Pre-Columbian Civilizations in America

Pre-Columbian Civilizations in America

Pre-Columbian Civilizations in America Unit 1 AP U.S. History Think About It Compare and contrast the development of Native civilizations based on regional environments. Bering Sea Land Bridge Migration Native Culture and Lifestyle

Nomadic OR Sedentary Adapted to regional environment Agricultural influence from Olmec/Mayans Three Sisters Politics and Economics Tribal councils or Chiefs Communal ownership; no sense of private property Language 20 different language families

Algonquian, Siouan, Athabaskan No written language Gender Roles Matrilineal Women shared in labor except hunting Animism Shaman Spirit guide Cahokia, c. 1100 CE

Native Lifestyle Northeast Geography Rolling hills and dense forests Tribes Wampanoag Iroquois Confederacy Cayugas, Mohawks, Oneidas, Onodagas, Seneca Powhatan

Diet Maize, beans, squash Culture Hunter-gatherers Warriors Matrilineal Longhouses

Native Lifestyle and Culture Great Plains Geography Grasslands and prairies Tribes Sioux, Cheyenne, Apache Diet Buffalo Culture Nomadic Tepees

Native Lifestyle and Culture Southwest Geography Arid, rocky, desert Tribes Anasazi, Pueblo, Hokokam Diet Maize, beans, squash Culture Irrigation systems Cave and cliff dwellings

Native Lifestyle and Culture Pacific Northwest/California/Great Basin Geography Cedar forests Tribes Pacific Northwest: Chinook California/Great Basin: Nez Perce Diet

Pacific Northwest: Fish (salmon) California/Great Basin: Berries, nuts Culture Pacific Northwest Plank homes Totem poles Canoes California/Great Basin

Nomadic hunter-gatherers Totem poles Pacific European Exploration and Settlement of America AP U.S. History Think About It Explain the causes of European exploration and colonization in the Americas. Compare and contrast the developments and lifestyle of the

Spanish, French, and English colonies in the North America. Europe Before Exploration Renaissance Technological innovations Growth of NationStates England, France, Spain, Portugal, Holland

Protestant Reformation and Religious Wars Lutheranism Calvinism Predestination Church of England aka Anglican Church Catholic CounterReformation European Colonization God Glory

Gold Spain Christopher Columbus (1492) France Jacques Cartier (1534) Dutch Henry Hudson (1609) England

Charter Colonies, Proprietary Colonies, Royal Colonies Treaty of Tordesillas (1494) European Colonies Columbian Exchange Natives and Europeans Our fathers had plenty of deer and skins, our plains were full of deer, as also our woods, and of turkies, and our coves full of fish and fowl. But these

English have gotten our land, they with scythes cut down the grass, and with axes fell the trees; their cows and horses eat the grass, and their hogs spoil our clam banks, and we shall all be starved. Miantonomi, Narragansett The Spanish in America Royal Colonies Viceroys Relations

with Natives Catholic Conversion and Missions Pueblo Revolt (1680) Labor Encomienda System Asiento System Spanish Caste System The Spanish in America The Vallodilid Controversy (1550-1551) Bartoleme de las Casas A Brief Account of the Destruction of the Indies (1542)

They are by nature the most humble, patient, and peaceable, holding no grudges, free from embroilments, neither excitable nor quarrelsome They are also poor people, for they not only possess little but have no desire to possess worldly goods. For this reason they are not arrogant, embittered, or greedy... They are very clean in their person, with alert, intelligent minds, docile and open to doctrine, very apt to receive our holy Catholic faith... And once they begin to hear the tidings of the Faith, they are so insistent on knowing more and on taking the sacraments of the Church and on observing the divine cult that...the missionaries who are here need

to be endowed by God with great patience in order to cope with such eagerness... Yet into this sheepfold, into this land of meek outcasts there came some Spaniards who immediately behaved like ravening beasts, wolves, tigers, or lions that had been starved for many days... Juan Gines de Sepulveda Concerning the Just Causes of the War Against the Indians (1547) The Spanish have a perfect right to rule these barbarians of the New Worldwho in prudence, skill, virtues, and humanity are as inferior to the Spanish as children to adults, or women to men, for there exists between the two as great

a difference as...I might even say, between apes and men. ...you will barely find the vestiges of humanity, who not only do not possess any learning at all, but are not even literate or in possession of any monument to their history...;nor do they have written laws, but barbarian institutions and customs. Well, then, if we are dealing with virtue, what temperance or mercy can you expect from men who committed to all types of intemperance and base frivolity, and eat human flesh? And do not believe that before the arrival of the Christians they lived in that pacific kingdom of Saturn which the poets invented; for, on the contrary, they waged continual and ferocious war upon one another with sucj fierceness that they did not consider a victory at all worthwhile unless they sated their monstruous hunger with

the flesh of their enemies... The French in America Royal Colonies Jesuits and Catholic Conversion Fur Trade Coureurs de Bois (runner of the woods) Native Relations Trade Networks Alliances

Intermarriage The English in America Charters and JointStock Companies Population Growth Indentured Servants Native Relations Early Native Assistance Animosity and Exclusion Anglo-Powhatan

Wars Pequot Wars (16361638) King Philips War (16751678) c. 1575-1580 Smallpox and Natives Smallpox Historiography American Indians: New Worlds in the Atlantic World Colin G. Calloway New Worlds for All (1997)

Christianity was altering the symbolic superstructure of the Indians economy... God was above nature; the new religious teachings required no respect for animals and the natural world. Old hunting rituals continued, but they ceased to function as a restraining environmental ethic. The way was open for Indian peoples to become commercial hunters, responding to the lure of the marketplace rather than listening to the spirits of the animals. Claudio Saunt Our Indians: European Empires and the History of the Native American

South (2007) Although likely an ancient practice among the Choctaws, scalping became both more frequent and commercially motivated as a result of the French-English proxy war the [French] governor of Louisiana was encouraging Choctaws to bring him the scalps of Englishallied Indians... Before the arrival of the French, it is unlikely there was an Indian market for scalps, for the practice of scalping seems to have been linked to rites of passage rather than to commerce.

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