PowerPoint Template - American Gas Association

PowerPoint Template - American Gas Association

Evaluating a tunable filter spectrometer online gas analyzer Juan Escobar, measurement specialist, Saudi Arabian Oil Company (Aramco) May 2015 Copyright 2015, Saudi Aramco. All rights reserved. Saudi Aramco: Public Contents Introduction Relevance of composition in Measurement Alternative Technologies Tunable Filter Spectroscopy Analyzer Testing Results Saudi Aramco: Public Saudi Aramco Gas Pipelines Network Saudi Aramco: Public Over 120 customers Kingdom-wide FEEDSTOCK AND FUEL Refineries Power Plants Petrochemicals Mining Large and Small scale industry Saudi Aramco: Public Volumetric Flow Rate gas equation AGA 3 Orifice calculation factor Reynolds number Fluid velocity Density is heavily depending on composition (AGA 8) Saudi Aramco: Public Slope factor Real gas relative density factor Real gas relative density Molecular weight Supercompressibility factor

Compressibility is heavily depending on composition (AGA 8) Saudi Aramco: Public GC is the incumbent methodology PROS Very well-known technology. Gas Chromatography has been the reference technique since late 1970s Heating value (BTU) & Wobbe Index for energy content Hydrocarbons C1 through C9+, COx, NOx, H2S, Diatomics CONS Long response time. Requires the physical separation of molecules in the samples which takes long. Carrier gas requirement (He, Ar, H2, N2) and safety considerations Relative method with calibration gases Complicated and costly operations and maintenance Bulky and requires a lot of space Saudi Aramco: Public GC Alternatives over the years Mass Spectroscopy GC-MS FTIR (optical vibrational, absorption) Raman (optical vibrational, emission) NIR/FT-NIR (optical vibrational, emission) TDL (tunable diode laser) QCL (quantum cascade laser) Now enters TFS (tunable filter spectroscopy)

Saudi Aramco: Public Tunable Filter Spectroscopy PROS Near real-time gas composition response time with fast updated results. Easy installation with less space requirements. Field mounted, robust and rugged; suitable for harsh industrial environments and hazardous area installation. Minimal maintenance with no consumables. No requirement of carrier gases or calibration gases. CONS New technology. No direct measurement of the diatomic homonuclear components such as H2 (hydrogen), O2 (oxygen) and N2 (nitrogen). www.precisive-instruments.com Saudi Aramco: Public Operational Principle Chemometrics Example Configuration Ch. # Compound Range Accuracy 1 Methane 0 - 100% +/- 0.2% 2 Ethane 0 25% +/- 0.2% 3 Propane 0 25%

+/- 0.2% 4 iso-Butane 0 10% +/- 0.1% 5 n-Butane 0 10% +/- 0.1% 6 Propylene 0 10% +/- 0.2% 7 Ethylene 0 10% +/- 0.2% www.precisive-instruments.com Saudi Aramco: Public Speciated and Quantified Compounds www.precisive-instruments.com Saudi Aramco: Public Lab trial - Natural Gas Mixtures TFS Ref Error TFS Ref Error TFS Ref

Error CH4 81.23 81.301 0.071 CH4 81.78 81.864 0.084 CH4 87.68 87.505 -0.175 C2H6 2.80 2.833 0.033 C2H6 3.07 3.08 0.01 C2H6 7.54 7.539 -0.001 C3H8 0.34 0.391 0.051 C3H8 0.44

0.482 0.042 C3H8 1.65 1.721 0.071 iC4H10 0.00 0.064 0.064 iC4H10 0.03 0.077 0.047 iC4H10 0.25 0.17 -0.08 nC4H10 0.14 0.073 -0.067 nC4H10 0.16 0.095 -0.065 nC4H10 0.25 0.19 -0.06 C5 0.02

0.043 0.023 C5 0.00 0.055 0.055 C5 0.02 0.049 0.029 N2 14.50 14.19 -0.31 N2 12.30 12.015 -0.285 N2 0.80 0.939 0.139 CO2 1.02 1 -0.02 CO2 2.23 2.209 -0.021 CO2

1.86 1.848 -0.012 C6 N/A 0.043 C6 CV (Superior, Gross) 34.901 35.09 0.1881 CV (Superior, Gross) Wobbe Index 43.486 43.7 0.2131 Wobbe Index N/A 0.077 C6 N/A 35.393 35.68 0.2869 CV (Superior, Gross) 42.506 42.45 0.0565

43.922 44.23 0.3077 Wobbe Index 53.262 53.17 0.0924 Saudi Aramco: Public 0.03 Lab trial - Synthetic Mixtures TFS Ref Error TFS Ref Error TFS Ref Error CH4 86.29 86.183 -0.107 CH4 83.37 83.284 -0.086 CH4 82.10 82.091 -0.009

C2H6 8.47 8.542 0.072 C2H6 3.07 3.056 -0.014 C2H6 3.88 3.893 0.013 C3H8 1.84 1.963 0.123 C3H8 0.40 0.46 0.06 C3H8 0.88 0.949 0.069 iC4H10 0.31 0.227 -0.083 iC4H10 0.10 0.073 -0.027

iC4H10 0.18 0.146 -0.034 nC4H10 0.48 0.422 -0.058 nC4H10 0.11 0.093 -0.017 nC4H10 0.17 0.148 -0.022 C5 0.02 0 -0.02 C5 0.00 0 0 C5 0.00 0 0 N2 1.10 1.12

0.02 N2 11.23 11.344 0.114 N2 9.80 9.793 -0.007 CO2 1.55 1.543 -0.007 CO2 1.72 1.69 -0.03 CO2 3.01 2.979 -0.031 C6 0.00 0 0 C6 C6 CV (Superior, Gross) 43.163 Wobbe Index

53.712 43.107 0.0568 CV (Superior, Gross) 35.975 53.676 0.0368 Wobbe Index 44.972 35.975 0.0002 CV (Superior, Gross) 36.731 36.742 0.0106 44.971 0.0018 Wobbe Index 45.310 45.336 0.0257 Saudi Aramco: Public Field trial Natural Gas Mixtures TFS Ref Error TFS Ref CH4

88.878 88.492 0.386 C2H6 8.348 8.2506 C3H8 0.410 N2 2.268 Error TFS Ref CH4 89.338 88.587 0.751 0.097 C2H6 8.037 8.1416 0.5854 -0.175 C3H8 0.273 1.7188 0.549 N2 2.258 Error CH4 89.963

89.037 0.926 -0.105 C2H6 7.402 7.6049 -0.203 0.4544 -0.181 C3H8 0.167 0.3566 -0.190 1.7114 0.547 N2 2.382 1.7509 0.631 Errors obtained when the equipment is tested in a field environment are bigger than the ones obtained at a lab environment. It is planned to perform another trial with an extended composition, C1-C6+ which is normally used for custody applications, and throughout the year to assess the impact of different seasons on instrument performance. Saudi Aramco: Public Thank You

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