PowerPoint to accompany Hole's Human Anatomy and Physiology ...

PowerPoint to accompany Hole's Human Anatomy and Physiology ...

Holes Human Anatomy and Physiology 12th Edition Chapter 1 Introduction to Human A&P Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 1-1 Anatomy and Physiology Anatomy vs Physiology -define each term - why combine into a single course? Explain: Structure follows Function

1-3 1.3 Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Subatomic particles Atom Levels of Organization Organ system Molecule Macromolecule

Organ Organelle Organism Cell Tissue 1-5 Fig. 1.19 Characteristics of Life Systems Movement Responsiveness Growth Reproduction

Respiration Digestion Absorption Organ Which organ system(s) contribute to each of the characteristics listed on the left? Assimilation Circulation Excretion 1-6

Fig. 1.5 Organ Systems Are Inter -related Nutrients, salts, water Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. O2 in CO2 out Respiratory system Digestive system

Cardiovascular system Organic waste, excess salts, water Urinary system Blood Cell Unabsorbed matter Extracellular fluid Internal environment

External environment Requirements of Organisms Water: most abundant substance in body metabolism transport regulates body temperature Food energy building blocks Oxygen - ~20% of air releases energy from nutrients Heat helps control rate of metabolic reactions Pressure

atmospheric pressure breathing hydrostatic pressure blood flow 1-8 Homeostasis Imagine one day is very cold out, while the next day is very hot. What effect does that have on your body temperature? External environment keeps changing Internal environment - remains stable. How? Body has Homeostatic Mechanisms Homeostasic Mechanisms monitor internal environment

- corrects changes 3 Components of Homeostatic Mechanisms: receptors function? control center tells what a particular value should be effectors function? Types of Regulation negative feedback most common! ex. maintaining body temperature; release of most hormones, etc.

positive feedback blood clotting labor Example of Homeostasis Control of Body Temperature Control Center Hypothalamus Thermoreceptors What temperature does your body try to maintain? What changes occur when your body temperature is: - too high? - too low? http://health.howstuffworks.com/adam-200092.htm Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Fig.

1.10 Frontal sinuses Body Cavities Cranial cavity Sphenoidal sinus Orbital cavities Nasal cavity Middle ear cavity Oral cavity 1-12

Body Membranes serous membranes lines organ surfaces in thoracic and abdominal cavities thin, watery secretions reduces friction mucous membrane

lines hollow organs that lead to exterior of body (ex. GI, respiratory, genito-urinary) thick secretions protective 4 Serous Thoracic Membranes Membranes (1 & 2) pleura = one around each lung (3) pericardium Abdominopelvic Membranes

(4) peritoneum Each serous membrane composed of 2 layers: visceral layer directly covers an organ parietal layer lines a cavity or body wall small cavity between layers is filled with serous fluid http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/classware/ala.do?isbn=0072829532&alaid=ala_728113&showSelfS tudyTree=true 1-13 Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Midline Fig. 1.20a Right Proximal

Left Superior Medial Lateral Anterior (Ventral) Distal Proximal Distal Inferior

Posterior (Dorsal) Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Right hypochondriac region Right lumbar region Right iliac region Epigastric

region Left hypochondriac region Umbilical region Left lumbar region Hypogastric region (a)

Left iliac region Right upper Left upper quadrant (RUQ) quadrant (LUQ) Right lower Left lower quadrant (RLQ)quadrant (LLQ)

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