on

to computers, generate passwords and use basic programs (junior member of the workgroup). The shop steward/staff representative explains issues such as grievance and disciplinary procedures New employees - responsible for the completion of induction evaluation forms. They must also provide informal feedback to the HR department and supervisors if requested Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Who should be given induction training? New employees - do not assume that new employees would immediately know what it has taken others months or years to learn Transferred/promoted employees - current employees who have been transferred or

promoted within the organisation should receive induction training (especially if it involves a significant change of environment) All current employees - reinduction programme involving all current employees should take place periodically (important if significant changes in organisational policies or structures have taken place eg. if one organisation is purchased by another) Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Scope of induction training Two levels: General organisational induction affect all employees in the organisation Specific departmental induction tailored to the new employees specific department

Employee handbook review regularly, guard against too much detail, mention topics briefly, could also be on website Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Approaches in induction Formal induction Informal induction 3 basic approaches: Verbal Written Audiovisual Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e

by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning How long should the induction training be? Avoid cramming all induction (detailed information) into one long session Sessions should not be longer than 2 hours Period of induction should be linked to time it takes to become effective Follow-up sessions are important after 2 months Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Planning an induction programme

Developing induction programme takes 36 months Key planning considerations: Induction policy - properly formulated induction policy, drawn up jointly by management & employees adopted by top management Budget - adequate budget should be made available for this purpose Other planning considerations - A number of other aspects must also be considered: Time needed to plan & implement Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Planning an induction programme (continued) Other planning considerations - A

number of other aspects must also be considered: (continued) Programme goals, topics to be included, methods of organising and presenting them, duration of induction sessions Materials, facilities and personnel to be used General organisation topics versus department and job topics to be covered Qualifications and training needs of human resources personnel, line managers and supervisors Programme flexibility to accommodate employee differences in education, intelligence and work experience Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning

Designing an induction programme Different groups in the organisation require different induction programmes (eg. management & non-management) Design programme to include all the information the newcomer will need to know and the nice to know as well Need to know information the newcomer requires as soon as possible to fit in & be effective Nice to know can be given over a period of time as they settle in Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Designing an induction programme (continued)

Categories of information: Job-related information - describes what the job entails and how it is done General information - includes a great deal of information, such as fringe benefits, safety and accident prevention and physical facilities Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Implementing the induction programme Steps: Pre-employment preparation - process begins during recruitment and selection stage, first impressions are formed at this stage Pre-employment information - formal letter of appointment

(containing: a JD, starting salary, salary progression, grade of job, basic terms & conditions of employment, location of job and probationary period, indicate whether job offer is conditional upon satisfactory references/medical checks) 1st day instructions - job accepted in writing, the newcomer should be sent instructions for the first day. Copy of letter sent to supervisor. Should include: Office number & locality of the building to report for duty Name & job title of person to whom the employee must report Date to report & starting time What they should bring when reporting for duty Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Implementing the induction programme (continued) Steps: (continued)

The welcome pack - contains more information on the organisation, could also be sent. Following items can be included: A letter of welcome from the managing director of the organisation Organisational charts Details of rules and conditions A letter of welcome from the recognised trade union Map of the facility Telephone numbers and locations of key personnel and operations Detailed outline of emergency and accident-prevention procedures Organising the work - duties that the new employee will perform must be discussed by the supervisor and his employees. The new employee must be given some meaningful work on the first day Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7

2006 Thomson Learning Implementing the induction programme (continued) Steps: (continued) Briefing colleagues - other staff should be briefed about the new employee (should be informed of the name of the newcomer, the post to which he or she has been appointed, his or her background, job location and the date of commencement of duties) Administrative arrangements - office of newcomer must be cleaned and made ready for arrival Training consider any training needed by newcomer The first day induction should be short, the newcomer should start rather late and leave earlier than normal On arrival - when a new employee arrives at the workplace for the first time it is important that the person who meets him/her has prior knowledge of his or her arrival Basic information - newcomer may first be introduced to a

senior manager/ proceed directly to the HR department (banking details, new address/telephone number will be obtained etc) Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Implementing the induction programme (continued) Steps: (continued) The initial discussion - paperwork completed, time to meet the department head (initial conversation, cover mutual expectations & give an idea of what to expect during the 1st day & week) Building the relationship - department head should establish rapport (built on mutual respect) Immediate supervisor - will introduce the newcomer to fellow workers & also conduct a tour of

the workplace (briefly discuss the JD, standards & assessment) inform when and where required to attend induction lectures/sessions The buddy or mentor - should be about the same age and grade as newcomer (will assist regarding questions as they arise, temporary arrangement) Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Evaluation of the induction programme Benefits: To ensure that the organisation is spending its money wisely and achieving positive results That the methods used to assist new employees to integrate and become effective workers in the organisation

are the most suitable Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Evaluation of the induction programme Use questionnaires, surveys, exit interviews and course evaluation forms, qualitative information can also be gathered: Who should be involved? Depending on the type of information to be collected, the HR department will be directly involved What will be measured? Various elements will need to be measured over different time scales Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e

by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Motivation Completing the induction process does not guarantee satisfactory employee performance Many factors affect performance abilities, efforts expended & continued organisational support received HR should analyse and address these areas Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Motivation Definition: The force that energises behaviour,

gives direction to behaviour and underlies the tendency to persist even in the face of obstacles Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Motivation Motivators are specific to an individual A manager should attempt to meet the employees important needs/basic requirements for worker productivity Increased diversity of workforce Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning

Maslows hierarchy of needs Self-actualisation needs Self-esteem needs Social needs Security needs Physical needs Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Alderfers ERG theory Closely related to Maslows hierarchy of needs ERG (existence, relatedness and growth) Differences do exist, however Alderfer proposes that, when one need is frustrated, we simply concentrate on

the others Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Achievement motivation David McClelland 3 needs are emphasised: achievement, affiliation & power The need to achieve (N ach) preoccupation to focus on goals, improving performance and tangible results (associated with self-discipline, schedule-keeping, accepting responsibility and becoming success-oriented, often associated with lack of group orientation) Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning

Achievement motivation (continued) The need for affiliation (N aff) - motivates people to make friends, to become members of groups and to associate with others (focus on human companionship, interpersonal relations & concern for others) The need for power (N pow) - desire to obtain & exercise control over others, resources and the environment N aff + N pow strong individual demonstrates a propensity for either totalitarian methods of control or more democratic methods N Ach + N pow different types of assertive behaviours and management styles Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning

Goal setting Edwin Locke Job performance can be increased through goal setting - when individuals are given measurable goals rather than vague performance standards Best-known expression of goal setting theory is management by objectives (MBO) Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Goal setting (continued) Goal-setting strategies involve a systematic process manager & subordinate discuss and agree on a set of jointly determined goals Present a case for or against each goal

Final result - a set of goals that is in keeping with the overall goals of the organisation Feedback on progress is periodically supplied, enabling the worker to make necessary corrections Link between performance & rewards is clear (emphasis on what is achieved rather than on how) Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Positive reinforcement The practice of giving valued rewards to someone who has just engaged in a desired behaviour Law of effect - behaviour that leads to a pleasant response will be repeated, whereas behaviour that results in an unpleasant response tends not to be repeated Reinforcement is at the heart of merit increases

For reinforcement to continue to affect employees future behaviour manager must make certain that rewards are meaningful and desired by each employee Manager must tailor the reward, whether it be recognition, pay or changing job requirements, to fit the employee Manager must be sure that employees realise that rewards are contingent on correct behaviour. Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Herzbergs two-factor theory Frederick Herzberg Motivator-hygiene factors - applied to the workplace and job design Herzberg noticed that people identified

different things as sources of work dissatisfaction (hygiene factors) from those that were sources of satisfaction (motivators) Satisfaction and dissatisfaction not simple opposites Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Herzbergs two-factor theory (continued) Hygiene needs Motivator needs - job environment creates

demand for + job opportunities allow workers to achieve Hygiene factors: Level of job dissatisfaction More money, better supervision, good working conditions etc Level of job

performance Motivators: Level of job satisfaction Achievement, responsibility, growth, work itself, recognition Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Individual/organisational relationships The psychological contract entails beliefs about what employees

believe they are entitled to receive because they perceive their employer promised to provide these things Unwritten Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Individual/organisational relationships (continued) The psychological contract Violations of the psychological contract Changing of the psychological contract Practical implications for companies regarding psychological contracts Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7

2006 Thomson Learning Retention of human resources Compensation & benefits Organisational environment Work/development environment Work-life balance Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Summary Starting a new job is not easy. It is important that careful attention be paid to the introduction of the new employee to the organisation, his or her co-workers and his or her job. This is also applicable to transferred and promoted employees. The method to achieve this is by means of a well-designed

induction programme. To implement the programme successfully requires the joint effort of the HR department, the line managers and the existing employees. While the first day of the new employee at the organisation is critical, there are limits to what can be achieved and the induction will often have to be spread over a longer period. When planning the induction programme, it is important to note not only the content of the programme but also the best way of handling it. The programme will also have to be monitored regularly to correct any problems and to see whether any redesign is necessary. Successful induction will lead to better-motivated employees Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e and higher productivity within by Grobler, Wrnich et the al ISBNorganisation.

1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Summary After induction has been completed, it is important that the employee receives proper training in order to improve his or her skills within the job environment. Individual performance components include individual ability, effort expended and organisational support. Motivation deals with the needs and desires of human behaviour. Various theories of motivation have been developed. A psychological contract contains the unwritten expectations that employees and employers have about the nature of their work relationship. Those contracts are changing along with employee loyalty to their employers. Retention of employees is a major focus of HR efforts in organisations. The determinants of retention can be

broadly divided into four categories. Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Chapter 8 Internal staffing and career management issues Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Chapter outcomes Understand the reasons for the design of a proper internal staffing programme Identify the factors that influence internal staffing decisions

Name the advantages of internal staffing Identify the various types of internal staffing strategies Discuss the guidelines for the selection of the best type of internal staffing strategy Describe the elements necessary for a successful career management function Examine the problems that typically confront employees when seeking to advance their careers Define a plateaued employee Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Reasons underlying the design of a proper internal staffing programme Employee dissatisfaction Increasing concerns with job security

Changing employee attitudes and concerns Employment equity issues Labour union presence Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Factors influencing staffing decisions Organisation growth Reorganisation General economic trends and other issues Attrition Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7

2006 Thomson Learning Advantages of internal staffing Maintain closer control over the skills & work habits acquired by their existing employees Gradually prepare employees to fill complicated or critical positions without overburdening their capacity to learn

Employers do not have to spend time orienting the new incumbents to the business environment or to standardise operating procedures Have more detailed information about the abilities, aptitudes and work habits of internal employees Employee satisfaction and commitment Fulfil hiring goals and timetables specified in employment equity actions Employees placed in the best interests of both the organisation and the individual. Can contribute to the organisation's bottom line Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Requirements for effective internal staffing Pay close attention to identifying the current employee skill levels and development needs

Employees must be flexible to be able to move easily within the organisation and thus be better utilised Multiskilling - broadening of employee's skills beyond the bounds of their current jobs, must be available Ensure that internal equity exists in matters such as compensation, promotion and access to training HRIS should exist Involvement of top-level managers & line managers Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Types of internal staffing strategies Categories: Pure selection strategy Vocational guidance strategy Compromise staffing strategy

Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Guidelines for the selection of the most effective internal staffing strategy Selection ratio Performance costs Type of job Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Various approaches to internal staffing 2 objectives:

Organisational effectiveness Employee satisfaction and commitment Moves: Promotion Demotion Transfer Lay-off Down-sizing/retrenchment Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning

Various approaches to internal staffing (continued) Moves: (continued) Resignations, quits & dismissals Retirement Cost of employee separations Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Career management Career - sequence of jobs held during a persons working life Career management - process of designing and implementing goals, plans and strategies that enable HR professionals and managers to satisfy workforce needs and allow individuals to achieve their career objectives

Individual career planning - process whereby each employee personally plans career goals Organisational career planning - process whereby management plans career goals for employees Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Benefits to the organisation Staffing inventories Staffing from within Solving staffing problems Satisfying employee needs Enhanced motivation Employment equity Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e

by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Changing face of career management Traditional path of career progression upwards has gone Increased competition, cost competitiveness and information technology have all resulted in the de-manning and de-layering of organisational structures Organisations have removed the rungs of the career ladder and instead are concentrating on the optimal use of their human resources Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning

Changing face of career management Differences between levels in organisations with flatter structures are far greater, there is a qualitative leap rather than a quantitative step involved Moves sideways rather than upwards are more frequent The concept of a series of positions to an ultimate top position has been replaced by the individuals acquisition of competencies which enable him/her to manage change at the next level of responsibility Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Balancing individual and

organisational needs Organisations needs Strategic / Operational Career management Personal / Professional Individuals needs Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Successful career management Organisational career planning Individual career planning Integrating plans Implementing plans Evaluation of career plans

Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Other issues Plateaued employee Dual-career couples Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Summary The movement of employees from one post to another within an organisation is known as internal staffing. These movements are usually necessitated by growth factors, which may be either positive or negative in nature, or by employee losses from a variety of causes.

The movement of employees can be broadly classified into four categories: up, down, across and out of the organisation. In order to be effective, the manager should regularly review policies and programmes regarding internal staffing. Thus, in addition to possessing mechanisms for identifying where vacancies are likely to occur, and for the development of employees to fill them, all organisations should have established practical ways of handling all promotions, transfers, demotions and retrenchments, as well as retirements. There should be a tried and satisfactory method of identifying the most suitable candidates, deciding among a variety of candidates, easing transitions across jobs and monitoring all these activities from an organisational and individual Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e perspective. by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning

Summary There are different types of strategy that can be used to assist with internal staffing decisions; these are a pure selection strategy, a vocational guidance strategy and a compromise strategy. Career management involves integration of organisational staffing needs with the career goals and aspirations of individuals. To be effective, career management should be formal and planned, should receive support from top management and should be recognised as a process that involves coordination of a number of separate yet interrelated HR tools and techniques. Once organisational HR staffing needs and personal career goals have been defined and integrated, a number of personnel practices can start a career in motion. These include job posting, PA and T & D activities. Dual-career couples should be prepared to deal with problems that include potential conflicts over career paths

and the division of family responsibilities. Assistance from organisations may include dual-career audits, special recruiting techniques and special policies for dual-career Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e couples. by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning The environment for HR Finding & placing qualified workers CHAPTER 9: Performance management & appraisal CHAPTER 10: 3

Assessing & developing qualified workers Labour relations Emerging HR practices Training & development CHAPTER 11: Managing compensation & benefits CHAPTER 12: Health & safety Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Chapter 9

Performance management and appraisal Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Chapter outcomes Explain the evaluative and developmental objectives of performance appraisal Describe the major performance appraisal methods Design and evaluate a programme of performance appraisal Discuss who should perform the appraisal Provide examples of several rater errors Discuss several concerns about appraisal feedback interviews

Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Definitions Performance appraisal (PA) - ongoing process of evaluating and managing both the behaviour and outcomes in the workplace Performance management (PM) - a broader term than performance appraisal, became popular in the 1980s as total quality management (TQM) programmes emphasised using all the management tools, including performance appraisal, to ensure achievement of performance goals Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7

2006 Thomson Learning Organisational performance management cycle Refer to Figure 9.1 of Human Resource Management in South Africa Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning South Africas performance management dilemma Existence of negative working culture Changes in corporate strategy did not result in corresponding behaviour changes Insufficient line management support for performance management

Periodic and formal performance reviews: Lack of follow-up of performance reviews Overemphasis on the appraisal aspect at the expense of development Inadequate performance information and inadequately maintained objectivity Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning South Africas performance management dilemma (continued) A large number of organisations do not have a formal performance management system Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7

2006 Thomson Learning Performance criteria 3 types of performance criterion: Trait-based criteria - focus on the personal characteristics of an employee (eg. loyalty, dependability, creativity and communication skills, focus on what a person is, not on what he or she does or accomplishes on the job) Behaviour-based criteria - specific behaviours that lead to job success (eg. instead of ranking leadership ability (a trait), the rater is asked to assess whether an employee exhibits certain behaviours) Results or outcome-based criteria - focus on what was accomplished or produced rather than how it was accomplished or produced Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning

PA objectives EVALUATE DEVELOPMENTAL Compensation decisions Performance feedback Staffing decisions Direction for future performance Evaluate selection system Identify T&D needs

Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning The appraisal process Steps in developing a PA system: Determine performance requirements Choose an appropriate appraisal method Train supervisors Discuss methods with employees Appraise according to job standards

Discuss appraisal with employees Determine future performance goals Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Legal considerations Written appraisals conducted regularly

Supervisors should be trained Apply consistent, explicit and objective Audit system Problem areas detailed & documented Problems identified establish things for improvement Give employee clear opportunity to respond Employer should be able to prove that employee received the appraisal Circulation of PA should be restricted Check past PAs Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Methods for appraising performance Category rating

Comparative Graphic rating scale Ranking Non graphic rating scale Force distribution Checklist of critical incidents Paired comparison PA methods Behavioural/objective Narrative

Behavioural rating approaches Critical incidents MBO Essay Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning MBO process Goal setting Periodic review MBO

Self control Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Action planning Common rater errors Halo effect

Central tendency Leniency Rater bias Strictness Recency/primary effect Overall ratings Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Who should do the rating? Supervisors Peer evaluations Customer/client evaluations Self-ratings Reverse appraisals Team portfolio appraisals

Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Assessment centres Many of the employee performance appraisal systems focus on the employees past performance Using the assessment centre method it is also possible to, at the same time, attempt to assess a candidates potential for future advancement Assessment centres are used increasingly to: Identify employees who have higher level management potential; Select first-line supervisors; and Determine employee development needs. Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7

2006 Thomson Learning Monitoring employees on the job Possible to evaluate employee performance electronically Video surveillance is used to discourage theft and other rule violations Telephone surveillance of service representatives has been used for a long time to monitor the timing and content of customer contacts Computer programs can monitor keystrokes to track employee performance, eavesdrop on employee electronic mail (e-mail) and record who accesses which databases at what times Monitoring employees by computer or any other method is open to serious invasion and privacy issues

Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Systems approach to effective PAs Effective appraisal support Top management support Appraisal outcome linked ratings Effective

manager-rating practices Effective performance planning actv Ongoing appraisal & coaching Effective system design Clear appraisal purpose

Employee/manager input in system design Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Ongoing systems review Motivate raters to conduct effective appraisals Properly trained personnel

The appraisal interview Problems with the appraisal interview Playing God Inability to give criticism Personality biases Inability to give effective feedback Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning The appraisal interview

(continued) Interview format Prepare for the interview - important in a successful appraisal interview. Supervisor (or other rater) should gather and review all relevant performance records (these include all data regarding work output and quality, absenteeism and tardiness etc.) State the purpose of the interview. The employee should be told if the interview will cover compensation and staffing decisions (merit increase, promotion, transfer, etc.), employee development or both Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning The appraisal interview

(continued) Interview format (continued) Indicate specific areas of good performance and areas that need improvement - begin the discussion by highlighting areas of good performance. Appreciation and recognition for good work are important parts of the appraisal interview. Areas of performance in need of improvement are discussed next Invite participation. Throughout the employee should be invited to comment. This enables the employee to let off steam and tell why certain performance problems exist. It is also an opportune time to clear up any misunderstandings that may still exist about job expectations Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e

by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning The appraisal interview (continued) Interview format (continued) Focus on development - setting up the employees development programme. Employees are much more likely to be committed to developmental programmes if they agree with the supervisor that the programme is necessary to improve job skills and abilities. Employees who feel that no performance problems exist or that a programme of development is unnecessary to promote career goals will be uncommitted to development. Supervisors

must clearly show their employees how development is related to job success Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning The appraisal interview (continued) Problem-solving interviews Objectives

Psychological assumptions Role, attitude & skills of interviewer Employees motivation for change Possible gains Risks of interviewer Probable results Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Summary Employees generally dislike and fear PA, and even supervisors find the process stressful. Employees tend to be satisfied with the process if the appraisal interview is constructive and if the chosen method is job-related and provides specific direction for future performance. The PA process generally has two goals: (1) the evaluation of employees' past performance for salary and selection decisions; and (2) the improvement of future performance as a part of

career development. The evaluative objective tends to dominate specific organisational uses of appraisal information. The appraisal process should contain certain features. A standardised process should evaluate all employees in a consistent manner. Job analysis should be used in the content development to ensure job-relatedness. Supervisors should be trained in the process and should provide employees with direct written feedback from the process. Certain rater errors, such as supervisor bias, halo effect or recency, can only be minimised; others, such as leniency or central tendency, can be eliminated. But forms that eliminate these problems generally contain their own problems. Each appraisal method has unique advantages and disadvantages but rating scales continue to be used most often by HR Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e managers. by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning

Summary The appraisal interview is the most important element in the PA process. Supervisors who dislike 'playing God' find it hard to act simultaneously as judge and friend. Supervisors need to be trained for and give adequate attention to the appraisal interview. Employee preparation can also help them to provide useful input into the discussion, as well as to be psychologically prepared for any possible negative feedback. Organisations can benefit by periodically evaluating their appraisal programme. The HR department can provide feedback to supervisors about the quality of their appraisals and check for rater problems, such as the halo effect or leniency. Multiple raters - such as peers, customers and team ratings - may be used as information added to supervisor's ratings. Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning

Chapter 10 Training & development Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Chapter outcomes Identify the major purposes of training and development (T&D) Recognise the differences and similarities between employee training and management development Explain how to conduct a needs assessment, including performing organisational, job/task and individual analysis Know how to design and deliver training Identify the many on-the-job and away-from-the-job T&D techniques

Understand how to evaluate a training programme Explain the importance of the South African Qualifications Authority Act, No. 58 of 1995, the Skills Development Act, No. 97 of 1998 and the Skills Development Levies Act, No. 9 of 1999 towards addressing the serious skills shortages in South Africa Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Training vs development Employee education basic skills training programmes Specific training employees gain information and skills tailored specifically to their own workplace Training acquisition of technically orientated skills by non-management personnel Management development associated with

methods and activities designed to enhance the skills of managers/future managers Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Training vs development (continued) Training Development Technical skills Non-management Short run Broad range of skills Management

Long run Continually throughout career Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Shift Training and development TO Learning and development Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Traditional managerial skills

Top managemen t Middle Technical managemen Conceptual t Skills Skills First-line managemen t Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Human

relations skills Skills Technical skills include knowledge of equipment, work methods and work technologies Conceptual skill is the ability to view the organisation as a whole and to coordinate and integrate a wide array of organisational functions, activities, goals and purposes Human relations skills. One popular definition of a manager is one who accomplishes his or her work through others Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Purpose of T&D

Improve performance - employees who perform unsatisfactorily because of a deficiency in skills are prime candidates for training Update employees skills - managers in all areas must always be aware of technological advances that will make their organisations function more effectively Avoid managerial obsolescence - rapidly changing technical, legal and social environments have affected the way managers perform their jobs, and management personnel who fail to adapt to these changes become obsolete and ineffective Solve organisational problems - managers are expected to attain high goals in spite of personal conflicts, vague policies and standards, scheduling delays, inventory shortages, high levels of absenteeism and turnover, labour-management disputes and a restrictive legal environment Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7

2006 Thomson Learning Purpose of T&D Orient new employees - new employees form their initial impressions of the organisation and its managers. These impressions may range from very favourable to very unfavourable, and may influence their job satisfaction and productivity Prepare for promotion and managerial succession - training enables an employee to acquire the skills needed for a promotion Satisfy personal growth needs - T&D can play a dual role by providing activities that result in both greater organisational effectiveness and increased personal growth for all employees Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning

T&D priorities in the 21st century Quality improvement programmes Technological change-related programmes Customer service T&D programmes Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Strategic training Stage 1: Strategise Stage 2: Plan Stage 3:

Organise Stage 4: Justify HR and training managers work with management to determine the strategic linkage between training and the strategic business plan Training objectives and expectations of training should be identified and specific measurable learning objectives created Decide how training will occur and how much resources will be needed Evaluation of the process to determine to what extent the goals set in stage 1 have been met Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning

Systems approach to T&D Phase I Needs assessment Phase II Design & delivery of T&D Phase III - Evaluation Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Systems approach to T&D (continued) Phase I Needs assessment Organisational analysis Operations analysis Individual analysis Advisory committees, Assessment centres, Attitude survey, Group discussions, Questionnaires, Skills test, Observations of behaviour, Performance appraisals,

Performance documents, Exit interviews Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Systems approach to T&D (continued) Phase I Needs analysis Special case of T&D for managers Management succession chart Selecting needs-assessment techniques T&D objectives Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Systems approach to T&D

(continued) Phase II Design & delivery of T&D Training design principles of learning Motivation Participation Feedback

Organisation Repetition Application Training delivery On-the-job training (OJT) Away-from-the-job training A T&D plan & implementation Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Systems approach to T&D (continued) Phase II Design & delivery of T&D OJT Enlarged & enriched job responsibilities Job instruction method Coaching

Mentoring Committee assignments Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Systems approach to T&D (continued) Phase II Design & delivery of T&D Away-from-the-job In-house programmes Off-site programmes Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Systems approach to T&D

(continued) Phase II Design & delivery of T&D Away-from-the-job Lecture Conference/discussion Vestibule/simulation Technology-based systems Case study Role-playing Management games In-basket exercise Assessment centre Membership of professional organisations Wilderness training Behaviour modelling Sensitivity training Packages of T&D programmes

Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Systems approach to T&D (continued) Phase III Evaluation Levels of evaluation: How did participants react? What did participants learn? How did participants behaviour change? What organisational goals were affected? Applying evaluation strategies Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning

Successful T&D programmes for managers Performance appraisal Long-range planning Top management support Climate for change Professional staff Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning The learning organisation Characteristics: Shift of emphasis from trainer to learner ownership The whole range of leaning opportunities within the organisation is recognised (onjob, off-job, coaching, formal, informal,

multimedia, open and blended learning) Managers are encouraged to develop coaching, mentoring and assessing skills Additional learning opportunities are created for example: resource centres and continuous learning Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning How can a learning organisation be created? Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Identify what currently exists: who has received training,

what qualifications have been taken, what T&D structure is already in place within the company. Identify what resources, facilities, budgets are available. Also benchmark: how are other companies organised? Identify the opportunities within the working environment for coaching, mentoring and on-job training assessment. Match this back to Stage 1; are managers trained to coach, mentor and assess? Identify pilot potential and a starting point: who is learning what; what are the success criteria implications on the budget, training requirements? Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning How can a learning organisation be created? Stage 4

Create an internal marketing plan, identify how to promote the concept, who to involve. Stage 5 The process starts, encourage people to take part, look at the big picture across the organisation. Stage 6 Review the pilot: identify how it matches the success criteria. Promote success, for instance in a newsletter about people's experiences. Ensure that there are measures of where it is working, an audit of where leaning is taking place. Importantly, review the process continually. Ask the questions, Is it working? Is it working everywhere? How can I as a trainer help the process? What can the organisation do to help me help others? Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e

by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning South Africas training challenge Education & training Economic restructuring Better management practices Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning The South African Qualifications Authority Act No 58 of 1995 In order to rectify the enormous shortage of skilled manpower with the limited budgets

available, the South African government has embarked on a number of innovative and resourceful programmes: The merging of different education departments into one controlling body The acceptance of an education policy that integrates the education and training effort within the country Passing through parliament of the South African Qualifications Authority Act, No. 58 of 1995, during 1995 Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning The South African Qualifications Authority Act No 58 of 1995 Provides for the development and

implementation of a national qualifications framework (NQF) designed to give national recognition to learning that takes place after compulsory education to encourage the growth of skills and redress the skills imbalance as well as the values deficit in South Africa Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning The South African Qualifications Authority Act No 58 of 1995 Objectives of the Act: Create an integrated national framework for learning achievements

Facilitate access to, and mobility and progression within education, training and career paths Enhance the quality of education and training Accelerate the redress of past unfair discrimination in education, training and employment opportunities Contribute to the full personal development of each learner and the social and economic development of the nation at large Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning The South African Qualifications Authority Act No 58 of 1995 SAQA

6 Directorates Membership = 29 1 regional office Establishment of standards or qualification is the function of the standards generating bodies (SGB) which falls under national standards bodies (NSBs) There will be 12 NSBs, covering 12 fields of learning Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning The South African

Qualifications Authority Act Functions:No 58 of 1995 Oversees the development of the NQF Formulates and publishes the policies and criteria for: The registration of bodies responsible for establishing education and training standards or qualifications The accreditation of bodies responsible for monitoring and auditing achievements i.t.o the standards and qualifications Oversees the implementation of the NQF Accepts the responsibility for the control of the Authoritys finances Advises the Minister on matters affecting the registration of standards and qualifications Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e

by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Unit standards A unit standard title A SAQA logo Registration number Unit standard level on the NQF

Credit attached Field and subfield Issue date Review date Purpose Learning assumed to be in place before learning this unit standard Specific outcomes Assessment criteria for each specific outcome Accreditation Range statement Notes category Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning

SAQA framework SAQA Standard-setting process Quality assurance process Registration of bodies responsible for setting standards Registration of standards Accreditation of bodies Monitoring and auditing standards

Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Bodies instituted by the SAQA Act South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) National Standards Bodies (NSBs) Standards Generating Bodies (SGBs) Education and Training Quality Assurance bodies (ETQAs) Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Functions of NSBs Define & recommend to SAQA the boundaries

of the discrete field for which it is constituted Define & recommend to SAQA a framework of subfields to be used as a guide for the recognition and/or establishment of SGBs Recognise and/or establish SGBs within the framework of subfields, or withdraw or rescind such recognition or establishment Ensure that the work of SGBs meets the requirements for the registration of standards and qualifications as determined by SAQA Recommend the registration of standards on the NQF to SAQA Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Functions of NSBs (continued)

Recommend the registration of qualifications to SAQA Update and review qualifications Define requirements and mechanisms of moderation to be applied across ETQAs Appoint office-bearers, such as committees and members of committees as required to carry out the functions designated, in consultation with SAQA Perform such other functions as may from time to time be delegated by SAQA Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Functions of SGBs Generate standards and qualifications in accordance with SAQA requirements in identified subfields and levels

Update and review standards Recommend standards and qualifications to NSBs Recommend criteria for the registration of assessors and moderators/moderating bodies Perform such other functions as may from time to time be delegated by its NSB Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Functions of ETQAs Accredit constituent providers for specific standards or qualifications registered on the NQF Promote equality amongst constituent providers Monitor provision by constituent providers Evaluate assessment and facilitation of moderation among constituent providers

Register constituent assessors for specified registered standards or qualifications i.t.o the criteria established for this purpose Take responsibility for the certification of constituent learners Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Functions of ETQAs (continued) Cooperate with the relevant body/bodies appointed to moderate across ETQAs Recommend new standards or qualifications to NSBs for consideration, or modification to existing standards/qualifications to NSBs for consideration Maintain a database

Submit reports to SAQA Perform such other functions as may from time to time be assigned to it by SAQA Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning ETQAs (continued) Once standards have been set, education & training bodies (ETQAs) will perform quality assurance and ensure (through accreditation & monitoring) that standards are maintained ETQAs permanent, accredited substructures of SAQA Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning

ETQAs (continued) Five areas of responsibility have been identified as the core roles of ETQAs: Standard setting (through feedback or facilitation of NSBs) Quality assurance (through accreditation and monitoring) Provision of training (few industry training boards currently provide training) External linkages (with other industry training boards) Capacity building (in terms of knowledge provision and expertise) Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Qualification registration on

the NQF Represent a planned combination/sequence of unit standards/other learning elements (courses/modules) that have clear purposes and which will provide qualifying learners with an overall outcome of demonstrable integrated advancement in education and training Comply with the NQFs objectives including access, mobility, progression and quality. Here it is necessary to show the critical outcomes have been included to ensure a meaningful, integrated qualification that meets the challenges of lifelong learning and that has currency Be internationally comparable, where applicable Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning

Criteria for generating standards and qualifications Process criteria Scope Purpose Inclusivity Consultation International comparability and recognition Plans and management procedures Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning

Criteria for generating standards and qualifications (continued) Systems criteria Analysis of current education and training provision and standards in the subfield Analysis of trends Analysis of requirements of qualifying learners and practitioners Statement of purpose of each of the unit standards, standards and qualifications at the level selected for standards generating activities Format criteria Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e

by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Unit standards (continued) Primary uses of unit standards: Descriptions of end points of learning (towards which learning programmes should aim) Descriptions of what must be assessed, in what contexts, and the standard of performance required A means of recognising achievements (records of learning and/or competence portfolios will indicate what unit standards and qualifications have been achieved by learners) Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning

Format for unit standards Title of the unit standard Logo Unit standard number Unit standard level Credit attached to the unit standard Field and subfield within which the unit standard applies Issue date Review date Purpose of the unit standard

Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Format for unit standards (continued) Learning assumed to be in place Specific outcomes Assessment criteria Accreditation process criteria Range statement Notes Embedded knowledge Critical cross-field outcomes Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Format for qualifications

Qualification title Qualification type Logo Registration number Level Total credit value Field and subfield Issue date

Review date Purpose Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Format for qualifications (continued) Learning assumed to be in place Exit level outcomes Embedded knowledge Critical cross-field outcomes Assessment criteria Accreditation process criteria Range statement Notes Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning

Purpose of the SDA 97 of 1998 To develop skills of the SA workforce To increase the levels of investment in education and training in the labour market and to improve return on investment To use the workplace as an active learning environment To provide employees with the opportunities to acquire new skills To provide opportunities for new entrants to the labour market to gain work experience To employ persons who find it difficult to be employed To encourage workers to participate in leadership and other training programmes Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7

2006 Thomson Learning Purpose of the SDA 97 of 1998 (continued) To improve the employment prospects of persons previously disadvantaged by unfair discrimination and to redress those disadvantages through training and education To ensure the quality of education and training in and for the workplace To assist work-seekers to find work, retrenched workers to re-enter the labour market and employers to find qualified employees To provide and regulate employment services Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7

2006 Thomson Learning Institutions established by the SDA National Skills Authority National Skills Fund Sector Educational and Training Authorities (SETAs) Labour Centres A Skills Development Planning Unit Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Functions of the National Skills Authority Advise the Minister of Labour on A national skills development policy and strategy

Guidelines on the implementation of the national skills development strategy Allocation of subsidies from the NSF Any regulations to be made Liaise with SETAs Report to the Minister on the progress made in the implementation of the national skills development strategy Conduct investigations on any matter arising out of the application of the SDA Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Functions of SETAs Develop a sector skills plan within the framework of the national skills development strategy

Implement its sector skills plan by Establishing learnerships Approving workplace skills plans Allocating grants in the prescribed manner to employers, education and training providers and workers Monitoring education and training in the sector Promote learnerships by identifying workplaces for practical work experience Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Functions of SETAs (continued) Support the development of learning

materials Improve the facilitation of learning Assist in the conclusion of learnership agreements Register learnership agreements Liaise with the NSA on The national skills development policy The national skills development strategy Its sectoral skills plan Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Functions of the Skills Development Planning Unit Research and analyse the labour market in order to determine skills development needs To assist in the formulation of the

national skills development strategy and the sector skills development plans Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Functions of Labour Centres Provide employment services for workers, employers and training providers improvement of services to rural communities Register work-seekers Register vacancies and work opportunities Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7

2006 Thomson Learning Workplace skills plan: a process flow Refer to Figure 10-11 on page 340 Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Summary T&D is important in the achievement of organisational objectives. Through training, employees gain skills, abilities, knowledge and attitudes that help them perform more effectively in present and future jobs. As such, T&D may be considered an investment in human resources that will provide many important benefits and returns to the organisation. T&D serves the organisation by performing a number of important functions: (1) improving performance; (2) updating

employee skills; (3) promoting job competency; (4) solving problems; (5) preparing for promotion; and (6) orienting new employees. The training process includes three distinct but related phases: needs assessment, design and delivery and evaluation. Each phase is important for successful T&D and none can be omitted. T&D must reflect certain principles of learning to be successful. The following principles hold: The trainee must be motivated, the trainee must get feedback on his or her progress, the material must be well organised, the trainee must be able to practise and learning must be transferred to the job environment. Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Summary Effective T&D includes a balance of both on- and away-fromthe-job activities. Individual programmes should be created, particularly for managers, and should be built on current strengths and weaknesses, career potential and personal needs.

T&D administrators should make every effort to evaluate T&D. Only through a sound evaluation will trainers obtain support from top management and show how T&D improves organisational effectiveness. Major T&D efforts should include the following levels of evaluation: reaction, learning, behaviour change and results. Evaluation should focus primarily on how the trainees performance improves after completion of training. Both line and staff trainers must be aware of the legal environment surrounding the T&D function. Race, religion, sex, colour, national origin or age must not be a factor in determining who receives training or who is selected to be developed for promotional opportunities. The only exception to this rule is where an organisation has an approved affirmative action programme. Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Summary

Technical, conceptual and human relations skills provide the foundation for all management jobs, although the mix of the three skills will vary considerably according to management level. T&D professionals should become knowledgeable about how the skills and abilities for effective management vary among low, middle and top management. All HRD professionals should become familiar with the behavioural patterns of obsolescent managers and determine the extent to which the problem of obsolescence pervades the organisation. T&D involves close cooperation between line and staff personnel, and each must recognise their shared authority. Various Acts were promulgated by the Government towards addressing the serious skills shortages in South Africa, the South African Qualifications Authority Act No 58 of 1995, the Skills Development Act No 97 of 1998 and the Skills Development Levies Act No. 9 of 1999. Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7

2006 Thomson Learning Chapter 11 Managing compensation & benefits Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Chapter outcomes Explain the link between pay, motivation and performance Define job evaluation and discuss four popular methods of performing it Develop a time-based pay system using pay grades and steps Discuss three types of individual incentives

Discuss why gainsharing, profitsharing and employee stock ownership plans (ESOPs) have grown as organisational incentive plans Understand executive compensation methods Understand the growth of employee benefits and their organisational objectives Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Definitions Compensation often used interchangeably with wage and salary administration Compensation is a broader concept Compensation refers not only to extrinsic rewards such as salary and benefits, but also to intrinsic rewards such as achieving personal goals, autonomy and more challenging job opportunities

Wage and salary administration usually refers strictly to the monetary rewards given to employees Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Monetar y rewards Compensation of employees Extrinsi c rewards Benefits

Hourly wage Salary Bonuses Commissions Pay incentives Insurance Retirement Paid holidays Paid public holidays Food services Medical Recreation Recognition Promotion Intrinsic opportunities rewards

Working conditions Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 Interesting work 2006 Thomson Learning Compensation objectives Attracting employees Retaining good employees Motivation Legal considerations Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Objectives of a compensation

system 1. Attract good applicants Wage survey to determine the going rate in the labour market 2. Retain good applicants Job evaluation system that employees perceive as equitable 3. Motivate employees Reward good performance 4. Comply with the law Documentation of HR records Government legislation

Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Motivation and performance model Feedback to employee Employee sets expectations and goals Employee performs job Performance is evaluated

Rewards are given Employee considers equity of performance rewards Employee sets new goals and expectations based on prior experiences Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Job evaluation (JE) Process of systematically analysing jobs

to determine the relative worth of jobs within the organisation Result is a pay system with pay rates for each job depending on the status of the job according to the hierarchy Does NOT review the employees in the job but the worth of the position Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Job evaluation (JE) (continued) JE methods:

Job ranking Factor comparison Classification method Point method Patterson method Hay method TASK Peromnes Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Job evaluation (JE)

(continued) Job evaluation committee Outside assistance Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Pay systems Time-based systems Person-based systems Performance-based systems Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Guidelines for incentive plans

Bold incentives Emphasis on team performance Quick feedback Above-average base Simple formula Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Incentive plans Problems with incentive plans Different types:

Cash profit-sharing Stock ownership or options Business incentives Productivity/gain-sharing Team/group incentives Individual performance awards Special recognition awards Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Executive compensation 4 forms of pay:

(1) (2) (3) (4) Base salary Annual bonus Long-term incentives Benefits and perquisites (perks) Golden parachutes Stock options Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Benefits

Types of benefits Benefits required by law: Unemployment insurance Compensation for injuries and diseases Voluntary benefits Paid time off Insurance Employee services Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Total benefit planning Flexible benefit plans Cafeteria plan Buffet plan Alternative dinners plan

Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Advantages of flexible plans Meet diverse needs of employees Control benefit costs Improve benefits offered Attract and retain employees Avoid unions Avoid duplicate coverage Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Summary Organisations use both extrinsic and intrinsic rewards to compensate employees for their time and effort. Pay

systems are designed to attract, retain and motivate employees while complying with government legislation. Job evaluation is used to evaluate jobs systematically and to assign them to pay grades. The HR specialist strives to maintain a pay system that employees view as equitable, both internally and externally. Standard methods of evaluation include ranking, classification, point and factor comparison. Each offers different advantages. Pay systems are usually designed to compensate people for the amount of work they produce (piecework), the skills they learn and use or the time they spend on the job (hourly and salaried). Most employees in South Africa are paid through time-based systems. Individual employee, team-based and organisationwide systems, such as profit-sharing and gainsharing, are replacing automatic pay increases to relate pay to Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e performance. by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7

2006 Thomson Learning Summary Executive compensation has become a complex area of HR functions. Top executives often receive compensation in as many as four areas, including salary, bonuses, long-term incentives and benefits. Employee benefits are not just a fringe cost to employers; they represent a substantial percentage of the total payroll. Benefits are usually awarded to all workers or on a seniority basis. Certain benefits are required by law, including unemployment insurance and compensation for injuries and diseases. Retirement income is provided through private/government pension plans and personal savings. Employers believe that they directly or indirectly provide all these sources - which constitute the single most expensive benefit area.

Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Summary Health insurance programmes provided by employers have expanded to include life/disability insurance, as well as the traditional medical and hospitalisation coverage. Paid time off from work represents a major benefit cost. Flexible benefit plans are of great interest to employers because they help contain benefit costs and provide employees with more individualised benefit programmes. Changing employee demographics have caused employers to offer childcare programmes to help employees

theirin family Humanmeet Resource Management South Africa 3/e needs. by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Chapter 12 Health & Safety Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Chapter outcomes Differentiate between stress and burnout Discuss the essentials for an effective employee assistance programme (EAP) Name several work related consequences of

alcohol and drug abuse Discuss the impact of Aids on the workplace State the purpose of the Occupational Health and Safety Act and discuss its major provisions List several specific things an organisation can do to help reduce violence in its workplace Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Definitions Health general state of physical, mental and emotional well-being Safety physical safety of employees, prevention of injuries and accidents Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning

Stress Stress - a discrepancy between an employees perceived state and desired state, when such a discrepancy is considered important by the employee Influences two behaviours: The employees psychological and physical wellbeing The employees efforts to cope with the stress by preventing or reducing it Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Forms of stress Eustress (positive) accompanies achievement and exhilaration

Distress (negative) harmful, have a sense of loss of feelings of security and adequacy Helplessness, desperation and disappointment turn stress into distress Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning What causes stress? Stress is never the result of one single cause Interrelated factors/stressors: Pressure at work Too many social commitments; An uncomfortable living or working environment; or An inability to organise and manage

your time effectively. Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Controlling stress Organisational policies & strategies: Preventive management Maintaining a productive culture Management by objectives Controlling the physical environment Employee fitness facilities Personal strategies:

Meditation Exercise Removing the causes of stress Becoming a mentor Seeking counselling Extended leave Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Burnout More than stress, it occurs when a person believes they cannot or will not continue to do the job Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7

2006 Thomson Learning Symptoms of employee burnout Physical Emotional Behavioural Change in physical appearance Depressed appearance Productivity Complaints eg headaches Appearing bored

Frequent absenteeism Absenteeism Symptoms of depression Frequent infections Attitude of cynicism, resentfulness, apathy or anxiety Expressions of frustration or hopelessness Tardiness

Withdrawal Expressions of irritability/hostility Overworking Abuse of drugs/alcohol Smoking Excessive exercise Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Steps to mitigate the occurrence of burnout 1. 2. 3.

4. 5. 6. Acknowledge the problem Train managers Time limits Recognise peoples contributions Provide emotional outlets Provide retraining Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Employer healthcare programmes Employee assistance programmes (EAPs) designed to help employees overcome

personal crises such as alcoholism, job burnout or family problems Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Essentials for an effective EAP

Confidentiality Normal disciplinary procedures Voluntary participation Job security Insurance coverage Management support Accessibility Follow-up Separate location Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Employer healthcare programmes (continued) Wellness programmes wider focus than traditional company fitness programmes 3 components:

Helps employee to identify potential health risks through screening Educates employees about such health risks Encourages employees to change their lifestyles through exercise, good nutrition and health monitoring Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Most popular wellness activities

Smoking cessation Health-risk appraisals Back care Stress management Exercise/physical fitness Off-the-job accident prevention Nutrition education Blood pressure checks Weight control Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Substance abuse Alcohol abuse

Reducing alcoholism Drug abuse SANCA steps to reduce alcoholism & drug abuse: 1. Confront individual in firm & supportive manner 2. Disclose factual evidence 3. Promote communication 4. Consult a professional if needed Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Smoking Negative effects well documented Damage to non-smokers 1 January 2001 declaration of the

workplace as a public place Written policies on smoking Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning AIDS Social & organisational ramifications proactive organisational policy Failure to deal with AIDS in the workplace may bring about the following costs: Absenteeism and worker attrition Employees will require time off to care for sick family members Compassionate leave Time off to attend funerals Productivity will decline Supply & cost of labour

Higher recruitment and training costs Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Safety management Benefits of safety programmes: Insurance premiums Related legal expenses Savings in salaries/wages and benefits of injured workers Overtime and training of new workers Productivity Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Occupational injuries &

illnesses/diseases Cumulative trauma disorder (CTD) Sick building syndrome Occupational diseases Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Occupational safety & health administration Occupational Injuries and Diseases Act 83 of 1993 (OHSA) purpose: To provide for the health and safety of persons at work & persons in connection with the use of plant and machinery The protection of persons other than persons at work against hazards to health and safety arising out of or in connection

with the activities of persons at work To establish an Advisory Council for occupational health and safety Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Occupational safety & health administration (continued) Occupational Injuries and Diseases Act 83 of 1993 (OHSA): Overall aim: Provide for the health & safety of employees at work Who is excluded from this Act? Parties covered by the Merchant Shipping Act People employed in mines, mining areas or any works defined in the Mine Health and

Safety Act 29 of 1996 Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Occupational safety & health administration (continued) Duties of employer Duties of employees Providing safe systems Take care of his or her of work, plant and own health and safety & machinery of other persons who may be affected by his/ Eliminating hazards her actions/negligence

Arranging for the safe to act. This includes production, processing, playing at work. use, handling, storage Cooperate with the or transport of articles employer or substances Give information to an Providing information, inspector from the DoL instructions, training if required and supervision Carry out which the required to ensure the employer or authorised necessary safety

person prescribes Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Occupational safety & health administration (continued) Duties of employees Duties of employer Not permit an employee to Comply with rules & procedures employer gives perform any work unless precautionary measures Wear prescribed safety have been taken clothing/use prescribed safety equipment where Ensuring that

required requirements of the Act are complied with by all Report unsafe/unhealthy employees conditions employer/health & safety representative asap Ensuring that work is supervised by persons If he/she is involved in an trained to understand incident that may influence hazards of the work health/cause an injury, report that incident asap, Informing all employees of but no later than by the end their duty under the Act of the shift

Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning OHSA 85 of 1993 (continued) Advisory Council for occupational health & safety Health & safety representatives Duties of health & safety representatives Health & safety committees Reporting of incidents Occupational diseases Inspectors Victimisation Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning

Nosa international Offices in 5 continents Involved in training, education and motivation of employees at all levels of employment in mining industry and commerce Publishes monthly magazine (Safety management), monthly newspaper (Workers life) and newsletter twice a month ([email protected]) Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Workplace violence Avoid falling victim to violent incidents in the workplace:

Hire carefully - screen out employees whose histories show a propensity to violence Draw up a plan and involve employees develop a plan for preventing violence and for dealing with it if it does occur Adopt a "zero tolerance policy" - the perpetrator of the violence will be dealt with Enlist the aid of professionals - external resources should be used when a potential problem reveals itself Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Summary Job stress is a pervasive problem in our society. It may result in low productivity, increased absenteeism and turnover, and other employee problems including substance abuse, mental health problems and cardiovascular illnesses. Strategies to control stress

include fitness programmes, meditation, counselling and leave. EAPs can help employees overcome serious problems that affect productivity. Employers can retain highly skilled and valuable employees who suffer from alcoholism, drug abuse, depression, family problems or other common crises. But normal disciplinary procedures should be followed when an EAP is provided. Employee participation may be strongly encouraged but ultimately the employee must Resource Management in South Africa 3/e voluntarily seekHuman help. by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Summary The Occupational Health and Safety Act requires employers to keep records of employee injuries and

illnesses. Employers should ensure that relevant OHSA regulations are met. Organisations can benefit from a safe workplace through reduced insurance premiums, fewer lost worker hours and fewer accident claims. Policies on smoking in the workplace, drug usage and AIDS are being developed by many employers as these issues generate greater interest in our society. However, while more employers are adopting a smoking ban, few are adopting an AIDS policy. Security of workplaces has group in importance particularly in light of the increasing frequency in which workplace violence occurs. Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning The environment for HR

Finding & placing qualified workers Assessing & developing qualified workers 4 CHAPTER 13: Labour relations Emerging HR practices The Unionmanagement relationship, employee discipline and dismissal Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning

Chapter 13 The Union management relationship, employee discipline and dismissal Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Chapter outcomes Describe what a union is and explain why employees join unions Understand the basic elements of the Labour Relations Act, No 66 of 1995 as well as the Labour Relations Amendment Act No 12 of 2002 Discuss the role and objectives of the

National Economic Development and Labour Council (NEDLAC) Describe the typical collective bargaining process Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Chapter outcomes Recognise the various sources of poor performance through the illustration and discussion of an unsatisfactory performance model Explain both good and poor ways to discipline employees Illustrate a model of positive discipline and describe the procedures for ensuring that discipline achieves its goals

Identify the procedures for carrying out the dismissal decision humanely and tactfully and according to the law Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Labour relations management ....that part of management that encompasses a study of those factors and dynamics that emanate from, and are related to, employment relationships. Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning The role players in labour

relations The State Secondary relationship Secondary relationship Employee (trade union) Employer (management) Primary relationship Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning

Trade union .... an ongoing permanent organisation established by the workers to protect themselves in their work, to improve their working conditions through collective bargaining, to try to improve their living conditions and to offer a mechanism by which workers can put their standpoints. Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Primary goal of a trade union ... to promote the interests of its membership through collective bargaining (standard of living and working conditions).

Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Trade union goals Union security Closed shop Agency shop Job security Improved economic conditions Working conditions Fairness and justice Social action Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Kinds of unions

Industrial unions National Union of metal Workers of South Africa (NUMSA) National Union of Mine Workers (NUM) Trade/craft unions The South African Boilermakers Society Employee association Public Servants Association Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Trade union rights Sufficiently representative trade unions

Access to the workplace Union meetings at the workplace Stop-order facilities Leave for trade union activities Majority representative trade unions Election of shop stewards Disclosure of information Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning

The formal dimension of labour relations Constitution Labour Relations Act Basic Conditions of Employment Act Occupational Health and Safety Act Compensation for Occupational Injuries and Diseases Act Unemployment Insurance Act Employment Equity Act Skills Development Act Skills Development Levies Act

Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning The Constitution and Fundamental Rights NEDLAC Rights and obligations of employees, unions, employers and employers organisations Labour Relations Act Promotion of collective bargaining and worker participation International

Conventions Dispute resolution and labour peace Freedom of association Collective agreements CCMA Bargaining Councils Labour Court Statutory Councils Labour Appeal Court Organisational rights

Unfair dismissal Unfair labour practice Strikes and lockouts Workplace forums Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Freedom of association Strikes and lockouts Organisational rights Rights and obligations of

employees, unions, employers and employers organisations Unfair labour practice Unfair dismissal Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Promotion of collective bargaining and

worker participation Collective agreements Written agreement Terms & conditions of employment Between registered trade union(s) and employer(s)/employers organisation(s) Bargaining Councils Established for a specific sector in a specific geographical area Functions:

(1) Collective bargaining (2) Dispute resolution Workplace forums Statutory Councils Difference? Aims are to promote (1) the interests of all employees (2) participation and efficiency Functions: (1) Consultation (2) Joint decision making (3) Information sharing

Established at request of union(s)/employers organisation(s) representing 30%+ of employers/employees in sector & area Function: Dispute resolution Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Labour Appeal Court Councils &

private agencie s ? ? Dispute resolution and labour peace CCMA ? Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning

Labour Court NEDLAC Management Committee Secretariat EXECUTIVE COUNCIL Summit Representatives of The State Organised labour Organised employers Development organisations Chambers

Public finance and monetary policy Trade and industry State, employer and union representatives Labour market Development Community development representatives Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e

by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning The phases of the negotiation process PRENEGOTIATION/ PREPARATORY PHASE NEGOTIATION/ INTERACTIVE PHASE POSTNEGOTIATION/ ADMINISTRATIVE PHASE Planning, preparation and

organisation Execution of negotiation strategies and tactics, and utilisation of structures in order to achieve objectives Agreements are concluded, and the maintenance of relations and the administration of agreements follow Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e

by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Strike Temporary Stoppage of work Collective action Means of expressing a grievance Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Strikes: Procedural requirements Dispute to bargaining/statutory council or CCMA 30 day waiting period 48 hours notice Ballot?

Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Grievance vs gripe Grievance A formal complaint by an employee concerning a possible violation of the labour contract Gripe A complaint by an employee concerning an action by management that does not violate the contract Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Typical steps in a grievance

procedure Grievance procedure ends Start of dispute settlement process if preferred, eg bargaining council, mediation, conciliation, arbitration, judicial settlement or strike Unsettled Ruling at highest level (top management) Step 5 Settled 10 workin g days Settled

7 workin g days Settled 4 workin g days Settled (record) 48 hours Unsettled Step 4

Formal grievance investigation (committee with higher-level manager) Step 3 Unsettled Worker & representative Second in writing Unsettled Step 2 Worker & representative Step 1 Worker Manager from higher level

First in writing Head of immediate supervisor Unsettled Verbally Immediate supervisor Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Settled (record) 24 hours

1 A model for analysing and correcting unsatisfactory performance Terminate Train Define performance expectations 3 Transfer/ demote 2

Lack of skills or abilities Discipline Select appropriate corrective approach(es) Personal problems Change the work Identify causes of unsatisfactory performance

Rule breaking Lack of motivation Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Council/ refer Rehabilitate Steps in the process of discipline Administer corrective

counselling techniques Administer progressive discipline Collect performance data Communicate disciplinary policy, procedure and rules Define expected employee behaviour

Clarify responsibility for discipline Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning The hot-stove rule Immediate Warning Consistent Impersonal Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e

by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Dismissal Automatically unfair dismissals Other unfair dismissals Substantive fairness (reason) Misconduct Incapacity Operational reasons Procedural fairness (procedure) Remedies Reinstatement Reemployment Compensation Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning

Dismissal for misconduct Substantive fairness Contravene a workplace rule/standard? Rule/standard reasonable/valid? Employee aware of rule/standard? Rule/standard consistently applied? Dismissal appropriate sanction? Gravity of misconduct Nature of job/workplace Circumstances of employee/employer

Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Dismissal for misconduct (continued) Procedural fairness Investigation Prior notice of charge & results of investigation Reasonable time for preparation State case (disciplinary hearing) Assistance and representation (union official or fellow worker NOT legal representation) Written notification of decision Reasons Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7

2006 Thomson Learning Dismissal for incapacity: Incompetence Substantive fairness Fail to meet performance standard Aware of required performance standard Fair opportunity Appropriate sanction Procedural fairness Opportunity to improve No other alternatives

Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Dismissal for incapacity: Ill health or injury Substantive fairness Capable of performing work Extent of capability Procedural fairness Adaptation of work circumstances Alternatives Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Dismissal for operational

reasons No fault dismissals Substantive fairness Valid economic reason Procedural fairness Consultation Attempt to reach consensus Measures to avoid dismissals Method of selection Severance pay Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7

2006 Thomson Learning Dismissal for operational reasons Procedural fairness (continue) Disclose information Reason for dismissals Alternatives Number of employees affected Method of selection Time Severance pay Assistance Future reemployment Representations Consider and respond to representations Provide reasons

Selection of employees according to set criteria Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Summary A union has a major impact on an organisations management. Many HR decisions must be shared with the union, and the labour contract limits managements flexibility for the length of the agreement. Finally, poor relations between management and labour may result in costly and stressful organisational conflict. The percentage of organised labour in South Africa has doubled since 1985 to approximately 3 million. This represents about 40% of the workforce. The goals of the unions have not changed dramatically since their beginning. Important union goals include job security, improved wages and benefits, favourable working conditions and fair and just treatment for their members. The heart of the union structure is the local union, although the

national union provides important direction and guidance. The local union often receives assistance from the national union during the collective bargaining process. During the organising drive, the union attempts to convince workers that they will be better off by organising. Management tries to convince them that they are better off without the union. Labour legislation provides a number of ground rules regarding the recognition of a union in the workplace. Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Summary Relations between organised labour and management are strictly governed by the Labour Relations Act, No. 66 of 1995. Managers and HR administrators who work in unionised organisations must be intimately familiar with this law. There are a variety of different collective bargaining strategies. The most common form involves distributive bargaining, or win/

lose bargaining, although this strategy seems to be giving way to more cooperative forms such as integrative bargaining and productivity bargaining. Concessionary bargaining, or give-back bargaining, has increased as a result of foreign competition. The negotiation process involves a great deal of give and take before an agreement is reached. A bargaining impasse may cause a strike, lockout or other power tactic. However, more often mediation or other third-party techniques will be used to end the impasse. Grievance handling is a critical part of labour relations. The multi-step procedure usually includes arbitration as a final step. The grievance process can keep minor disagreements from disrupting the workplace unnecessarily. Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Summary Many reasons may cause an employee to perform

unsatisfactorily. Some of these reasons may be directly attributable to managements shortcomings or to some other problem of the organisation. When attempting to determine the cause of poor employee performance, managers should recognise that the employee may not be responsible for the unsatisfactory behaviour. Discipline should be applied only when it has been determined that the employee is the cause of the unsatisfactory performance. There are different approaches to the disciplinary process; the most effective technique involves administration of preventive discipline. If discipline must be administered, the positive approach should be used. Corrective counselling is a particularly important part of the positive discipline process. It helps build respect and trust between the supervisor and subordinate and encourages the employee to find his or her own solutions to problems. The more the employee participates in the problem-solving process, the greater the chances for a permanent improvement in Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e

employee behaviour. by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Summary Much of the supervisory resistance to change can be reduced by training supervisors to follow the hot-stove rule. With this technique, discipline is administered immediately, with a warning, consistently and impersonally. HR managers must ensure that supervisory training programmes provide instruction in applying each of the hot-stove rules. Dismissal can be traumatic and costly for both the dismissed employee and the organisation. The dismissal should be thoroughly planned and carried out in a professional manner and according to the law. It is particularly important that the employee be given complete details regarding the dismissal, including why it is taking place and how the dismissal is to be carried out. For a dismissal to be fair it must be substantively and

procedurally fair. Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning The environment for HR Finding & placing qualified workers Assessing & developing qualified workers Labour relations CHAPTER 14: Competency based HRM CHAPTER 15: HRM in virtual organisations 5

Emerging HR practices CHAPTER 16: International HRM Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Chapter 14 Competencybased HRM Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Chapter outcomes

Identify the components of a total performance solution Define the concept "competency" Describe a competency-based HR transformation Summarise the process of identifying competencies for the organisation Explain competency-based HR planning Discuss competency-based employee recruitment and selection Outline competency-based training and development Describe competency-based performance appraisal List key aspects relating to competency-based employee rewards Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning A total performance solution

Nature of organisational performance: Driven from the top down, not from the bottom up Is the product of winning behaviour Winning behaviour can be effectively modelled by competencies Is always about achieving specific measurable goals that help the organisation to win Is defined by measurement Is shaped by the promise of rewards (and the fear of punishment) Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning A total performance solution Business plans

Values Leadership development Purpose Competitive market pressure Performance Competencies Technology Goals Rewards Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e

by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Shareholder requirements Competencies defined A behaviour, knowledge, skill or capability, that describes the expected performance in a particular work context (eg. job function). When they are appropriately developed, they are the standards of success that support the strategic plan, vision, mission and goals of the organisation Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning

Simple definition Competencies are characteristics that individuals have and use in appropriate, consistent ways in order to achieve desired performance Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Individual/organisational capabilities Individual Technical 1 Individual

functional competence Social 2 Individuals leadership ability Organisationa l 3 Organisations core competence 4 Organisations capabilities

Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Competency-based HR transformation design process Planning & Discovery Strategic Architecture Implementation Why change?

Prioritising competencies Gaining approval Discovery Sponsorship Transitional management Monitor results Communications Enact changes Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning

Desired future state Competency identification 1 Competencies generated from current & future trends 2 Competencies generated from core capabilities in leading firms

4 Synthetic list of competencies and scope 5 Generalisability, creation of competency areas & sorting of competencies by areas 6 Validation of competency framework

Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning 3 Competencies generated from the organisations strategy Competency identification methods The Job Competencies Assessment method (JCAM) The Competency Menu method The modified DACUM method Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e

by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Competency-based HRM Why HR? Competency-based Competency-based and selection Competency-based development Competency-based Competency-based HR planning employee recruitment training and performance appraisal employee rewards

Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Comparison between traditional and competencybased HR Foundation Main reasons for using approach Major challenges Role of the HR function HR planning subsystem Employee recruitment & selection Employee training subsystem Employee development

subsystem Performance management subsystem Employee reward processes subsystem Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Summary The functional structure of many HR departments today can be traced back to the functional expertise possessed by its employees To embrace the new challenges facing the HR function it will have to move away from its compliance mindset and become more flexible The whole approach in the 1990s regarding the

improvement of organisational performance shifted to the endorsement of people and their competencies Competencies are characteristics that individuals have and use in appropriate, consistent ways in order to achieve desired performance The shift to the competency-based HR focus will require much more than merely reshuffling the current boxes on the HR organisational chart Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Summary The written description of all the competencies needed within the organisation is known as a competency model A number of methods which can be used to identify competencies within organisations can be found these include: the job competencies assessment method (JCAM), the competency menu method and the modified

DACUM method One of the drawbacks of identifying competencies is the high costs involved. The process is also time-consuming To monitor the successful implementation of a competency-based approach within an organisation a capabilities audit must be undertaken Competency-based HR planning focuses on competency inventory versus the traditional skills inventory Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Summary Competency-based recruitment and selecting requires a more extensive job analysis together with the examination of work histories and work samples Competency-based training and development is a highly individualised process. In the training needs analysis process a much broader focus is required. Identifying future

competencies with a view of individual development can be a major undertaking within a company A major criticism of the use of competencies in performance appraisal is that they are not observable and measurable. Some mechanism is therefore essential for assessing competencies By linking compensation directly to individual contributions that make a difference to the company an organisation can maintain the highest calibre of workers. Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Chapter 15 Human Resource Management in virtual organisations

Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Chapter outcomes Define the concept "virtual organisation" Identify three forms of virtual work arrangements List the advantages and disadvantages for the company and employee when implementing the telecommuting work arrangement List the characteristics which truly identify a virtual team List three types of virtual teams Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning

Chapter outcomes (continued) Discuss the advantages and disadvantages when using technology such as e-mail, bulletin boards, audio and video conferencing Discuss the role of the HR professional within the virtual organisation Discuss issues relating to job analysis practices within the virtual work environment Discuss issues relating to a number of HR practices within the virtual work environment Explain how the traditional and virtual organisation differs Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Technology has: Prompted changes in company

structures (eg. virtual organisation) Modified work arrangements (eg. virtual team) Influenced how people are managed (eg. virtual workplace) Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Virtual organisation defined Virtual organisations are multi-site, multiorganisational and dynamic. At the macro level, a virtual organisation consists of a grouping of units of different companies (eg. other businesses, consultants, contractors) that have joined in an alliance to exploit complementary skills, in pursuing common strategic objectives

Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Virtual organisation (continued) Virtual organisations are characterised as those organisations in which the ongoing relationships with partners are salient Core business activities are reduced, leaving the partners to focus on some of the key business functions Core (or central organisation) is connected with the partners through technology Virtual organisations tend to be characterised as flexible, and their structure as transitory and fluid Many definitions of the concept tend to see

groups as important. Some appear to see virtual teams as a sufficient condition for an organisation to be called a virtual organisation Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning The virtual workplace Telecommuting Frontline model Cyberlink model Virtual teams: Group must have some charter for working together Group must be interdependent Group must be committed to working together Group must be accountable as a unit to someone or something in the bigger

organisation Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning The virtual workplace (continued) Cyberlink model (continued) Types of virtual teams: Project teams Service teams Process teams Why virtual teams? Cost benefits of implementing virtual teams Complexity of virtual teamworking Technology for virtual teams Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e

by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Factors that contribute to the complexity of virtual teamworking Number of team members Number of different languages spoken in the team Number or organisations represented in the team Number of time zones within the group Technical systems implemented Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning HRM practices in virtual

organisations Virtual HR departments The role of the HR professional in the virtual organisation HR practices in virtual organisations JA Participants Methods of data collection Types of data and level of analysis Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning

HRM practices in virtual organisations (continued) HR practices in virtual organisations (continued) Staffing Recruitment Selection T&D E-learning PA

Compensation Negotiation Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Important skills and competencies needed in virtual organisations Shared sense of purpose Operating guidelines Team level Analysing & solving problems Conflict management etc. Dealing with change Managing alignment Flexibility

Co-ordinating activities Adaptability Emotional control Individual Managers Encourage continuous Willingness to learn etc. learning Managing through technology etc. Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Advantages of e-learning

Self-paced: trainees can proceed on their own time Is interactive, tapping multiple trainee senses Allows for consistency in the delivery of training Enables scoring of exercises/assessments and the appropriate feedback Incorporates built-in guidance and help for trainees to use when needed Is relatively easy for trainers to update content Can be used to enhance instructor-led training Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Disadvantages of elearning May cause trainee anxiety Not all trainees may be ready for e-learning Not all trainees may have easy and uninterrupted access to computers

Not appropriate for all training content (eg. leadership, cultural change) Requires significant upfront cost and investment No significantly greater learning evidenced in research studies Requires significant top management support to be successful Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning A model of virtual negotiation characteristics Possible 3rd party Party A Party B

Individual differences Individual differences Personality, distributive vs integrative, sensitivity vs nonverbals, comfort with technology Personality, distributive vs integrative, sensitivity vs nonverbals, comfort with technology Negotiation dynamics Negotiation

dynamics Personal disclosure, entrenchment, flaming, ethics Communication media Personal disclosure, entrenchment, flaming, ethics Synchronicity, message misinterpretation, message content, information richness Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning

Attributes of virtual and traditional organisations Streamlined Flexible Focused Communication Hyper time Organisation structure Management of

work & workers Career path Information Office building Professionalism Customer relations Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Summary There is a fast-growing interest in another way of working which combines changes, in technical and organisational systems of choice. This is virtual working and by extension virtual teams. Different types of teams within the virtual organisation can be found namely: project, service and process teams.

The key for any company at the outset of a virtual teamworking implementation is to be technologically aware and open, not technologically deterministic and closed. Success of virtual teams will not come from tight managerial control, this inhibits the extent of the Human Resource in South Africa 3/e interactions within the Management network. by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Summary The team will benefit most from acknowledging the fact that they are all individuals, and then drawing on their individual strengths to create a microcosm within the wider organisation that embodies shared

culture and operating principle that they believe will enable them to deliver the best results as a team. Virtual organisations will need to adapt their recruiting processes to the changing skill base and nature of the labour pool from which they are recruiting. For the virtual organisation with its geographically dispersed global labour pools the traditional idea of candidates having onsite testing batteries and interviews is not practical. Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Summary The virtual organisation's geographically dispersed supervisors, peers and subordinates offer a unique environment for understanding, performance evaluation, monitoring the employee's outputs may

be a way of making performance evaluations work under these conditions. In the area of compensation the following methods may be used in the virtual environment, personbased systems, broadbanding and classification. While the process of negotiation has been written about extensively, little has been done regarding this activity in the virtual environment. This environment will dictate new rules for negotiating. Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Chapter 16 International HRM (IHRM) Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning

Chapter outcomes Identify key forces driving the globalisation of organisations Identify the types of organisational forms used for competing internationally Understand the different types of cultures found Explain how domestic and international HRM differ Discuss the staffing process for individuals working internationally List and define four types of international employees List the different types of international assignments found Discuss issues relating to the induction of international employees Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning

Chapter outcomes (continued) Identify the unique training needs for international assignees Reconcile the difficulties of home country and host-country performance appraisals Identify the characteristics of a good international compensation plan Explain the activities needed to increase expatriate completion rates Discuss the key issues in industrial relations of multinationals Describe several international health, safety and security concerns Discuss the importance of a global human resource management information system Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning

Main dimensions of IHRM Selection and recruitment of qualified individuals capable of furthering organisational goals Training and development of personnel at all levels to maximise organisational performance Assessment of employee performance to ensure that organisational goals are met Retention of competent corporate personnel, who can continue to facilitate the attainment of organisational goals Management of the interface between labour and management to ensure smooth organisational functioning Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Why do companies decide to

do business abroad? Desire to reduce costs Less government regulations pertaining especially to pollution controls and safety requirements Access to growth opportunities that are not available at home Take advantage of labour force availability eg. quantity as well as quality Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Organisational firms used internationally

Exporting Licensing Management contracts Sole ownership Types: Multinationals Global International Transnational Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning

What types of cultures are found around the world? What is culture? The shaping of the mind that distinguishes the members of one group/category from those of another Identifying international cultures Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning What impact does going abroad have on the activities of HR professionals? More functions More heterogeneous functions

More involvement in employees personal lives Change in emphasis as the workforce mix varies More external influences Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Environmental forces National forces Economic forces Political forces HR systems Policies/procedures Recruitment Selection Training

Corporate Motivation/reward culture systems Management styles Career paths Corporate culture Labour traditions Legal forces Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Recruitment

Expatriates Ethnocentric approach Polycentric approach Regiocentric approach HCN TCN Geocentric approach Inpatriate Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7

2006 Thomson Learning Reasons for expatriate failure Inability of the manager's spouse to adjust to a different physical or cultural environment The manager's inability to adapt to a different physical or cultural environment Other family-related problems The manager's personality of emotional immaturity The manager's inability to cope with the responsibilities posed by overseas work The manager's lack of technical competence and The manager's lack of motivation to work overseas Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning

International assignments Length and duration: Short-term Extended Long-term Types: Commuter Rotational Contractual Virtual Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning

Selection 4 different types of employees are normally appointed to overseas positions: The chief executive officer (CEO), whose responsibility is to oversee and direct the entire foreign operation; The functional head, whose job is to establish functional departments in a foreign subsidiary; The troubleshooter whose function is to analyse and solve specific operational problems; and The operative, or rank and file Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Selection (continued) Factors to be considered when selecting candidates

for overseas appointments: Adaptability Diplomacy Language ability Communication skills Managerial talent Maturity & emotional stability Leadership skills Cultural sensitivity Technical knowledge

Experience within the company Interest in overseas work Initiative and creativity Previous overseas experience Age Stability of marital relationship Spouses and familys adaptability Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Induction

Traditional people involved still remains valid Need for additional background information (eg. cultural practices, language etc.) For longer projects local induction is also important Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Training & Development Preparation of expatriates: Training of expatriates before, during and after foreign assignments Orientation and training of expatriate families before, during and after foreign assignments

Development of the headquarters staff responsible for the planning, organisation and control of overseas operations Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Training & Development (continued) Techniques are categorised into 5 groups: Area studies or documentary programmes Cultural assimilation Language preparation Sensitivity training Field experiences Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e

by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Training & Development (continued) Many companies neglect T&D of expatriates for the following reasons: Training is not thought to be effective The period of time between selection & expatriate's departure is short, leaving little time to expose him or her to in-depth training prior to departure The temporary nature of most assignments does not warrant budget expenditures for training The individual dimensions needed for successful acculturation are not well enough known to devise sound training programmes There is a belief that technical skills are the main

success factors for assignments abroad Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Performance appraisal Performance appraisal (PA) is a fundamental management tool that can be useful as a basis for functions such as: Making administrative decisions regarding personnel actions (eg. promotions and transfers and support for taking disciplinary actions or terminations); Providing feedback to employees regarding their performance; Coaching employees in improving areas of weakness and building upon their areas of strength

Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Performance appraisal (continued) Value of PA can be increased by planning, ongoing performance monitoring and employee development Cultural issues Choice of evaluator Evaluators amount of contact with the

expatriate Host countrys management perception of performance Long-distance communication Inadequate establishment of performance objectives Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Retention of personnel Compensation Repatriation Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Labour relations

Approaches to follow: Hands-off Monitor Guide and advise Strategic planning Set limits and approve exceptions Managed totally from headquarters Interface of headquarters, international human resource and line management in the field Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7

2006 Thomson Learning Discipline & dismissals Differ in countries Compensation Companies should be well acquainted with the legal implications of international staff Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Transfers, lay-offs and retirement Movement of people as part of development Cultural differences and language Legal implications

Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Health, safety & security issues Ensure that the employees have a record of their vaccinations against infectious diseases Include on over-the-counter first aid kit - this is very popular with South African executives travelling into Africa Arrange emergency plans in cases where employees have no local medical facilities, for example, flying them out by private plan If employees are staying in countries that are not very safe, companies should provide floodlights around the offices and homes, as well as electronic safety systems Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e

by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Global HRISs Development Labour unions Staffing flow Reward systems Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Summary Globalisation of business continues to grow after 1994 when South Africa became a full member of the international community again. Organisations doing business internationally may evolve from organisations engaged in

exporting activities to multinational enterprises, global and transnational organisations. Legal, political, economic and cultural factors influence global HR management. One scheme for classifying national cultures considers power distance, individualism masculinity/feminity, uncertainty avoidance and long-term orientation. Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Summary Staffing global jobs can be done using expatriates, host-country nationals and third country nationals. Global assignments can be used for a number of reasons and for varying durations. The selection of employees should consider

cultural adjustment, organisational requirements, personal characteristics, communication skills and personal/family factors. Once selected, the assignments of global employees must be managed through both effective expatriation and repatriation. Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning Summary Training and development for employees focus on pre-departure orientation and training, continued employee development and readjustment training for repatriates. Compensation practices for employees are much more complex than those for domestic employees because of the numerous factors to be considered.

To balance the pros and cons of home-country and host-country evaluations, performance evaluations should combine the two sources of appraisal information. Labour-management relations vary from country to country. Global organisations must be concerned about the health, safety and security of their employees. Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, Wrnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 2006 Thomson Learning

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