Revenge Porn The h t u Tr s o p Ex ed What is Revenge Porn? Non-consensual dissemination of sexually explicit images, also known as non-consensual porn (NCP) US Postal Service was often used as a tool to
manage this blackmail, with these crimes often going unreported or not reported as NCP but as blackmail Today dissemination through text messaging and social media are the two most prevalent manners of transmission Websites dedicated solely to the sharing of NCP have become more prevalent What statistics are saying about NCP NCP has grown in prevalence since 2015 with usage but also with awareness/reporting CCRI studied adults that represented all 50 states through Facebook targeted
ads First real study was in 2017, before this estimates were only taken on reported/charged crimes There is a lack of data; however, with the rise of NCP laws there will be more research What does the study from 2017 show? ~3000 people were polled by the CCRI through Facebook targeted ads Motivations 79% of admitted perpetrators in the study stated that they were "sharing the image(s) with their friends and did not intend to hurt the person
The other options that were selected included: "for fun/funny" "I was upset at him/her for another reason" "because it made me feel good" and "for popularity on the internet" Only one selected to ruin the victim's life or that they were upset at the victim for breaking up with them Nobody selected the options to make money off the image(s), to extort something from the person, or to blackmail the person to stay with them/commit sexual acts
Methods Majority of admitted perpetrators used text messaging as their main means of sharing Next highest method, was "other" which included sharing pictures in-person, through chats, handing out hard copies or sharing through the cloud Social Media took third, with 19% of perpetrators admitting to using this as a method of sharing NCP Email and websites rounded it out with only one admitting to using USPS mail as a method Is Anyone Up?& the websites role in the emergence of NCP
IAU? was a website that was a user driven pornography website, any user could anonymously submit ANY form of pornography for approval and hosting on the site Explicit images would be shared alongside a screenshot of the participants social media (typically Facebook/Twitter profile) This was done without IAU? receiving permission from those in the images/videos Victims could request that their photos
be taken down, but by that point the images may have been disseminated further and their anonymity was gone IAU? became infamously known as the "revenge porn" site In 2012, IAU? was shutdown. In 2015, founder, Hunter Moore, was eventually convicted of Federal charges of Identity Theft and Unauthorized Access of a Computer Moore had been obtaining nude images of people against their will to post on his website Moore was sentenced to 2.5 years in prison along with three years of probation
Sextortion and Non-Consensual Pornography Sextortion is a crime that happens when someone threatens to distribute private and sensitive material if one does not provide them images of a sexual nature, sexual favors, or money The CCRI study shows that this is was a low motivation in their study; however, that was a small sample study FBI states that sextortion often occurs with stranger perpetrators over the internet, commonly recording or capturing sexually explicit images already posted These perpetrators may also use malware to hack into devices to gain access to either files or computer operation without the
victim's knowledge Social Media and NCP Social media is only the third most used method of sharing NDP; however, while NCP may not be actively shared on social media, it is often used as a word of mouth and a way of exposing victims Social media is only the third most used method of sharing NDP; however, while NCP may not be actively shared on social media, it is often used as a word of mouth and a way of
exposing victims Once an image starts spreading on a single social media site, that image will typically bounce to another and another, that the quickly turns into a game of illfated whack-a-mole CCRI study found that 1 in 8 social media users have been a target of nonconsensual pornography Social Media and Combating NonConsensual Porn Many social media sites have safeguards built in, that should automatically flag these type of photos and videos for review Hidden sharing poses an issue, these automatic
safeguards often catch publicly shared content but images/videos posted in private/secret groups on social media may slide under the radar With issues like these, the platforms are only as good as reports from users and their moderation team Once a post/image/video is reported, an individual at the respective platform reviews each report and makes a determination based off of that, which may not always be perfect either
Communications Decency Act of 1996 Passed in 1996, the goal of this act was to restrict obscenity on the internet and mostly focused on protecting victims of child pornography by working to stop/limit dissemination of these materials Part of this act prevents the internet service provider or website host for being responsible for an illegal content posted on their site (example Facebook would not be responsible for someone disseminating NCP) NCP and the Law
International Laws The United Kingdom and NCP Laws In 2015, the UK enacted a law which criminalized the act of sharing sexually explicit images of another without their consent From April 2015 to January 2016 there were 1200 instances of reported cases of revenge porn. The UK is one fifth the population size of the United States. How many people have been charged with revenge porn related offenses? Around 11% of reported offenses resulted in the alleged perpetrator being charged
Some 61% of reported offenses resulted in no action being taken against the alleged perpetrator. Among the main reasons cited by police include a lack of evidence or the victim withdrawing support They also found that the majority of victims were aged 20 to 29, however children as young as 11 had reported being the victims of revenge porn Criminal Prosecutions & Civil Lawsuits Chrissy Chambers Case and Lawsuit In 2009, Chambers had videos and images taken of her without consent After this relationship ended, her ex-partner shared these on the internet Due to these being shared before
UK laws were enacted, no criminal charges were pursued. Chambers sued and won copyright over the NCP media on the internet, as well as an undisclosed settlement with the perpetrator Social media websites and lawsuits: In 2018, Facebook settled with a victim who alleged that Facebook allowed for the spreading of NCP images of her as a minor. This was the first time Facebook had been sued with any ending other than dismissal. There has been no lawsuit successful in reaching a settlement in the US as of yet.
Illinois Information In 2015, Illinois made Non-consensual dissemination of private images (720 ILCS 5/11-23.5) a Class 4 Felony As a Class 4 Felony, this sex offense is punishable up to 13 years in prison and is a probationable offense The law states that a person commits the non-consensual dissemination of private sexual images when: The victim is at least 18 years old, identifiable through picture or attached information, are engaged in a sexual act And that they have obtained the image in which it would be reasonable assumed to remain private And they know that the person in the image has not consented This legislation attacks two issues with NCP: that it could be a stranger offender and familiar offenders This law forces the offender to forfeit any profit from the image The image does not have to be shared on the
internet, covers physical dissemination as well In Illinois, victims have the power to go after the offender in court for payment Victims can apply for this under anonymity Offenders convicted of this statute do not have not register as a sex offender Probation Supervision of NCP cases In Lake County, these cases are assigned to the sex offender unit These cases typically have a closer look at electronic data and devices Using home visits to get a look at the offenders home life
Utilizing the containment team model when it comes to specialized treatment for these offenders Phone and computer examination software to determine any ongoing criminal or risky behavior Victimization Its important to understand the experiences of the victims. Public shame Inability to find new romantic partners Job difficulties or loss Mental health effects And so much more.. Victims are thought of as survivors. Once released, it is nearly impossible to control the spread of images on the internet or control its
accessibility. Some Surprising Facts It is estimated there are over 2000 nonconsensual image-sharing websites. 50% of survivors full names and links to social media profiles accompanied the images. 20% of survivors email addresses and phone numbers were posted with their photos. Citron and Franks 2014 https://fightthenewdrug.org/need-to-know-facts-about-sexting-and-revenge-porn/ Sexual Assault vs Revenge Porn Studies reveal striking similarities between sexual assault survivors and revenge porn survivors. Such similarities suggest revenge porn should be classified as a sexual offense. Bloom 2014 Perpetrators on Probation
Sex offender-specific probation units and officers with a history of working with sexual offenders Look at the arresting offense and making appropriate referral for a comprehensive sex offender-specific evaluation Making appropriate referrals for treatment Sex-offender Sex-offender specific specific unit unit Comprehensiv Comprehensiv ee sex sex offender offender evaluation evaluation Appropriate Appropriate
treatment treatment The Comprehensive Sex Offender Evaluation in Lake County Social Social History: History: Family Family Trauma Trauma Relationship Relationship Criminal Criminal Mental Mental Health Health Medical Medical Substance
Substance Abuse/Addiction Abuse/Addiction Psychological Psychological Testing: Testing: Intelligence Intelligence Personality Personality Anger Anger Sexual Sexual History: History: Developmental Developmental Current Current non-deviant
non-deviant sexual sexual practices practices Deviant Deviant sexual sexual practices practices Results Results from from questionnaires questionnaires and and testing testing The Comprehensive Sex Offender Evaluation in Lake County Assessment Tools: Tools:
Assessment MSI MSI IIII ABEL ABEL STATIC STATIC 99 99 Sexual Sexual Adjustment Adjustment Inventory (SAI) (SAI) Inventory Bumby Bumby Cognitive Cognitive
Distortion Scales Scales Distortion Sexual Sexual Addiction Addiction Screening Test Test Screening Review of of Review Instant Instant Offense Offense Amenability for for Sex Sex
Sex offender-specific treatment Core Concepts approach Extended diagnostic assessment (i.e. polygraph) When to use a polygraph What can the polygraph tell us Motivation Malice or Reveng e Power and Control Sexua l Curiosity Financial
Gain Treatment Traditional vs Modified Modified treatment plans utilize various components of traditional treatment plans, however, may not incorporate all phases. Cycle Component Sexua l Histor y Full Disclosur e Quizzes Worksheets Victim Empath
y Support System Relapse Prevention Polygraph Psychoeducational Materials Case Studies Are you seeing the arrest charges? What about plea offers? What division do these cases go to? Specialized or not? What stands out to be explored further in a clinical setting for each case? Ideas on what direction was taken with John and Phil? Was John just a case of Revenge Porn? What about
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