1 Ophthalmologic Examination Integrated With The Functional Aspects

1 Ophthalmologic Examination Integrated With The Functional Aspects

1 Ophthalmologic Examination Integrated With The Functional Aspects of CVI Sharon S Lehman, MD FAAP Chief Ophthalmology Nemours Childrens Clinic Clinical Professor of Ophthalmology and Pediatrics Robison D Harley MD Endowed Chair of Pediatric Ophthalmology 2 2 12 month ex 23-week premature infant with tracheostomy, h/o retinopathy of prematurity who has been recently diagnosed with cerebral palsy. Childs mother is concerned that child looks past her, stares at lights and looks away when reaching for an object. 3 3 OPHTHALMOLOGIST REPORT: IMPRESSION: ROP RESOLVED; NORMAL EYE EXAM RECOMMENDATIONS: F/U 1 YEAR What my exam should

Obtain history focused on childs visual include behavior/characteristics Validate Learn parents observations patients expectations for their child Perform complete Provide ophthalmologic examination medical diagnosis and medical necessity Refer for services for visually impaired Make specific recommendations tailored to individual

patient Provide information to patients team Provide educational materials/support group information Provide opportunity for parents to ask questions 4 4 Classic Ophthalmologic Exam Exam #1 Focus: History and Structure History with CVI modified questionnaire

Physical-Classic Ophthalmologic Exam Visual acuity Pupillary reaction External Anterior and posterior segment Alignment and motility Cycloplegic refraction 5

5 CVI Ophthalmologic Exam #2 Focus: Function Classic Ophthalmologic Exam #1 History with CVI modified questionnaire Structural Physical exam + Physical Accommodative amplitude/dynamic retinoscopy Convergence amplitude/NPC

Visual attention/fixation/visually guided behavior Latency Saccades/pursuits Directionality of line Contrast Sensitivity 6 6 CVI Ophthalmologic Exam #3 Focus: Higher Level Function

Classic Ophthalmologic Exam #1 + CVI Ophthalmologic Exam #2 + Physical Executive functions Figure ground skills Comparison of size and shape

Visual center 7 7 8 CVI Type 1 Exam (History and Structure) Low function function Phase 1 Phase 3 CVI Type 2 Exam (Function) CVI Type 3 Exam (Higher Level

Function) High Phase 2 What my exam is not It is NOT a substitute for evaluation by Teacher of Visually Impaired It is NOT a substitute for evaluation by Occupational Therapist It is NOT a substitute for evaluation by Physical Therapist It is NOT a substitute for evaluation by Learning/Reading Specialist 9 9 HISTORY

Please tell me about your childs vision. There is no better expert than a childs parent. They will often tell you most of you need to know. 10 10 CVI Modified Questionnaire Preference for specific colors: Improved visual response with movement: Latency (delay in response to visual stimuli Abnormal field of vision (eg: hemianopsia or island of visual response) Difficulty with visual complexity: Preference for looking at lights and non purposeful gaze Difficulty with distance viewing Atypical visual behavior (eg: frequently looking up or away while tracking, eccentric viewing) Difficulty with visual novelty Absent or clumsy visually guided motor responses

Adapted from: Roman-Lantzy, Christine; Cortical Visual Impairment: an approach to assessment and intervention; American Foundation for the Blind; New York, New York; 2007 M 11 11 Multidisciplinary team approach Parents/family Primary care physician Pediatric ophthalmologist Pediatric neurologist Educational specialist Teacher of visually impaired Teacher of the hearing impaired Occupational therapist Physical therapist Speech therapist Feeding specialist 12 12

EXAM #1 History with CVI modified questionnaire and basic ophthalmologic exam r/o structural eye abnormalities/confounding factors Determine any necessary optical correction Determine any necessary medical or surgical ophthalmologic treatment Child with limited visual response who is learning to use vision 13 13

EXAM #2 History and Modified CVI Questionnaire and Exam #1 Additional aspects of exam Accommodative amplitude/dynamic retinoscopy Convergence amplitude/NPC Visual attention/fixation/visually guided behavior Latency

Saccades/pursuits Directionality of line Contrast Sensitivity Child with higher visual function learning to use vision more effectively along with other functions of daily life 14 14 15 15 EXAM #3 History and Modified CVI Questionnaire and Exam #1

+ Exam #2 + Physical Executive functions Figure ground skills Comparison of size and shape Visual center CVI characteristics improved or resolving with higher level visual function deficits (Cerebral?)

16 CVI Type 1 Exam (History and Structure) Low function function Phase 1 Phase 3 CVI Type 2 Exam (Function) CVI Type 3 Exam (Higher Level Function) High Phase 2 What my exam should

Obtain history focused on childs visual include behavior/characteristics Validate Learn parents observations patients expectations for their child Perform complete Provide ophthalmologic examination medical diagnosis and medical necessity Refer for services for visually impaired Make specific recommendations tailored to individual

patient Provide information to patients team Provide educational materials/support group information Provide opportunity for parents to ask questions 17 17 18 18 12 month ex 23-week premature infant with tracheostomy, h/o retinopathy of prematurity who has been recently diagnosed with cerebral palsy. Childs mother is concerned that child looks past her, stares at lights and looks away when reaching for an object.

19 19 OPHTHALMOLOGIST REPORT: IMPRESSION: ROP RESOLVED; NORMAL EYE EXAM RECOMMENDATIONS: F/U 1 YEAR Ophthalmologists Report Impression/Diagnosis IMPRESSION: Cortical visual impairment Severe visual impairment both eyes Retinopathy of prematurity Stage 2 Zone II both eyes resolved Cerebral palsy

Premature infant Hypermetropia both eyes not requiring correction 20 20 Ophthalmologists Report Recommendations Treat underlying medical conditions. No glasses are necessary Recommendations:

Use high contrast and brightly colored visual materials. Use additional cues (lights, sound, vibration and movement) to attract visual attention. Avoid overstimulation. Provide support for childs body when performing visual tasks. Avoid verbal distractions when child is performing visual tasks. Perform visual tasks in non-distracting environment.

Refer for evaluation for services for vision. 21 21 Ophthalmologists Report Recommendations Copy of diagnosis, medical necessity and recommendations sent to patients team Educational material and support group information given to family Familys questions answered, they expressed understanding and agree with plan Include contact information so other members of childs team can share information.

22 22 23 23 PEDIATRIC OPHTHALMOLOGISTS: Would you like to learn more about CVI? GOOD NEWS! Reference: Lehman SS, Attitudes Concerning Cortical Visual Impairment Among Pediatric Ophthalmologists and Teachers of the Visually Impaired presented at 2016 American Conference on Pediatric Cortical Visual Impairment, Omaha, Nebraska, July 8-9, 2016 Modalities to Assist Pediatric Ophthalmologists with CVI Providing education and templates for: History Physical examination Providing diagnosis Referral for services

Making recommendations/interventions 24 24 TEMPLATES FOR RECOMMENDATIONS/INTERVENTIONS Should not be cookie cutter. Need to be specific to each childs circumstances Need to be incorporated into childs activities of daily living Need to include environmental modifications

Need to include developmentally appropriate recreation (play) for older children 25 25 TEMPLATES FOR CVI INTERVENTIONS/RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PEDIATRIC OPHTHALMOLOGISTS Characteristic Preference for specific color Interventions for child with limited function (lower phase) Interventions for child with better function (higher phase) Exploit color

preference in choice of visual objects of regard. Use objects of preferred color for ADL. Have teacher, instructor, or therapist wear preferred color in order to maintain interest and localization for following (e.g.: learning to drive motorized chair). 26 26 TEMPLATES FOR CVI INTERVENTIONS/RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PEDIATRIC OPHTHALMOLOGISTS Characteristic

Latency Interventions for child with limited function (lower phase) Interventions for child with better function (higher phase) Provide extra time for localization and following of visual stimuli. Gradually work toward decreasing time needed for localization and following.

Provide extra time for completion for educational tasks. 27 27 28 28 I need your feedback about improving the pediatric ophthalmologists care of children with CVI Please email me at: [email protected]

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