POLYMERISATIO N There are two types of polymerisation:

POLYMERISATIO N There are two types of polymerisation:

POLYMERISATIO N There are two types of polymerisation: 1. Addition 2. condensation An addition polymer forms when unsaturated monomers react to

form a polymer. Monomers contain C=C bonds Poly(alkenes) are chemically inert due to the strong C-C and C-H bonds and non-polar nature of the bonds and therefore are non-biodegradable. Chain forms when same basic unit is repeated over and over. You should be able to draw the polymer repeating unit for any

alkene It is best to first draw out the monomer with groups of atoms arranged around the double bond The addition polymer poly(ethenol)

has good solubility in water because it can form many strong hydrogen bonds with water. The makes it a useful polymer for uses such as soluble laundry bags and liquid detergent capsules . The two most common types of condensation polymers are:

polyesters (which involves the formation of an ester link) and polyamides (which involves the formation of an amide link) In condensation polymerisation there are two different monomers that add together and a small molecule is usually given off as a side-product e.g. H2O or HCl. The monomers usually have the same functional group on both ends of the molecule e.g. di-amine, di carboxylic acid, diol, diacyl chloride.

REMEMBER// Forming polyesters and polyamide uses these reactions we met earlier in the course If we have the same functional group on each end of molecule we can make polymers so we have the analogous equations: Using the carboxylic acid to make the ester or amide would need an acid catalyst and would only give an equilibrium mixture.

The more reactive acyl chloride goes to completion and does not need a catalyst but does produce hazardous HCl fumes. The monomers for the formation of Terylene are: & n

Terylene fabric is used in clothing, tire cords The -1 here is because at each end of the chain the H and OH are still present

Another Example of A Polyester The monomers needed to make Nylon 6,6 are: The 6,6 stands for 6 carbons in each of the monomers. Different length carbon chains produce different polyamides The monomers needed to make Kevlar are:

Benzene-1,4-dicarboxylic acid Benzene-1,4-diamine NOTE// On classification for condensation polymers If asked for type of polymer: It is polyamide or polyester

Whereas type of polymerisation is condensation It is also possible for polyamides and polyesters to form from one monomer, if that monomer contains both the functional groups needed to react Chemical reactivity of condensation polymers Polyesters and polyamides can be broken down by hydrolysis and are,

therefore, biodegradable The reactivity can be explained by the presence of polar bonds which can attract attacking species such as nucleophiles and acids Polyesters can be hydrolysed by acid and alkali With HCl a polyester will be hydrolysed and split up in to the original dicarboxylic acid and diol With NaOH an polyamide will be hydrolysed and split up into the

diamine and dicarboxylic acid salt Polyesters have permanent dipole bonding between the C+=Ogroups in the different chains in addition to the London forces between the chains Polyamides (and proteins) have hydrogen bonding between the lone pairs on oxygen in C+=O- groups and the H in the N-HH+ groups in

the different chains. There are also Permanent dipolepermanent dipole forces because the polar C=O bond and polar C-N bond There are also London forces which are large because there are many electrons in the molecule. Polyamides will therefore have

AMINO ACIDS The simplest amino acid is glycine, where the R is an H The R group can be a variety of different things depending on what

amino acid it is. You do not need to know any common names for the 20 essential amino acids. We should, however, be able to name given amino acids using IUPAC organic naming The no charge form of an amino acid never occurs. The amino acid exists as a dipolar zwitterion

Amino acids are often solids The ionic interaction between zwitterions explains the relatively high melting points of amino acids as opposed to the weaker hydrogen bonding that would occur in the no charge form The amine group is basic and the carboxylic acid group is acidic.

Amino acids act as weak buffers and will only gradually change pH if small amounts of acid or alkali are added to the amino acids The extra carboxylic acid or amine groups on the R group will also

react and change form in alkaline and acid conditions A mixture of amino acids can be separated by chromatography and identified from the amount they have moved. Method Take chromatography paper and draw a pencil line 1.5cm from bottom.

With a capillary tube put a small drop of amino acid on pencil line Roll up paper and stand it in a large beaker. The solvent in the beaker should be below the pencil line. Allow to stand for 20 mins and mark final solvent level Spray paper with ninhydrin and put in oven

Each amino acid has its own Rf value. Compare an unknown amino acids Rf value with known values in a data book to identify the amino acid If ninhydrin is sprayed on an amino acid and then heated for 10 minutes then red to blue spots appear. This is done because amino acids are transparent and cannot be seen. Optical Activity

All amino acids, except glycine, are chiral because there are four different groups around the C They rotate plane polarised light. Optical isomers have similar physical and chemical properties, but they rotate plane polarised light in different directions. Proteins are polymers made from combinations of amino

acids. The amino acids are linked by peptide links, which are the amide functional group. Dipeptides are simple combination molecules of two amino acids with one amide

(peptide) link. For any two different amino acids there are two possible combinations of the amino acids in the dipeptide. The 3D arrangement of amino acids with the polypeptide chain in a

corkscrew shape is held in place by Hydrogen bonds between the H of N- HH+ group and the O of C+=O- If proteins are heated with dilute acid or alkali they can be hydrolysed and split back in to their constituent amino acids. The composition of the protein molecule may then be deduced by using paper chromatography

The carboxylic acid group and amine group in amino acids can undergo the usual reactions of these functional groups met in earlier topics. Sometimes questions refer to these e.g. Esterification reaction

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