Prescribing

Prescribing

Prescribing Our Roles & Our Responsibilities Dr Julian Tomkinson 14th November 2012 Aims To discuss prescribing our roles, our problems, our responsibilities Discuss any cases

What is good prescribing Practical solutions Practice Curriculum 1.THE CORE CURRICULUM STATEMENT -Being a General Practitioner What limits are there to your prescribing? 2.02 THE CONTEXTUAL STATEMENT ON - Patient Safety and Quality of Care which discusses Example of failure to arrange INR monitoring Need to understand prescribing and monitoring of medication

Awareness of systems for prescribing Variance in management Polypharmacy 2.04 THE CONTEXTUAL STATEMENT ON - Enhancing Professional Knowledge Provide effective and evidence-based prescribing Using pharmacy to help with prescribing Adhering to the GMCs principles of good medical prescribing Incentive schemes When working in secondary care see prescribing from GP eyes

Significant Event 77 year old man prescribed amantadine for Parkinsons Disease Pharmacy assistant picked up sinthrome (similar to warfarin) and labelled as amantadine (symmetrel) Box identical Patient admitted with severe haematuria INR 7.8 Legal case on-going Boxes look identical!

Discuss Cases Reverse Brainstorm You are the worlds worst prescriber Tell me: Your habits and techniques Your attitudes

Your behaviours A Single Competency Framework for all Prescribers Scenario 1 32 year old lady with 1 week history of cough with green sputum. Systemically well. Few crackles audible at right base. Past hx: Pneumonia requiring admission 4 years ago You decide antibiotics are indicated

What do you need to know? Scenario 1 Past hx: Had pneumonia requiring admission 4 years ago Allergies: Ampicillin (extensive rash) Medications: Cilest Patient tells you she got nasty thrush after last course of antibiotics from dentist Scenario 2

44 year old lady attends for repeat prescription of microgynon Last entry: 11/11/11: pill check happy on microgynon. Does not want implant or coil Rx microgynon use as directed (336) THOUGHTS?

Scenario 2 continued BP 130/80 BMI 24.5 What issues now? Smoking 20 cigarettes per day UK Medical Eligibility Criteria (UKMEC)

Scenario 3 You are on a home visit: Write a prescription for 30 morphine sulphate continus tablets one twice a day for 1 month Morphine sulphate continus tablets 30mg Take one tablet twice daily

for pain Supply 30 (thirty) tablets Scenario 4 Max ODima age 44 attends for blood results 02/11/12: TATT last 18 months. No stress of note. Felt colder and not as strong in the last few months. Mum and sister have hypothyroidism check bloods and

review 09/11/12: Free thyroxine 8.2 TSH 37 thyroid peroxidase antibody positive Issues? Scenario 5 Carol Corpor presents to you with her son Timmy age 3 He has a patch of inflamed skin on his right

deltoid. Scenario 5 Mum feared it was ringworm and is really scared it will spread to her 3 month old daughter who has just got home from SCBU after being born premature at 32 weeks. What would you advise?

Scenario 5 Mum took the prescription for clotrimazole that you prescribed last week. You receive a fax from a dermatologist she has seen privately this morning: Dear Dr Obliging, I saw Timmy and Carol, who are close family friends, this morning in my rooms. He has a patch of tinea corporis on his right arm. Carol is very worried about Timmys sister also becoming infected. I would be grateful if you could prescribe him griseofulvin. Sorry I didnt get chance to weigh Timmy

today as the scales were missing. I will send a typed report ASAP Regards GMC Guidance keeping up to date and prescribing safely need and objectivity - prescribing for yourself and those close to you consent to prescribe - explaining benefits, risks and side effects of medicines; improving adherence sharing information with and prescribing at the recommendation of colleagues

repeat prescribing, prescribing with repeats and reviewing medicines prescribing online, by telephone and video-link prescribing off-label and unlicensed medicines, including for reasons of cost-effectiveness conflicts of interest - prescribing incentives and financial interests in pharmacies, pharmaceutical companies and dispensing practices sports medicine - prescribing performance enhancing drugs Is the prescription

Ethical ? Evidence Based ? Safe? In line with practice, local and national guidance ?

Cost effective ? Given with Informed consent ? Practical ? Do I understand the implications? Risks associated with medication errors are particularly high in the following groups of patients: the old, particularly when frail those with multiple serious morbidities those taking several potentially hazardous medications

those with acute medical problems those who are ambivalent about medication taking or have difficulty understanding or remembering to take medication Drugs commonly associated with preventable harm in general practice Drugs with narrow therapeutic index eg, digoxin methotrexate

warfarin Drugs commonly associated with preventable harm in general practice Other commonly used drugs anti-thrombotics such as aspirin cardiovascular drugs including diuretics, betablockers and ACE inhibitors CNS drugs including anti-epileptics, opioid analgesics, and psychotropics drugs used for the treatment of diabetes NSAIDs

systemic corticosteroids Top 10 tips for safe prescribing 1. Keep yourself up-to-date in your knowledge of therapeutics, especially for the conditions you see commonly 2. Before prescribing, make sure you have all the information you need about the

patient, including co-morbidities and allergies 3. Before prescribing, make sure you have all the information you need about the drug(s) you are considering prescribing, including side effects and interactions 4. Sometimes the risks of prescribing outweigh the benefits and so before prescribing think: Do I need to prescribe this drug at all?

5. Check computerised alerts in case you have missed an important interaction or drug allergy Top 10 tips for safe prescribing 6. Always actively check prescriptions for errors before signing them

7. Involve patients in prescribing decisions and give them the information they need in order to take the medicine as prescribed, to recognise important sideeffects and to know when to return for monitoring and/or review 8. Have systems in place for ensuring that patients receive essential laboratory test monitoring for the drugs they are taking, and that they are reviewed at appropriate intervals 9. Make sure that high levels of safety are built into your repeat prescribing system 10. Make sure you have safe and effective ways of communicating medicines information between primary and secondary care, and acting on medication changes suggested/initiated by secondary care

Some Useful Resources / References

www.gmc-uk.org/guidance/ethical_guidance/prescriptions_faqs.asp bnf.org BNF www.mims.co.uk/ Mims http://www.medicines.org.uk/emc/ Electronic Medical Compendium www.npc.co.uk/ National prescribing centre http:// www.npc.co.uk/improving_safety/improving_quality/resources/single_ comp_framework.pdf http://www.npc.nhs.uk/evidence/resources/10_top_tips_for_gps.pdf http://www.nhsbsa.nhs.uk/1127.aspx Pre-payment prescriptions

http://www.nyrdtc.nhs.uk/GMMMG/Publications/publications.html medicines management manchester http:// www.nyrdtc.nhs.uk/GMMMG/Groups/ipnts/ipnts_rag/ipnts_rag.php Feedback Divide into pairs and discuss what you have learnt today Tell me 2 things you will do differently in the future

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